Radboud University Nijmegen is a public university with a strong focus on research located in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Established since 17-10-1923 and situated in the oldest city of the Netherlands, it has seven faculties and enrolls over 19,130 students. Radboud was internationally ranked by QS World University Rankings, and placed at 136th. Wikipedia.
Radboud University Nijmegen | Date: 2016-11-17
The present invention provides proteins/genes, which are essential for survival, and consequently, for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo, and thus are ideal vaccine candidates for a vaccine preparation against pneumococcal infection. Further, also antibodies against said protein(s) are included in the invention.
Roelofs K.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017
Upon increasing levels of threat, animals activate qualitatively different defensive modes, including freezing and active fight-or-flight reactions. Whereas freezing is a form of behavioural inhibition accompanied by parasympathetically dominated heart rate deceleration, fight-or-flight reactions are associated with sympathetically driven heart rate acceleration. Despite the potential relevance of freezing for human stress-coping, its phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unexplored in humans. Studies in rodents have shown that freezing depends on amygdala projections to the brainstem (periaqueductal grey). Recent neuroimaging studies in humans have indicated that similar brain regions may be involved in human freezing. In addition, flexibly shifting between freezing and active defensive modes is critical for adequate stress-coping and relies on fronto-amygdala connections. This review paper presents a model detailing these neural mechanisms involved in freezing and the shift to fight-or-flight action. Freezing is not a passive state but rather a parasympathetic brake on the motor system, relevant to perception and action preparation. Study of these defensive responses in humans may advance insights into human stress-related psychopathologies characterized by rigidity in behavioural stress reactions. The paper therefore concludes with a research agenda to stimulate translational animal–human research in this emerging field of human defensive stress responses. © 2017 The Authors.
Cohen M.X.,Radboud University Nijmegen
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2017
Cognitive electrophysiology is a subfield of neuroscience that focused on linking M/EEG data to aspects of cognition and the neurophysiological processes that produce them. This field is growing in terms of the novelty and sophistication of findings, data, and data analysis methods. Simultaneously, many areas of modern sciences are experiencing a “replication crisis,” prompting discussions of best practices to produce robust and replicable research. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this discussion with a particular focus on cognitive electrophysiology. More issues are raised than are answered. Several recommendations are made, including (1) incorporate replications into new experiments, (2) write clear Methods and Results sections, and (3) publish null results. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Watt F.M.,King's College London |
Huck W.T.S.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013
The field of stem cells and regenerative medicine offers considerable promise as a means of delivering new treatments for a wide range of diseases. In order to maximize the effectiveness of cell-based therapies-whether stimulating expansion of endogenous cells or transplanting cells into patients-it is essential to understand the environmental (niche) signals that regulate stem cell behaviour. One of those signals is from the extracellular matrix (ECM). New technologies have offered insights into how stem cells sense signals from the ECM and how they respond to these signals at the molecular level, which ultimately regulate their fate. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Dinarello C.A.,Aurora University |
Dinarello C.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Cell | Year: 2010
Inflammation involving the innate and adaptive immune systems is a normal response to infection. However, when allowed to continue unchecked, inflammation may result in autoimmune or autoinflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative disease, or cancer. A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available, including aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, with many more drugs under development. In particular, the new era of anti-inflammatory agents includes " biologicals" such as anticytokine therapies and small molecules that block the activity of kinases. Other anti-inflammatories currently in use or under development include statins, histone deacetylase inhibitors, PPAR agonists, and small RNAs. This Review discusses the current status of anti-inflammatory drug research and the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Brock R.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2014
Over the past 20 years, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have captured the attention of biomedical researchers, biophysicists, and (bio)organic chemists. These molecules efficiently enter cells and mediate entry of (macro)molecules that by themselves do not cross the plasma membrane. Since their discovery, models on the mechanism by which uptake occurs have seen major revisions. Starting from direct penetration across the plasma membrane, it later became apparent that for large molecular weight cargos in particular, endocytosis plays a role in uptake and furthermore that the route of uptake is a function of CPP, cell-type, cargo, and concentration. For the class of arginine-rich CPPs, this dependence on conditions has been elucidated in particular. As I will discuss here for this class of CPPs, a downside of this multitude of possibilities has been a lack of attention for commonalities in the observation of apparently distinct phenomena. At the same time, differences of apparently similar observations were not appreciated sufficiently. In addition, there has been insufficient acknowledgment of observations that are incompatible with the proposed models. Nevertheless, a considerable amount of data can be assembled into a quite coherent picture and the data that is left creates the basis for concrete future lines of research to resolve the questions that remain. Moreover, any uptake mechanism has its distinct structure-activity relationship for uptake giving room for the molecular design of molecules to preferentially direct uptake to either of them. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Van Bokhoven H.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2011
Mutations in more than 450 different genes have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and related cognitive disorders (CDs), such as autism. It is to be expected that this number will increase three to fourfold in the next years due to the rapid implementation of innovative high-throughput sequencing technology in genetics labs. Numerous functional relationships have been identified between the products of individual ID genes, and common molecular and cellular pathways onto which these networks converge are beginning to emerge. Prominent examples are genes involved in synaptic plasticity, Ras and Rho GTPase signaling, and epigenetic genes that encode modifiers of the chromatin structure. It thus seems that there might be common pathological patterns in ID, despite its bewildering genetic heterogeneity. These common pathways provide attractive opportunities for knowledge-based therapeutic interventions. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Hoogenboom R.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010
Chemical equation presentation. Branching out: Thiol-yne chemistry is emerging as new tool for polymer chemists, as it represents a unique and efficient coupling procedure to create highly branched structures (see scheme). This method can be used to prepare highly functional dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,.
Summerfield C.,University of Oxford |
De Lange F.P.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Sensory signals are highly structured in both space and time. These structural regularities in visual information allow expectations to form about future stimulation, thereby facilitating decisions about visual features and objects. Here, we discuss how expectation modulates neural signals and behaviour in humans and other primates. We consider how expectations bias visual activity before a stimulus occurs, and how neural signals elicited by expected and unexpected stimuli differ. We discuss how expectations may influence decision signals at the computational level. Finally, we consider the relationship between visual expectation and related concepts, such as attention and adaptation. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Veltman J.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Brunner H.G.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012
New mutations have long been known to cause genetic disease, but their true contribution to the disease burden can only now be determined using family-based whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing approaches. In this Review we discuss recent findings suggesting that de novo mutations play a prominent part in rare and common forms of neurodevelopmental diseases, including intellectual disability, autism and schizophrenia. De novo mutations provide a mechanism by which early-onset reproductively lethal diseases remain frequent in the population. These mutations, although individually rare, may capture a significant part of the heritability for complex genetic diseases that is not detectable by genome-wide association studies. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.