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Wong J.R.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | Tucker M.A.,Human Genetics Program | Kleinerman R.A.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | Devesa S.S.,Biostatistics Branch
JAMA Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE Several studies have found no temporal or demographic differences in the incidence of retinoblastoma except for age at diagnosis, whereas other studies have reported variations in incidence by sex and race/ethnicity. OBJECTIVE To examine updated US retinoblastoma incidence patterns by sex, age at diagnosis, laterality, race/ethnicity, and year of diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) databases were examined for retinoblastoma incidence patterns by demographic and tumor characteristics.We studied 721 children in SEER 18 registries, 659 in SEER 13 registries, and 675 in SEER 9 registries. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and annual percent changes in rates. RESULTS During 2000-2009 in SEER 18, there was a significant excess of total retinoblastoma among boys compared with girls (IRR, 1.18; 95%CI, 1.02 to 1.36), in contrast to earlier reports of a female predominance. Bilateral retinoblastoma among white Hispanic boys was significantly elevated relative to white non-Hispanic boys (IRR, 1.81; 95%CI, 1.22 to 2.79) and white Hispanic girls (IRR, 1.75; 95%CI, 1.11 to 2.91) because of less rapid decreases in bilateral rates since the 1990s among white Hispanic boys than among the other groups. Retinoblastoma rates among white non-Hispanics decreased significantly since 1992 among those younger than 1 year and since 1998 among those with bilateral disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although changes in the availability of prenatal screening practices for retinoblastoma may have contributed to these incidence patterns, further research is necessary to determine their actual effect on the changing incidence of retinoblastoma in the US population. In addition, consistent with other cancers, an excess of retinoblastoma diagnosed in boys suggests a potential effect of sex on cancer origin. © 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source


Gilbert E.S.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | Huang L.,Center for Drug Evaluation and Research | Bouville A.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | Berg C.D.,The Detection Group | Ron E.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch
Radiation Research | Year: 2010

Exposure to radioactive iodine (131I) from atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in Nevada in the 1950s may have increased thyroid cancer risks. To investigate the long-term effects of this exposure, we analyzed data on thyroid cancer incidence (18,545 cases) from eight Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) tumor registries for the period 19732004. Excess relative risks (ERR) per gray (Gy) for exposure received before age 15 were estimated by relating age-, birth year-, sex-and county-specific thyroid cancer rates to estimates of cumulative dose to the thyroid that take age into account. The estimated ERR per Gy for dose received before 1 year of age was 1.8 95 confidence interval (CI), 0.53.2. There was no evidence that this estimate declined with follow-up time or that risk increased with dose received at ages 115. These results confirm earlier findings based on less extensive data for the period 19731994. The lack of a dose response for those exposed at ages 115 is inconsistent with studies of children exposed to external radiation or 131I from the Chernobyl accident, and results need to be interpreted in light of limitations and biases inherent in ecological studies, including the error in doses and case ascertainment resulting from migration. Nevertheless, the study adds support for an increased risk of thyroid cancer due to fallout, although the data are inadequate to quantify it. © 2010 by Radiation Research Society. Source


Cahoon E.K.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | Pfeiffer R.M.,Health-U | Wheeler D.C.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Arhancet J.,Rocky Vista University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Associations between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have been inconsistent, but few studies have examined these associations for specific subtypes or across race/ethnicities. We evaluated the relationship between ambient UVR exposure and subtype-specific NHL incidence for whites, Hispanics and blacks in the United States for years 2001-2010 (n=187,778 cases). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for UVR quintiles using Poisson regression. Incidence was lower for the highest UVR quintile for chronic/small lymphocytic/leukemia (CLL/SLL) (IRR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.97), mantle cell (IRR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.97), lymphoplasmacytic (IRR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.42-0.80), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MZLMALT) (IRR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), follicular (FL) (IRR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.68-0.86), diffuse large B-cell (IRR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.94;), peripheral T-cell other (PTCL) (IRR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.95) and PTCL not otherwise specified (PNOS) (IRR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.98). Trends were significant for MZLMALT, FL, DLBCL, BNOS and PTCL, with FL and DLBCL still significant after Bonferroni correction. We found interaction by race/ethnicity for CLL/SLL, FL, Burkitt, PNOS and MF/SS, with CLL/SLL and FL still significant after Bonferroni correction. Some B-cell lymphomas (CLL/SLL, FL and Burkitt) suggested significant inverse relationships in whites and Hispanics, but not in blacks. Some T-cell lymphomas suggested the most reduced risk for the highest quintile of UVR among blacks (PNOS and MF/SS), though trends were not significant. These findings strengthen the case for an inverse association of UVR exposure, support modest heterogeneity between NHL subtypes and suggest some differences by race/ethnicity. © 2014 UICC. Source


Wu L.C.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | Wu L.C.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Kleinerman R.A.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | Curtis R.E.,Radiation Epidemiology Branch | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: Radiotherapy decreases cancer mortality, but is associated with an increased incidence of second primary cancers, including osteosarcomas, especially after exposure in childhood. It remains uncertain whether radiation is related to other histologic types of bone sarcomas such as chondrosarcomas that are more common in adulthood. Methods: Using data from 1973 to 2008 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registries, we evaluated long-term risk of bone cancer in 1,284,537 adult 5-year cancer survivors.Weused standardized incidence ratios (SIR) to compare second bone sarcoma rates to the general population for each histologic type. We also used multivariate Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) associated with radiotherapy for the most common subtypes, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma. Results: By the end of 2008, 159 second bone sarcomas were reported. Compared with the general population, the risk of developing any bone sarcoma was increased by 25% in patients with no history of radiotherapy [Observed (O) = 89, SIR = 1.25 (1.00-1.54)] and by 257% in patients with a history of radiotherapy [O = 70, SIR = 3.57 (2.78-4.50)]. For each histologic subtype, SIRs were higher among patients who had previously received radiotherapy than among those who had not. The RR for radiotherapy for osteosarcoma (n = 63) was 5.08 (3.05-8.59) and for chondrosarcoma (n = 69) was 1.54 (0.88-2.59), and these risks were even greater for second sarcomas that arose in the radiotherapy field used to treat the first cancer [osteosarcoma, RR = 10.35 (4.96-23.66); chondrosarcoma RR = 8.21 (2.09-39.89)]. Conclusions: Our findings provide the first evidence of a likely association between radiation exposure and chondrosarcoma. Impact: These results further our understanding of radiotherapy-related cancer risks and will potentially direct practices in long-term surveillance of cancer survivors. ©2012 AACR. Source

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