News Article | February 15, 2017
WILMINGTON, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. (NYSE: CRL) today reported its results for the fourth-quarter and full-year 2016 and provided guidance for 2017. For the quarter, revenue from continuing operations was $466.8 million, an increase of 31.9% from $353.9 million in the fourth quarter of 2015. Revenue growth was driven primarily by the Discovery and Safety Assessment and Manufacturing Support segments. Research Models and Services revenue also increased. The acquisitions of WIL Research, Agilux Laboratories, Blue Stream Laboratories, and Oncotest contributed 20.9% to consolidated fourth-quarter revenue growth, both on a reported basis and in constant currency. The addition of a 53rd week at the end of 2016, which is periodically required to align to a December 31st calendar year end, contributed approximately 5.1% to reported fourth-quarter revenue growth. The impact of foreign currency translation reduced reported revenue growth by 2.4%. Excluding the effect of these items, organic revenue growth was 8.3%. On a GAAP basis, net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareholders was $44.7 million for the fourth quarter of 2016, an increase of 36.4% from $32.8 million for the same period in 2015. Fourth-quarter diluted earnings per share on a GAAP basis were $0.93, an increase of 34.8% from $0.69 for the fourth quarter of 2015. On a non-GAAP basis, net income from continuing operations was $58.3 million for the fourth quarter of 2016, an increase of 23.3% from $47.3 million for the same period in 2015. Fourth-quarter diluted earnings per share on a non-GAAP basis were $1.21, an increase of 21.0% from $1.00 per share for the fourth quarter of 2015. Both the GAAP and non-GAAP earnings per share increases were driven primarily by the acquisition of new businesses, notably WIL Research, as well as higher revenue for legacy operations. A gain from the Company’s venture capital investments contributed $0.02 per share in the fourth quarter of 2016, compared to a negligible impact for the same period in 2015. James C. Foster, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, said, “Our fourth-quarter results provided a strong finish to an exceptional year in which we met our long-term revenue goals for all of our businesses except Discovery, and our long-term operating margin targets for the three business segments. We were very pleased that three of our businesses, Safety Assessment, Microbial Solutions, and Biologics Testing Solutions, reported low-double-digit organic revenue growth for the full year. Client demand for our unique portfolio of essential products and services remained strong across each of our client segments, particularly for our biotechnology clients, who were the primary driver of our revenue growth in 2016.” “Our continued investments to broaden our early-stage portfolio, the scientific expertise of our staff, our focus on productivity and efficiency initiatives, and our ability to offer flexible partnership structures are the primary reasons that we are the partner of choice for many of our clients. Based on our view of the opportunities in 2017, we believe we will again deliver high single-digit organic revenue growth and earnings per share growth at a faster rate than revenue,” Mr. Foster concluded. Revenue for the RMS segment was $124.7 million in the fourth quarter of 2016, an increase of 9.5% from $113.8 million in the fourth quarter of 2015. Organic revenue growth was 5.7%. Revenue growth was driven primarily by higher sales of research model services, and sales of research models also increased. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the RMS segment’s GAAP operating margin increased to 26.7% from 24.1% in the fourth quarter of 2015. On a non-GAAP basis, the operating margin increased to 27.3% from 25.4% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Both the GAAP and non-GAAP operating margin increases were due primarily to higher sales volume and the benefit of efficiency initiatives. Revenue from continuing operations for the DSA segment was $241.7 million in the fourth quarter of 2016, an increase of 50.6% from $160.5 million in the fourth quarter of 2015. Growth was driven primarily by the acquisitions of WIL Research, Agilux Laboratories, and Oncotest, which contributed 41.6% to DSA revenue growth. Organic revenue growth was 7.9%. Low-double-digit growth in the legacy Safety Assessment business was partially offset by lower revenue for the legacy Discovery Services business, which declined due primarily to softer demand from global clients for Early Discovery services. Robust demand from biotechnology clients continued to drive revenue growth in the DSA segment. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the DSA segment’s GAAP operating margin declined to 18.1% from 23.1% in the fourth quarter of 2015. The margin decline was due to costs associated with the evaluation and integration of acquisitions, including amortization of intangible assets, as well as the benefit from a tax law change in Quebec in the fourth quarter of 2015. On a non-GAAP basis, the operating margin decreased to 23.8% from 27.1% in the fourth quarter of 2015, due primarily to the tax law change in Quebec, which benefited both the GAAP and non-GAAP DSA operating margin by approximately 230 basis points in the fourth quarter of 2015. The acquisition of WIL reduced the fourth-quarter operating margin by approximately 100 basis points, and foreign exchange benefited the DSA operating margin by approximately 80 basis points due primarily to a weaker British pound. Revenue for the Manufacturing segment was $100.3 million in the fourth quarter of 2016, an increase of 26.2% from $79.5 million in the fourth quarter of 2015. The acquisitions of Blue Stream Laboratories and WIL Research’s contract development and manufacturing (CDMO) services contributed 9.2% to Manufacturing revenue growth in the fourth quarter of 2016. Organic revenue growth was 12.9%, primarily driven by robust growth in the Microbial Solutions and Biologics Testing Solutions businesses. