Salonen L.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2010
Direct liquid scintillation (LS) methods are widely used for surveying 222Rn in drinking water. Two direct methods are used that differ in sample composition. In a two-phase sample, water lies below a water-immiscible cocktail, while in a homogeneous sample water is mixed with an emulsifying cocktail. Although these methods were developed in the late 1970s, their performances have not been simultaneously tested. Here, the methods were compared in two ways: by preparing both types of sample similarly from 222Rn-bearing groundwater in one emulsifying and in three organic cocktails, and by calibrating the methods with a 226Ra standard according to their respective procedures. The samples were measured using α/Β LS spectrometry. The standard deviations of parallel samples and the repeatability of the measurements were excellent for both methods, except two-phase 226Ra samples, whose efficiencies decreased slightly over time. This instability was due to interference from 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po, which accumulated in the 226Ra standard, and possibly also to the migration of 214Pb and 214Bi into the aqueous phase and deficient transfer of 222Rn from the water to the cocktail. © 2010.
Mirsaidov U.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011
We have done systematic investigation of synthesis of alkaline earth metal aluminum hydride and lanthanide borohydrides by mechano-chemical method. We have developed the effective method of synthesis and crystallization of alumohydride and borohydride metals. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pastila R.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2013
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known to cause both positive and negative health effects for humans. The synthesis of vitamin D is one of the rare beneficial effects of UV. The negative effects, such as sunburn and premature photoaging of the skin, increase the risk of skin cancer, which is the most detrimental health consequence of UV radiation. Although proteomics has been extensively applied in various areas of the biomedical field, this technique has not been commonly used in the cutaneous biology. Proteome maps of human keratinocytes and of murine skin have been established to characterize the cutaneous responses and the age-related differences. There are very few publications, in which proteomic techniques have been utilized in photobiology and hence there is no systematic research data available of the UV effects on the skin proteome. The proteomic studies have mainly focused on the UV-induced photoaging, which is the consequence of the long-term chronic UV exposure. Since the use of proteomics has been very narrow in the photobiology, there is room for new studies. Proteomics would offer a cost-effective way to large-scale screen the possible target molecules involved in the UV-derived photodamage, especially what the large-scale effects are after the acute and chronic exposure on the different skin cell populations.
Leszczynski D.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2013
Proteomics, the science that examines the repertoire of proteins present in an organism using both high-throughput and low-throughput techniques, might give a better understanding of the functional processes ongoing in cells than genomics or transcriptomics, because proteins are the molecules that directly regulate physiological processes. Not all changes in gene expression are necessarily reflected in the proteome. Therefore, using proteomics approaches to study the effects of RF-EMF might provide information about potential biological and health effects. Especially that the RF-EMF used in wireless communication devices has very low energy and is unable to directly induce gene mutations.
Jokela K.,Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
Health physics | Year: 2011
Movement in a strong static magnetic field induces electric fields in a human body, which may result in various sensory perceptions such as vertigo, nausea, magnetic phosphenes, and a metallic taste in the mouth. These sensory perceptions have been observed by patients and medical staff in the vicinity of modern diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) equipment and may be distracting if they were to affect the balance and eye-hand coordination of, for example, a physician carrying out a medical operation during MR scanning. The stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue by a more intense induced electric field is also theoretically possible but has not been reported to result from such movement. The main objective of this study is to consider generic criteria for limiting the slowly varying broadband (<10 Hz) electric fields induced by the motion of the body in the static magnetic field. In order to find a link between the static magnetic flux density and the time-varying induced electric field, the static magnetic field is converted to the homogeneous equivalent transient and sinusoidal magnetic fields exposing a stationary body. Two cases are considered: a human head moving in a non-uniform magnetic field and a head rotating in a homogeneous magnetic field. Then the electric field is derived from the magnetic flux rate (dB/dt) of the equivalent field by using computational dosimetric data published in the literature for various models of the human body. This conversion allows the plotting of the threshold electric field as a function of frequency for vertigo, phosphenes, and stimulation of peripheral nerves. The main conclusions of the study are: The basic restrictions for limiting exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP in 1998 will prevent most cases of vertigo and other sensory perceptions that result from induced electric fields above 1 Hz, while limiting the static magnetic field below 2 T, as recently recommended by ICNIRP, provides sufficient protection below 1 Hz. People can experience vertigo when moving in static magnetic fields of between 2 and 8 T, but this may be controlled to some extent by slowing down head and/or body movement. In addition, limiting the static magnetic field below 8 T provides good protection against peripheral nerve stimulation.