Lucassen P.,Radbound University Nijmegen
BMJ clinical evidence
INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording.METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).RESULTS: We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk. Source
Bouwman J.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy |
Lawson W.A.,Australian Defence Force Academy |
Juhasz A.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy |
Dominik C.,University of Amsterdam |
And 6 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters
We present Spitzer Space Telescope low-resolution spectroscopy of the protoplanetary disk around the M4 star RECX 5, a low-mass member of the ≈8 Myr old η Chamaeleontis star cluster. Two features of the disk around RECX 5 set it apart from other young, low-mass stars with protoplanetary disks: its mineralogy and its disk geometry. Band strengths of the crystalline silicate forsterite are a factor of two higher than that typically observed in T Tauri star disks, indicative of a high forsterite mass fraction. Continuum fluxes of the disk are inconsistent with either a flaring or flattened structure, suggesting a complex disk geometry. Radiative transfer modeling of the spectrum suggests that the disk has a gap at a radius of r = 0.6 AU, and that the disk density at r ≤ 33 AU is a factor of 100 lower than that of a continuous disk. A second disk gap might be centered at r = 24 AU. The RECX 5 disk has properties that are remarkably similar to the disk surrounding the Herbig Be star HD 100546, which is noted for having extreme mineralogy and geometry among Herbig star disks. Similar to a solution proposed for HD 100546, we speculate that the clearance of the RECX 5 disk at r ≤ 33 AU is a consequence of the formation of a Saturn-mass planet, with the planet being responsible for the striking difference in both the spectral energy distribution and chemical composition of the dust around RECX 5.©2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source
Janssen M.J.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Waanders E.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Te Morsche R.H.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Xing R.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
And 3 more authors.
Background & Aims: Heterozygous germline mutations in PRKCSH cause autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PCLD), but it is not clear how they lead to cyst formation. We investigated whether mutations in cyst epithelial cells and corresponding loss of the PRKCSH gene product (hepatocystin) contributed to cyst development. Methods: Liver cyst material was collected through laparoscopic cyst fenestration from 8 patients with PCLD who had a heterozygous germline mutation in PRKCSH. Tissue sections from 71 cysts (214 per patient) were obtained for hepatocystin staining and mutation analysis. Cyst epithelium was acquired using laser microdissection; DNA was isolated and analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and somatic mutations using restriction analysis and sequencing. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 70-kilobase region surrounding the germline mutation were used to determine variations in the genomic region with LOH. Results: The wild-type allele of PRKCSH was lost (LOH) in 76% of cysts (54/71). Hepatocystin was not detected in cyst epithelia with LOH, whereas heterozygous cysts still expressed hepatocystin. The variation observed in the LOH region analysis indicates that cysts develop independently. We also detected somatic mutations in PRKCSH in 17% (2/12) of the cysts without LOH. Trans-heterozygous mutations in SEC63 were not observed. Conclusions: Among patients with PCLD who have a heterozygous germline mutation in PRKCSH, we found secondary, somatic mutations (second hits) in more than 76% of the liver cyst epithelia. PCLD is recessive at the cellular level, and loss of functional PRKCSH is an important step in cystogenesis. © 2011 AGA Institute. Source
O'Reilly M.,University of Texas at Austin |
Rispoli M.,Texas A&M University |
Davis T.,Baylor University |
Machalicek W.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
And 6 more authors.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often present with challenging behavior, such as aggression and self-injury. In studies of children with other types of developmental disabilities challenging behavior appears more often to be maintained by attention or escape from demands. Less is known about the operant function of challenging behavior in children with ASD. The aim of the present study was to provide an analysis of the function of challenging behaviors in 10 children with ASD or PDD-NOS. Each child was assessed across five conditions (i.e., attention, escape, tangible, alone, and play). Each condition was presented 8-10 times in a multielement design while the percentage of 10-s intervals with challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury) was recorded. The results showed that for 8 of the 10 children, challenging behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement, but by multiple sources of reinforcement for the other 2 children. The overall findings differ from the results of studies on children with other types of developmental disabilities, suggesting the possibility of a characteristically more non-social function to the challenging behavior of children with ASD. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Jensen M.M.,Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology |
Jensen M.M.,University of Southern Denmark |
Lam P.,Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology |
Revsbech N.P.,University of Aarhus |
And 4 more authors.
A combination of stable isotopes (15 N) and molecular ecological approaches was used to investigate the vertical distribution and mechanisms of biological N 2 production along a transect from the Omani coast to the central-northeastern (NE) Arabian Sea. The Arabian Sea harbors the thickest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the world's oceans, and is considered to be a major site of oceanic nitrogen (N) loss. Short (48 h) anoxic incubations with 15 N-labeled substrates and functional gene expression analyses showed that the anammox process was highly active, whereas denitrification was hardly detectable in the OMZ over the Omani shelf at least at the time of our sampling. Anammox was coupled with dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA), resulting in the production of double- 15 N-labeled N 2 from 15 NO 2 , a signal often taken as the lone evidence for denitrification in the past. Although the central-NE Arabian Sea has conventionally been regarded as the primary N-loss region, low potential N-loss rates at sporadic depths were detected at best. N-loss activities in this region likely experience high spatiotemporal variabilities as linked to the availability of organic matter. Our finding of greater N-loss associated with the more productive Omani upwelling region is consistent with results from other major OMZs. The close reliance of anammox on DNRA also highlights the need to take into account the effects of coupling N-transformations on oceanic N-loss and subsequent N-balance estimates. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved. Source