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the Manufacturing segment’s GAAP operating margin increased to 31.0% from 23.7% in the fourth quarter of 2015. The GAAP operating margin increase was primarily driven by lower acquisition costs related to Celsis, as well as leverage from higher revenue in the Microbial Solutions business. On a non-GAAP basis, the operating margin increased to 34.2% from 33.8% in the fourth quarter of 2015, driven by operating margin improvement in the Microbial Solutions business as a result of higher revenue and the benefit of efficiency initiatives. For 2016, revenue increased by 23.3% to $1.68 billion from $1.36 billion in 2015. Organic revenue growth was 7.7%. On a GAAP basis, net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareholders was $154.5 million in 2016, an increase of 2.8% from $150.3 million in 2015. Diluted earnings per share on a GAAP basis in 2016 were $3.22, an increase of 2.2% from $3.15 in 2015. On a non-GAAP basis, net income from continuing operations was $218.9 million in 2016, an increase of 22.1% from $179.3 million in 2015. Diluted earnings per share on a non-GAAP basis in 2016 were $4.56, an increase of 21.3% from $3.76 in 2015. For 2016, RMS revenue was $494.0 million, an increase of 5.0% from $470.4 million in 2015. Organic revenue growth was 4.1%. On a GAAP basis, the RMS segment operating margin increased to 27.6% in 2016 from 25.7% in 2015. On a non-GAAP basis, the operating margin increased to 28.4% in 2016 from 27.1% in 2015. For 2016, DSA revenue was $836.6 million, an increase of 36.7% from $612.2 million in 2015. Organic revenue growth was 8.9%. On a GAAP basis, the DSA segment operating margin decreased to 16.5% in 2016 from 19.9% in 2015. On a non-GAAP basis, the operating margin decreased to 22.7% in 2016 from 23.3% in 2015. For 2016, Manufacturing revenue was $350.8 million, an increase of 25.0% from $280.7 million in 2015. Organic revenue growth was 11.3%. On a GAAP basis, the Manufacturing segment operating margin increased to 29.8% in 2016 from 26.6% in 2015. On a non-GAAP basis, the operating margin increased to 33.8% in 2016 from 32.6% in 2015. Charles River completed the divestiture of its CDMO business on February 10, 2017, to Quotient Clinical, a portfolio company of specialist healthcare investment adviser GHO Capital Partners LLP, based in London, England, for $75.0 million in cash, subject to certain post-closing adjustments. The CDMO business, which represented approximately 1% of Charles River’s 2016 consolidated revenue, provides services to support the formulation design and manufacture of oral drug dosages for biopharmaceutical clients, specializing in high-potency compounds. Charles River acquired the CDMO business in April 2016 as part of the acquisition of WIL Research. Following a strategic review, Charles River determined that the CDMO business was not optimized within Charles River’s portfolio at its current scale, and that the capital could be better deployed in other long-term growth opportunities. The Company is providing the following revenue growth and earnings per share guidance for 2017. This guidance reflects the divestiture of the CDMO business. Earnings per share in 2017 are expected to benefit from both higher revenue and operating margin expansion. The benefit is expected to be partially offset by foreign exchange, which is expected to reduce 2017 earnings per share by approximately $0.10, and lower gains from the Company’s venture capital investments. The Company’s 2016 earnings per share included a $0.13 gain on venture capital investments, and 2017 guidance includes an estimated $0.04 gain on these investments, consistent with the Company’s expected return on invested capital. Footnotes to Guidance Table (1) The contribution from acquisitions reflects only those acquisitions which were completed in 2016. (2) Organic revenue growth is defined as reported revenue growth adjusted for acquisitions, the divestiture of the CDMO business, the 53rd week, and foreign currency translation. (3) GAAP earnings per share guidance does not include the expected net gain and tax impact related to the divestiture of the CDMO business because the disposition accounting has not yet been finalized. (4) These charges relate primarily to the Company’s planned efficiency initiatives in 2017, including site consolidation costs, asset impairments, and severance. Other projects in support of the global productivity and efficiency initiatives are expected, but these charges reflect only the decisions that have already been finalized. (5) These adjustments are related to the evaluation and integration of acquisitions and the divestiture of the CDMO business, and primarily include transaction, advisory, and certain third-party integration costs, as well as certain costs associated with acquisition-related efficiency initiatives. Charles River has scheduled a live webcast on Tuesday, February 14, at 8:00 a.m. ET to discuss matters relating to this press release. To participate, please go to ir.criver.com and select the webcast link. You can also find the associated slide presentation and reconciliations of GAAP financial measures to non-GAAP financial measures on the website. Charles River will present at the Leerink 6th Annual Global Healthcare Conference in New York on Thursday, February 16, at 9:30 a.m. ET. Management will provide an