Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority

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Sipila P.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Journal of applied clinical medical physics | Year: 2016

For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in 60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)-simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read-out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose-dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ± 50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read-out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scan-ner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read-out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k = 2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC-simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV-16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read-out procedure established, the nearly uniform energy dependence found and the estimated uncertainties, the EBT3 film was concluded to be a suitable 2D dosimeter for measuring electron or mixed photon/electron dose distributions in water phantom. Uncertainties of 3.7% (k = 2) for absolute and 2.3% (k = 2) for relative dose were estimated.

Leszczynski D.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority | Leszczynski D.,University of Helsinki
Proteomics | Year: 2014

Acute biological effects caused by the exposure to high doses of radiation, either ionizing or nonionizing, are relatively well-known but the delayed effects, occurring decades after exposure, are difficult to predict. The knowledge of the acute and delayed effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation (e.g. bystander effect) or nonionizing radiation (e.g. radiation emitted by wireless communication devices) is not yet reliably established. Often the acute effects of low doses are small and difficult to discover and replicate in scientific studies. Chronic effects of prolonged exposures to low-dose radiation for decades are virtually unknown and often not possible to predict on the basis of the knowledge gained from acute exposures to high doses of radiation. Physiological significance of the biological effects induced by low doses of radiation is not known. The same lack of predictability of outcomes applies to the delayed effects of high-dose radiation exposures. Proteomics, supplemented with other "omics" techniques, might be the best way forward to find out the target molecules of radiation, the biomarkers of radiation exposure and the physiological and health significance of the acute and delayed biological effects caused by the exposures to high- and low-dose radiation. However, the currently available database of radiation effects on proteomes is far too small to be useful in formulation of new hypotheses concerning health consequences of radiation exposures. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Laakso I.,Nagoya Institute of Technology | Kannala S.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority | Jokela K.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Medical staff working near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed both to the static magnetic field itself and also to electric currents that are induced in the body when the body moves in the magnetic field. However, there are currently limited data available on the induced electric field for realistic movements. This study computationally investigates the movement induced electric fields for realistic movements in the magnetic field of a 3 T MRI scanner. The path of movement near the MRI scanner is based on magnetic field measurements using a coil sensor attached to a human volunteer. Utilizing realistic models for both the motion of the head and the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, the induced fields are computationally determined using the finite-element method for five high-resolution numerical anatomical models. The results show that the time-derivative of the magnetic flux density (dB/dt) is approximately linearly proportional to the induced electric field in the head, independent of the position of the head with respect to the magnet. This supports the use of dB/dt measurements for occupational exposure assessment. For the path of movement considered herein, the spatial maximum of the induced electric field is close to the basic restriction for the peripheral nervous system and exceeds the basic restriction for the central nervous system in the international guidelines. The 99th percentile electric field is a considerably less restrictive metric for the exposure than the spatial maximum electric field; the former is typically 60-70% lower than the latter. However, the 99th percentile electric field may exceed the basic restriction for dB/dt values that can be encountered during tasks commonly performed by MRI workers. It is also shown that the movement-induced eddy currents may reach magnitudes that could electrically stimulate the vestibular system, which could play a significant role in the generation of vertigo-like sensations reported by people moving in a strong static magnetic field. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

The standard ASTM method is the most commonly applied method for determining 222Rn in drinking water. The method is calibrated with a 226Ra standard solution that usually contains variable amounts of 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po if the standard has not recently been purified. Until now it has not been experimentally confirmed that these progenies do not interfere when the method is calibrated. In this study, interference was examined using three different organic cocktails and α/β liquid scintillation spectrometry to separately assess the effect of three radionuclides. The interference from 210 Po was 4% for one of the cocktails if the 226Ra standard had been purified 5 years earlier. The interferences from 210Pb and 210Bi were negligible compared to that of 210Po. © 2009.

Salonen L.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2010

Direct liquid scintillation (LS) methods are widely used for surveying 222Rn in drinking water. Two direct methods are used that differ in sample composition. In a two-phase sample, water lies below a water-immiscible cocktail, while in a homogeneous sample water is mixed with an emulsifying cocktail. Although these methods were developed in the late 1970s, their performances have not been simultaneously tested. Here, the methods were compared in two ways: by preparing both types of sample similarly from 222Rn-bearing groundwater in one emulsifying and in three organic cocktails, and by calibrating the methods with a 226Ra standard according to their respective procedures. The samples were measured using α/Β LS spectrometry. The standard deviations of parallel samples and the repeatability of the measurements were excellent for both methods, except two-phase 226Ra samples, whose efficiencies decreased slightly over time. This instability was due to interference from 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po, which accumulated in the 226Ra standard, and possibly also to the migration of 214Pb and 214Bi into the aqueous phase and deficient transfer of 222Rn from the water to the cocktail. © 2010.

