R2 Resource Consultants Inc.

Redmond, WA, United States

R2 Resource Consultants Inc.

Redmond, WA, United States
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Gende S.M.,National Park Service | Hendrix A.N.,R2 Resource Consultants Inc. | Harris K.R.,National Park Service | Harris K.R.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Applications | Year: 2011

Mandatory or voluntary reductions in ship speed are a common management strategy for reducing deleterious encounters between large ships and large whales. This has produced strong resistance from shipping and marine transportation entities, in part because very few studies have empirically demonstrated whether or to what degree ship speed influences ship-whale encounters. Here we present the results of four years of humpback whale sightings made by observers aboard cruise ships in Alaska, representing 380 cruises and 891 ship-whale encounters. Encounters occurred at distances from 21 m to 1000 m (-x=567 m) with 61 encounters (7%) occurring between 200 m and 100 m, and 19 encounters (2%) within 100 m. Encounters were spatially aggregated and highly variable across all ship speeds. Nevertheless a Bayesian change-point model found that the relationship between whale distance and ship speed changed at 11.8 knots (6.1 m/s) with whales encountering ships, on average, 114 m closer when ship speeds were above 11.8 knots. Binning encounter distances by 1-knot speed increments revealed a clear decrease in encounter distance with increasing ship speed over the range of 7-17 knots (3.6-8.7 m/s). Our results are the first to demonstrate that speed influences the encounter distance between large ships and large whales. Assuming that the closer ships come to whales the more likely they are to be struck, our results suggest that reduced ship speed may be an effective management action in reducing the probability of a collision. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.


Hayes M.C.,U.S. Geological Survey | Rubin S.P.,U.S. Geological Survey | Reisenbichler R.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | Goetz F.A.,U.S. Army | And 2 more authors.
Marine and Coastal Fisheries | Year: 2011

Acoustic telemetry was used to describe fish positions and marine habitat use by tagged bull trout Salvelinus confluentus from the Skagit River, Washington. In March and April 2006, 20 fish were captured and tagged in the lower Skagit River, while 15 fish from the Swinomish Channel were tagged duringMay and June. Sixteen fish tagged in 2004 and 2005 were also detected during the study. Fish entered Skagit Bay from March to May and returned to the river from May to August. The saltwater residency for the 13 fish detected during the out-migration and return migration ranged from 36 to 133 d (mean ± SD, 75 ± 22 d). Most bull trout were detected less than 14 km (8.5 ± 4.4 km) from the Skagit River, and several bay residents used the Swinomish Channel while migrating. The bull trout detected in the bay were associated with the shoreline (distance from shore, 0.32 ± 0.27 km) and occupied shallow-water habitats (mean water column depth, <4.0 m). The modified-minimum convex polygons (MMCPs) used to describe the habitats used by 14 bay fish showed that most areas were less than 1,000 ha. The mean length of the shoreline bordering the MMCPs was 2.8 km (range, 0.01-5.7 km) for bay fish and 0.6 km for 2 channel residents. Coastal deposits, low banks, and sediment bluffs were common shoreline classes found within the MMCPs of bay fish, while modified shoreline classes usually included concrete bulkheads and riprap. Mixed fines, mixed coarse sediments, and sand were common substrate classes found within MMCPs; green algae and eelgrass (Zostera sp.) vegetation classes made up more than 70% of the area used by bull trout. Our results will help managers identify specific nearshore areas that may require further protection to sustain the unique anadromous life history of bull trout. © American Fisheries Society 2011.


Hendrix A.N.,R2 Resource Consultants Inc | Straley J.,University of Alaska Southeast | Gabriele C.M.,Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve | Gende S.M.,Glacier Bay Field Station
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2012

We used a mechanistic movement model within a Bayesian framework to estimate survival, abundance, and rate of increase for a population of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) subject to a long-term photographic capture-recapture effort in southeastern Alaska, USA (SEAK). Multiple competing models were fitted that differed in movement, recapture rates, and observation error using deviance information criterion. The median annual survival probability in the selected model was 0.996 (95% central probability interval (CrI): 0.984, 0.999), which is among the highest reported for this species. Movement among areas was temporally dynamic, although whales exhibited high area fidelity (probability of returning to same area of ≥0.75) throughout the study. Median abundance was 1585 whales in 2008 (95% CrI: 1455, 1644). Incorporating an abundance estimate of 393 (95% confidence interval: 331, 455) whales from 1986, the median rate of increase was 5.1% (95% CrI: 4.4%, 5.9%). Although applied here to cetaceans in SEAK, the framework provides a flexible approach for estimating mortality and movement in populations that move among sampling areas.


De vries P.,R2 Resource Consultants Inc | Fetherston K.L.,R2 Resource Consultants Inc | Vitale A.,01 Annie Antelope Road | Madsen S.,Skagit Fisheries Enhancement Group
Fisheries | Year: 2012

Stream and floodplain restoration at the reach scale has ranged from expensive, heavy-handed modification of the channel and floodplain to simple, longer-term revegetation efforts. We have developed and implemented a simple approach that emulates the ecosystem engineering effects of beaver. This approach is less expensive and disruptive than typical largescale engineering efforts and has the potential to restore both fish habitat and floodplain vegetation more rapidly than simply revegetating and waiting for the riparian zone to mature. The approach involves constructing log flow-choke structures that mimic the hydraulic function of a natural beaver dam during flooding. By placing these structures throughout a naturally entrenched stream reach at locations promoting increased frequency of flood connection with floodplain swales and relict channels, we set the stage to restore the riparian corridor and floodplain more quickly than could be achieved through revegetation alone. Monitoring shows that within just one to two years of implementation, beaver are building more persistent dams in close proximity to our structures, and we are seeing increased hydraulic connectivity with the floodplain. Our technique may therefore provide a cost-effective, natural process-based restoration tool with potential large-scale benefits.


Rine K.M.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Wipfli M.S.,U.S. Geological Survey | Schoen E.R.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Nightengale T.L.,R2 Resource Consultants Inc. | Stricker C.A.,U.S. Geological Survey
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2016

Contributions of terrestrial-, freshwater-, and marine-derived prey resources to stream fishes vary over time and space, altering the energy pathways that regulate production. In this study, we determined large-scale use of these resources by juvenile Chinook and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Oncorhynchus kisutch, respectively) in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska. We resolved spatial and temporal trophic patterns among multiple macrohabitat types along a 97 km segment of the river corridor via stable isotope and stomach content analyses. Juvenile salmon were supported primarily by freshwater-derived resources and secondarily by marine and terrestrial sources. The relative contribution of marine-derived prey to rearing salmon was greatest in the fall within off-channel macrohabitats, whereas the contributions of terrestrial invertebrate prey were generally greatest during midsummer, across all macrohabitats. No longitudinal (upstream-downstream) diet pattern was discernable. These results highlight large-scale spatial and seasonal patterns of energy flow and the dynamic interplay of pulsed marine and terrestrial prey subsidies to juvenile Chinook and coho salmon in a large, complex, and relatively pristine glacial river. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.


DeVries P.,R2 Resource Consultants Inc | Aldrich R.,Snohomish County Public Works
Environmental Management | Year: 2015

A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1–10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m3/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | R2 Resource Consultants Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental management | Year: 2015

A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m(3)/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

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