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Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 264.74K | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Robotic radiotherapy using extensively non coplanar beams has been shown effective to significantly improve radiation therapy dosimetry that leads to improved treatment outcome However current implementation of this technique by CyberKnife is inefficient and not optimal dosimetrically This has severely limited both the number of patients eligible for robotic radiotherapy and the achievable clinical outcome for those who have been treated In order to overcome these limitations we propose to develop a novel robotic radiotherapy system that can efficiently utilize the full potential of the non coplanar delivery space to treat the majority of radiotherapy patients Innovation The proposed system is highly innovative in the following aspect Integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization Significantly more compact linac to allow posterior beams Flexible field sizes and MLC resolution to efficiently treat most target sizes Integrated volumetric imaging system This project is proposed to design a hardware platform materializing such robotic radiotherapy system In order to reduce the gantry size both the linac length and the distance between the source and the MLC need to be significantly reduced We propose to design a new MV source to reduce linac length and provide the required dose rate for treatment The physical MLC leaf thickness cannot be substantially thinner than mm To achieve a high MLC resolution at the treatment distance a spacer is used in CyberKnife between the primary collimator and the MLC increasing the gantry dimension We propose to eliminate the spacer but vary the focus to tumor distances FTD to achieve desired field size and MLC resolution This requires optimization in an enormous solution space a capacity uniquely demonstrated by the p algorithm Volumetric imaging has been an indispensable component of modern radiotherapy but unfortunately missing from existing robotic systems The proposed new linac will be able to deliver kV imaging beams from the same MV linac which in combination with gantry or couch mounted imagers will allow volumetric imaging for more precise tumor targeting Aims Prototypical design of the accelerator to produce MV X rays Design incorporated imaging system Develop a conceptual design for the entire clinical system Impact Success of the Phase I project would lead to the design of the first MV linear accelerator capable of producing a competitively high dose rate of andgt cGy min at cm and kV imaging beams for image guided radiotherapy This paves the technical path to a new robotic radiotherapy system delivering radiation plans with dose conformality surpassing existing X ray platforms More importantly the significantly increased field size throughput and the volumetric imaging capacity would allow the new robotic system to compete for a much larger market including that for conventional linacs than the niche market CyberKnife currently commands PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Success of the proposed project would lead to the development of a novel radiation therapy device capable of significantly reducing the radiation dose deposited to healthy tissue during cancer treatment The final clinical system to be developed in Phase II would revolutionize the field of radiation therapy by allowing this precise tumor targeting to be achieved with a quick flexible robotic system enabling high patient throughput This system is expected to manage a wide range of diseases and treatment fractions thus having a broad clinical and commercial impact


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.91K | Year: 2015

Collinear wakefield accelerator approaches are limited to transformer ratios of less than two for symmetric drive profiles. Exceeding this limitation is necessary to establish dielectric wakefield acceleration as viable technology for future compact high-gradient accelerators. Novel methods are needed to generate asymmetric shaped drive beams ideal for enhanced transformer ratios. We propose to develop a longitudinal bunch shaper that is capable of generating nearly idealized triangular profiles using the beam self-wakefield interaction in a dielectric structure followed by a compact chicane. The shaped beam will serve as a driver for a second stage dielectric wakefield accelerator with enhanced transformer ratio. In Phase I, the system was conceptually designed and theoretically modeled with simulations for benchmarking. The system components were fabricated and assembled and installed for experimentation at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. The Phase I results experimentally demonstrated the generation of a beam with triangular profile consistent with theoretical modeling and simulations. In Phase II, we will build off the successful results and integrate a second stage structure to accelerate particles and measure the transformer ratio of the system. We will also explore alternate geometries and attempt higher-order shaping schemes. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS AND OTHER BENEFITS The benefits of dielectric wakefield accelerator structures include shaped bunches to extract energy, and access higher frequencies. It also provides high-added value in afterburner applications for existing facilities, allowing an increase in energy at negligible added footprint. The R&D has implications ranging from laser acceleration to high frequency components in communications. Finally, these structures serve as robust sources of terahertz radiation, (high peak power, narrow bandwidth) for material spectroscopy and pump-probe experiments.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.60K | Year: 2015