Pastila R.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2013

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known to cause both positive and negative health effects for humans. The synthesis of vitamin D is one of the rare beneficial effects of UV. The negative effects, such as sunburn and premature photoaging of the skin, increase the risk of skin cancer, which is the most detrimental health consequence of UV radiation. Although proteomics has been extensively applied in various areas of the biomedical field, this technique has not been commonly used in the cutaneous biology. Proteome maps of human keratinocytes and of murine skin have been established to characterize the cutaneous responses and the age-related differences. There are very few publications, in which proteomic techniques have been utilized in photobiology and hence there is no systematic research data available of the UV effects on the skin proteome. The proteomic studies have mainly focused on the UV-induced photoaging, which is the consequence of the long-term chronic UV exposure. Since the use of proteomics has been very narrow in the photobiology, there is room for new studies. Proteomics would offer a cost-effective way to large-scale screen the possible target molecules involved in the UV-derived photodamage, especially what the large-scale effects are after the acute and chronic exposure on the different skin cell populations.

Mirsaidov U.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

We have done systematic investigation of synthesis of alkaline earth metal aluminum hydride and lanthanide borohydrides by mechano-chemical method. We have developed the effective method of synthesis and crystallization of alumohydride and borohydride metals. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Leszczynski D.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2013

Proteomics, the science that examines the repertoire of proteins present in an organism using both high-throughput and low-throughput techniques, might give a better understanding of the functional processes ongoing in cells than genomics or transcriptomics, because proteins are the molecules that directly regulate physiological processes. Not all changes in gene expression are necessarily reflected in the proteome. Therefore, using proteomics approaches to study the effects of RF-EMF might provide information about potential biological and health effects. Especially that the RF-EMF used in wireless communication devices has very low energy and is unable to directly induce gene mutations.

Movement in a strong static magnetic field induces electric fields in a human body, which may result in various sensory perceptions such as vertigo, nausea, magnetic phosphenes, and a metallic taste in the mouth. These sensory perceptions have been observed by patients and medical staff in the vicinity of modern diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) equipment and may be distracting if they were to affect the balance and eye-hand coordination of, for example, a physician carrying out a medical operation during MR scanning. The stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue by a more intense induced electric field is also theoretically possible but has not been reported to result from such movement. The main objective of this study is to consider generic criteria for limiting the slowly varying broadband (<10 Hz) electric fields induced by the motion of the body in the static magnetic field. In order to find a link between the static magnetic flux density and the time-varying induced electric field, the static magnetic field is converted to the homogeneous equivalent transient and sinusoidal magnetic fields exposing a stationary body. Two cases are considered: a human head moving in a non-uniform magnetic field and a head rotating in a homogeneous magnetic field. Then the electric field is derived from the magnetic flux rate (dB/dt) of the equivalent field by using computational dosimetric data published in the literature for various models of the human body. This conversion allows the plotting of the threshold electric field as a function of frequency for vertigo, phosphenes, and stimulation of peripheral nerves. The main conclusions of the study are: The basic restrictions for limiting exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP in 1998 will prevent most cases of vertigo and other sensory perceptions that result from induced electric fields above 1 Hz, while limiting the static magnetic field below 2 T, as recently recommended by ICNIRP, provides sufficient protection below 1 Hz. People can experience vertigo when moving in static magnetic fields of between 2 and 8 T, but this may be controlled to some extent by slowing down head and/or body movement. In addition, limiting the static magnetic field below 8 T provides good protection against peripheral nerve stimulation.

Salomaa S.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Journal of radiological protection : official journal of the Society for Radiological Protection | Year: 2013

The fourth workshop of the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) was organised by STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland. It took place from 12 to 14 September 2012 in Helsinki, Finland. The meeting was attended by 179 scientists and professionals engaged in radiation research and radiation protection. We summarise the major scientific findings of the workshop and the recommendations for updating the MELODI Strategic Research Agenda and Road Map for future low dose research activities.

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