overview of Charles River’s strategic focus and business developments. A live webcast of the presentation will be available through a link that will be posted on the Investor Relations section of the Charles River website at ir.criver.com. A webcast replay will be accessible through the same website approximately three hours after the presentation and will remain available for approximately two weeks. The Company reports non-GAAP results in this press release, which exclude often one-time charges and other items that are outside of normal operations. A reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP results is provided in the schedules at the end of this press release. In addition, the Company reports results from continuing operations, which exclude results of the Phase I clinical business that was divested in 2011. The Phase I business is reported as a discontinued operation. Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures This press release contains non-GAAP financial measures, such as non-GAAP earnings per diluted share, which exclude the amortization of intangible assets, inventory purchase accounting adjustments, and other charges related to our acquisitions; expenses associated with evaluating and integrating acquisitions and divestitures, as well as fair value adjustments associated with contingent consideration; charges related to modifications of purchase options on remaining non-controlled equity interests, and re-measurement of previously held equity interests; charges, gains and losses attributable to businesses or properties we plan to close, consolidate or divest; severance and other costs associated with our efficiency initiatives; executive transition costs; a reversal of indemnification assets associated with acquisitions and corresponding interest; write-off of and adjustments to deferred financing costs and fees related to debt financing; gain on bargain purchase; and costs related to a U.S. government billing adjustment and related expenses. This press release also refers to our revenue in both a GAAP and non-GAAP basis: “constant currency,” which we define as reported revenue growth adjusted for the impact of foreign currency translation, and “organic revenue growth,” which we define as reported revenue growth adjusted for foreign currency translation, acquisitions, the divestiture of the CDMO business, and the 53rd week. We exclude these items from the non-GAAP financial measures because they are outside our normal operations. There are limitations in using non-GAAP financial measures, as they are not prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and may be different than non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies. In particular, we believe that the inclusion of supplementary non-GAAP financial measures in this press release helps investors to gain a meaningful understanding of our core operating results and future prospects without the effect of these often-one-time charges, and is consistent with how management measures and forecasts the Company's performance, especially when comparing such results to prior periods or forecasts. We believe that the financial impact of our acquisitions and divestitures (and in certain cases, the evaluation of such acquisitions and divestitures, whether or not ultimately consummated) is often large relative to our overall financial performance, which can adversely affect the comparability of our results on a period-to-period basis. In addition, certain activities and their underlying associated costs, such as business acquisitions, generally occur periodically but on an unpredictable basis. We calculate non-GAAP integration costs to include third-party integration costs incurred post-acquisition. Presenting revenue on a constant-currency basis allows investors to measure our revenue growth exclusive of foreign currency exchange fluctuations more clearly. Non-GAAP results also allow investors to compare the Company’s operations against the financial results of other companies in the industry who similarly provide non-GAAP results. The non-GAAP financial measures included in this press release are not meant to be considered superior to or a substitute for results of operations prepared in accordance with GAAP. The Company intends to continue to assess the potential value of reporting non-GAAP results consistent with applicable rules and regulations. Reconciliations of the non-GAAP financial measures used in this press release to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures are set forth in this press release, and can also be found on the Company’s website at ir.criver.com. This press release includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “plan,” “outlook,” and “project,” and other similar expressions that predict or indicate future events or trends or that are not statements of historical matters. These statements also include statements regarding our projected future financial performance including revenue (on both a reported, constant-currency, and organic growth basis), operating margins, earnings per share, the expected impact of foreign exchange rates, and the expected benefit of our life science venture capital investments; the future demand for drug discovery and development products and services, including our expectations for future revenue trends; our expectations with respect to the impact of acquisitions on the Company, our service offerings, client perception, strategic relationships, revenue, revenue growth rates, and earnings; the development and performance of our services and products; market and industry conditions including the outsourcing of services and spending trends by our clients; the potential outcome of and impact to our business and