To improve public security and prevent the diversion of radioactive material for Radiation Dispersion Devices (or so-called dirty bombs) DOE is planning to dramatically reduce the amount of radioactive material in use. Ir-192 is the most common isotope used for radiography and poses a higher risk of being diverted since it must constantly be replenished, and is found in small, portable devices that nevertheless contain dangerous amounts of material. The existing technology of RF linacs based on sophisticated multi-cup copper structures is too complicated and expensive to be compatible with massive replacement.RadiaBeam is developing an inexpensive, energy-tunable, portable linac based on easy-to-manufacture, structure to allow effective capture of tens of keV electron beam injected from an inexpensive electron gun and acceleration to a final energy up to 1 MeV. The structure design significantly simplifies brazing, eliminates time consuming tuning due to the high group velocity in common tube housing. The bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by the ~1 MeV electron beam on a high-Z converter at the end of the linac will match the penetration and dose rate of a typical 200 Ci Ir-192 source.A two-section, hybrid Alumina-Copper, easy-to-fabricate, disk-and-ring-type structure has been designed. The novel design eliminates multi-cell brazing and expensive RF windows as combines them with the couplers. Assembling of the structure is as simple as stuffing of a pipe with the CNC-milled disks and ring. The simulations indicate attaining of a 1.2 MeV energy for a more than 10 mA current with low power ~100 kW X-band magnetron. Seven cells (~1/6th) of the structure have been fabricated at the cost of $180 per cell. Test mockup with the 7 cells driven by a 14 keV electron gun from L3 have been built with novel designs of vacuum port and alternating periodic permanent focusing. Up to 30 mA have been transported through the 7 cells at 50% transmission up to 30 Hz rep rate at better than 0.1 nbar pressure without indications of damage. In Phase II project we are going to design, fabricate and commission the X-ray source based on the novel type structure to match the penetration and dose rate of a typical 200 Ci Ir-192 source. In Phase II we demonstrate suitability of the system for mass production and feasibility of attaining 40 lbs weight of the system.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.51K | Year: 2015

THz technology has a rapidly growing number of potential applications in solid-state, nuclear physics, medicine, biology, remote sensing, imaging, industry and communications. However, THz radiation facilities based on FELs, electron storage rings, and/or energy recovery linacs are too large, expensive, and not readily available for a broader community of users to operate it on a flexibly customized, on-demand, and independent basis. In this project we are developing a compact and much less expensive coherent terahertz source that allows generation of high peak and average power. The approach uses microbunching provided by the beam compression in an alpha-magnet, beam pre-bunching in the RF gun, and resonant Cherenkov radiation in a robust radiator. The THz radiation in the source can be accompanied by synchronized, intense, sub-ps bursts of hard X-ray radiation for additional capabilities. Phase II tasks have been completed and all objectives were met. All the source components including the THz beamline, 2D steerable radiator integrated with antenna and bending magnet, table-top alpha magnet with moveable scraper and diagnostics ports have been designed and assembled at the APS Injector Test Stand facility. THz radiation was successfully produced at 0.52 mm wavelength, ~ 330 J/cm2 macropulse energy density, and 7% bandwidth, which is close to that simulated. In response to the desires of our beta customer, the APS light source, in Phase IIA we will design, fabricate, assemble, and commission a prototype of a turnkey tunable THz source. A new system will be designed and tested to provide frequency and spectrum tunability. The system will allow in-vacuum manipulation to change the gap, angle, absolute and relative positioning of the slow wave radiating structure. One part of the radiator system will be designed to provide radiation frequencies over 2 THz by using a CVD diamond coated structures and 3D periodic micro-structures. Another part of the radiator system will provide broadband radiation by using a tapered structure in combination with a micro-wiggler. A novel steering system with capability of precise beam translation would enable to maximize the radiation intensity and switch the beam interaction with the radiator parts having different dispersion. The components and entire system will be tested and commissioned at APS Injector Test Stand facility.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.97K | Year: 2014

Conventional linear lattice accelerator designs limit the available dynamic aperture because they are unstable to chromatic effects and subject to resonances. By designing a lattice that is non- linear from the initial design, so-called integrable optics, the dynamic aperture can be increased as particles can pass through resonances and are less sensitive to chromatic aberrations in the lattice. Integrable optics implementation could become a major breakthrough to extend the intensity frontier of particle accelerators, and advance exploration of small cross section events such as lepton flavor oscillations. In response to such opportunity, it is proposed to develop non-linear magnetic inserts required to produce the requisite non-linear motion at the IOTA ring, an electron accelerator ring under construction at Fermilab, which is designed to test non-linear dynamics in a scaled model of the larger proton machine. A successful development of the prototype insert would facilitate the first practical demonstration of the integrable optics accelerator. A magnetic design and initial engineering of the non-linear magnetic insert were completed. A four sectors bench top prototype was fabricated, and measured with the pulsed wire and a Hall probe. A full-scale (2 meters long) prototype insert will be fabricated, characterized through magnetic measurements, and installed on the IOTA ring. In addition, a beam transport experiment with the prototype insert will be performed at Fermilab. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: A practical realization of the integrable optics non-linear lattice design will aid in the dissemination of different, and potentially powerful design methods for future accelerators, and hasten the deployment of such accelerators in applications such as electricity generation, spent nuclear fuel processing, medical isotope production, and discovery science.

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