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Rabat, Morocco

Christmann S.,Rabat Institutes | Aw-Hassan A.A.,ICARDA Headquarters
Climatic Change | Year: 2015

The rapid loss of small glaciers worldwide might result in mountain villages changing from having plenty of water during the growing season, to facing a scarcity even in scenarios with adaptation. Climate-change effects might cause the need for significant changes in rural mountain economies that currently rely on irrigated agriculture, pastoralism and labor migration. Previous research mainly focuses on geophysical aspects and little is known about the local ability to understand climate-change indicators or local collective adaptive capacity. A 2010 participatory case study in the Zerafshan Range, Tajikistan, disclosed a local lack of awareness of climate change and its consequences. We present a social learning method based on scenarios and visualization. The process exposed a remarkable potential for comprehensive adaptation, including in water harvesting, choice of crops and livestock, environmental enhancement, skills and conflict management. We recommend the approach as a model to promote local collective adaptive capacity development. The case study revealed high risks of massive out-migration from mountain villages if adaptation starts too late: countries with a high proportion of mountain agriculture might see significant losses of agricultural area, a reduction in food production and an increase in conflicts in areas where immigration occurs. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Boulal H.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Boulal H.,Rabat Institutes | Gomez-Macpherson H.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Gomez J.A.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Mateos L.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2011

Conservation agriculture with controlled traffic has been suggested as one way to improve water infiltration and reduce soil losses in irrigated annual crops in Mediterranean environments, but little research is available. In 2009, we compared two soil-management systems for a maize (Zea mays L.)-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cropping system in Córdoba (Southern Spain): permanent beds with crop-residue retention on surface ground (PB) and conventionally tilled beds (tilled with a disc harrow, then a chisel plough and rotavator before bed forming) with residues incorporated into the soil (CB). The soil was a loamy alluvial Typic Xerofluvent. Traffic was controlled and two types of furrows were distinguished in each tillage system: with (+T) and without (-T) wheel traffic. We hypothesized that PB combined with controlled traffic could reduce soil erosion and enhance infiltration compared to CB. The effects on soil erosion caused by sprinkler irrigation or rainfall events were evaluated at field-scale (water application intensities of 0.26 and 0.30mmmin-1 in Trial 1 and Trial 2, respectively) and with a rainfall-simulator (mini-plots 0.9m×0.9m in size and a water application intensity of 1mmmin-1), respectively. In irrigation Trial 1 (on bare soil), soil loss in PB+T furrows was 4gm-2, about one-ninth that in CB+T furrows. -T furrows did not produce runoff in this trial. In irrigation Trial 2 (on soil covered by a cotton crop), soil loss in CB (59gm-2) was double that in PB, and in +T it was about three times that in -T (64gm-2 vs. 23gm-2). The results obtained using intense simulated rainfall at the mini-plot scale showed similar relative differences to those obtained from the irrigation trials at the field scale, except that the protective effect on the soil of the crop residues in PB was more noticeable than in the irrigation trials. Complementary trials using mini-ring infiltrometers (9.6cm in diameter), aimed at characterizing small-scale infiltration variability, i.e., differences between beds and furrows, gave highly variable results, sometimes contradicting those obtained from the mini-plot and field-scale trials. The results are valid for the Mediterranean environment where the study was conducted but should motivate similar research in other environments where agricultural systems are susceptible to rain- or irrigation-induced soil erosion. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Mondini L.,University of Tuscia | Nachit M.M.,Rabat Institutes | Pagnotta M.A.,University of Tuscia
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2015

To identify potential and useful markers able to discriminate promising lines of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) tolerant to salt and drought stresses, nucleotide sequences of Dehydration-Responsive-Element Binding Factor (DREB) genes were used to design primers probed with High Resolution Melting technology for the identification of allelic variants. DREB1, DREB2, DREB3, DREB4 and DREB5 conserved regions corresponding to EREBP/AP2 domain and containing the conserved core sequence (5′-TACCGACAT-3′), the protein site directly involved in DNA recognition, were analyzed. The validated primers were probed on four lines of durum wheat differentially tolerant to salt and drought stresses treated with solutions containing different salt concentrations. Some SNPs mutations were identified in the highly tolerant durum cultivar Jennah Khetifa treated with the maximum salt concentration (1.5 M). The SNPs mutations identified were non-synonymous (nsSNPs) causing changes in peptide sequences. These concerned amino acid residues directly involved in the maintenance of protein geometry, the recognition of the specific cis-element, and the contacts between the protein and DNA. A validation of the found SNPs was carried out by analyzing the regressions between DREBs SNPs allelic variants and some morpho-physiological characters in a RIL population, deriving from a cross between the two durum wheat genotypes utilized for SNPs detection, grown under contrasting environments. Several phenotypical characters have been assessed in the progeny across all the localities evaluating the different performances under different stress levels and related with SNPs occurrence. Significant relations between SNPs variants and morpho-physiological characteristics were found in the progeny growth in very severe drought environments, suggesting a role of the identified SNPs in conferring a superior capability to adverse stress conditions and, at the same time, the key role of these genes in empowering salt tolerance. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Rahmouni B.,Mohammed V University | Alaoui K.,Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory | Bouidida E.H.,Mohammed V University | Bouidida E.H.,Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

The methanolic extract of Nepeta granatensis, were evaluated for the acute toxicity and peripheral and central analgesic activity. Female mice (Iops Offa) were treated with the methanolic extract and had shown a LD50 as 1000 mg/kg Effects of the methanolic extract, on nociception were assessed, by Tail Flick test in rats, as well, acetic acid inducing writhing in mice. The administration of the methanolic extract, intraperitoneally, at the doses 25 and 50 mg/kg, indicates that methanolic extract exhibit a power protection, against writhing (90, 9%) at the higher dose. Furthermore, reflex time; in Tail Flick exceeds the threshold of pain inhibition, that reached 11,2 ± 0,33s for the dose 50mg/kg. The in vivo experiments revealed that, methanolic extract of Nepeta granatensis has a high potential peripheral analgesic activity and a central morphine-like either at dose 50mg/kg. Source


Lakhdar F.,Rabat Institutes | Arkha Y.,Rabat Institutes | Bougrine M.,Rabat Institutes | Derraz S.,Rabat Institutes | And 2 more authors.
Neurochirurgie | Year: 2010

Hydatidosis is an endemic disease in Morocco. Cerebral echinococcosis is a relatively rare entity accounting for only 1-2 % of all hydatid cysts in humans. Extradural hydatid cyst of the posterior fossa is a very uncommon site for the disease: only four cases have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 37-year-old admitted for high intracranial pressure. Brain MRI showed an extradural and extracranial posterior fossa cyst without enhancement after contrast medium injection. Multiple hydatid cysts were removed and the histological examination of the tissue sample confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was given albendazole postoperatively with good follow-up 6 months later. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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