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Nijmegen, Netherlands

Shete M.,The African Studies Center | Shete M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Rutten M.,The African Studies Center | Rutten M.,Radbound University | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2015

This article examines land-use changes by large-scale plantations in Ethiopia and evaluates the impacts thereof on soil organic carbon, micronutrients and bulk density. Remote sensing analysis and field research activities were undertaken at four large-scale plantation projects in Benshanguel Gumuz, Gambella, and Oromia regional states. Results show that the projects largely involved the conversion of both closed and open to closed forests and grasslands, which in turn reduced soil carbon stock and micronutrient levels and increased soil compaction. We argue that unless appropriate soil management activities and impact mitigation strategies are adopted by plantation proponents, these land-use changes will pose a serious threat to the long-term economic viability and sustainability of plantation agriculture in Ethiopia. This could undermine long-term ecosystem health and national food security. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Janssens A.,Radbound University | Pelzer B.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Biodemography and Social Biology | Year: 2012

Prior research has suggested that the quality of maternal care given to infants and small children plays an important role in the strong clustering of children's deaths. In this article, we investigate the quality of maternal care provided by those women who most nineteenth-century social commentators declared would never make good housewives or mothers: the young girls and women working in textile mills. We carried out this examination using an analysis of children's mortality risks in two textile cities in The Netherlands between roughly 1900 and 1930. Our analysis suggests that these children's clustered mortality risks cannot have resulted from either their mothers' labor market experience or biological or genetic factors. © 2012 Copyright Society for Biodemography and Social Biology. Source


Soler J.K.,University of Ulster | Soler J.K.,Mediterranean Institute of Primary Care | Okkes I.,Mediterranean Institute of Primary Care | Okkes I.,University of Amsterdam | And 7 more authors.
Family Practice | Year: 2012

Introduction: This is a study of the epidemiology of family medicine (FM) in three practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta and Serbia. Incidence and prevalence rates, especially of reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode labels, are compared. Methodology: Participating family doctors (FDs) recorded details of all their patient contacts in an episode of care (EoC) structure using electronic patient records based on the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), collecting data on all elements of the doctor-patient encounter. RfEs presented by the patient, all FD interventions and the diagnostic labels (EoCs labels) recorded for each encounter were classified with ICPC (ICPC-2-E in Malta and Serbia and ICPC-1 in the Netherlands). Results: The content of family practice in the three population databases, incidence and prevalence rates of the common top 20 RfEs and EoCs in the three databases are given. Conclusions: Data that are collected with an episode-based model define incidence and prevalence rates much more precisely. Incidence and prevalence rates reflect the content of the doctor- patient encounter in FM but only from a superficial perspective. However, we found evidence of an international FM core content and a local FM content reflected by important similarities in such distributions. FM is a complex discipline, and the reduction of the content of a consultation into one or more medical diagnoses, ignoring the patient's RfE, is a coarse reduction, which lacks power to fully characterize a population's health care needs. In fact, RfE distributions seem to be more consistent between populations than distributions of EoCs are, in many respects. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Chiesa A.,University of Bologna | Chiesa A.,Messina University | Castagner V.,University of Bologna | Andrisano C.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2015

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) showed efficacy for currently depressed patients. However, most of the available studies suffer from important methodological shortcomings, including the lack of adequate control groups. The present study aims to compare MBCT with a psycho-educational control group designed to be structurally equivalent to the MBCT program but excluding the main putative "active ingredient" of MBCT (i.e., mindfulness meditation practice) for the treatment of patients with major depression (MD) who did not achieve remission following at least 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Out of 106 screened subjects, 43 were randomized to receive MBCT or psycho-education and were prospectively followed for 26 weeks. MD severity was assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Measures of anxiety, mindfulness, and quality of life were also included. All assessments were performed at baseline, 4, 8, 17 and 26-weeks. Both HAM-D and BDI scores, as well as quality of life and mindfulness scores, showed higher improvements, which were particularly evident over the long-term period, in the MBCT group than in the psycho-education group. Although limited by a small sample size, the results of this study suggest the superiority of MBCT over psycho-education for non-remitted MD subjects. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Zarei M.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies | Beckmann C.F.,Radbound University | Binnewijzend M.A.A.,Radiology and Image Analysis Center | Schoonheim M.M.,Radiology and Image Analysis Center | And 5 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

In this study we segment the hippocampus according to functional connectivity assessed from resting state functional magnetic resonance images in healthy subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).We recorded the resting FMRI signal from 16 patients and 22 controls. We used seed-based functional correlation analyses to calculate partial correlations of all voxels in the hippocampus relative to characteristic regional signal changes in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while controlling for ventricular CSF and white matter signals. Group comparisons were carried out controlling for age, gender, hippocampal volume and brain volume. The strength of functional connectivity in each region also was correlated with neuropsychological measures.We found that the hippocampus can be segmented into three distinct functional subregions (head, body, and tail), according to the relative connectivity with PFC, PCC and thalamus, respectively. The AD group showed stronger hippocampus-PFC and weaker hippocampus-PCC functional connectivity, the magnitudes of which correlated with MMSE in both cases.The results are consistent with an adaptive role of the PFC in the context of progression of dysfunction in PCC during earlier stages of AD. Extension of our approach could integrate regional volume measures for the hippocampus with their functional connectivity patterns in ways that should increase sensitivity for assessment of AD onset and progression. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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