financial operations due to litigation and legal proceedings, including with respect to our ongoing investigation of inaccurate billing with respect to certain government contracts; and Charles River’s future performance as delineated in our forward-looking guidance, and particularly our expectations with respect to revenue, the impact of foreign exchange, and enhanced efficiency initiatives. Forward-looking statements are based on Charles River’s current expectations and beliefs, and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and that could cause actual results to differ materially from those stated or implied by the forward-looking statements. Those risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: the ability to successfully integrate businesses we acquire; the ability to execute our efficiency initiatives on an effective and timely basis (including divestitures and site closures); the timing and magnitude of our share repurchases; negative trends in research and development spending, negative trends in the level of outsourced services, or other cost reduction actions by our clients; the ability to convert backlog to revenue; special interest groups; contaminations; industry trends; new displacement technologies; USDA and FDA regulations; changes in law; continued availability of products and supplies; loss of key personnel; interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations (including the impact of Brexit); changes in tax regulation and laws; changes in generally accepted accounting principles; and any changes in business, political, or economic conditions due to the threat of future terrorist activity in the U.S. and other parts of the world, and related U.S. military action overseas. A further description of these risks, uncertainties, and other matters can be found in the Risk Factors detailed in Charles River's Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed on February 12, 2016, as well as other filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Because forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, actual results and events may differ materially from results and events currently expected by Charles River, and Charles River assumes no obligation and expressly disclaims any duty to update information contained in this news release except as required by law. Charles River provides essential products and services to help pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, government agencies and leading academic institutions around the globe accelerate their research and drug development efforts. Our dedicated employees are focused on providing clients with exactly what they need to improve and expedite the discovery, early-stage development and safe manufacture of new therapies for the patients who need them. To learn more about our unique portfolio and breadth of services, visit www.criver.com. (1) Charles River management believes that supplementary non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to allow investors to gain a meaningful understanding of our core operating results and future prospects, without the effect of often-one-time charges and other items which are outside our normal operations, consistent with the manner in which management measures and forecasts the Company’s performance. The supplementary non-GAAP financial measures included are not meant to be considered superior to, or a substitute for results of operations prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The Company intends to continue to assess the potential value of reporting non-GAAP results consistent with applicable rules, regulations and guidance. (2) This item includes operating losses related primarily to the Company's Shrewsbury, Massachusetts facility. (3) These adjustments are related to the evaluation and integration of acquisitions, which primarily include transaction, third-party integration, and certain compensation costs, and fair value adjustments associated with contingent consideration. (1) Charles River management believes that supplementary non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to allow investors to gain a meaningful understanding of our core operating results and future prospects, without the effect of often-one-time charges and other items which are outside our normal operations, consistent with the manner in which management measures and forecasts the Company’s performance. The supplementary non-GAAP financial measures included are not meant to be considered superior to, or a substitute for results of operations prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The Company intends to continue to assess the potential value of reporting non-GAAP results consistent with applicable rules, regulations and guidance. (2) These amounts represent the reversal of an uncertain tax position and an offsetting indemnification asset primarily related to the acquisition of BioFocus. (3) The amounts relate to the acquisition of Sunrise Farms, Inc. and represents the excess of the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired over the purchase price. (4) The amount represents a $1.5 million charge recorded in connection with the modification of the option to purchase the remaining 13% equity interest in Vital River, partially offset by a $0.7 million gain on remeasurement of previously held equity interest in an entity acquired in a step acquisition. (1) Charles River management believes that supplementary non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to allow investors to gain a meaningful understanding of our core operating results and future prospects, without the effect of often-one-time charges and other items which are outside our normal operations, consistent with the manner in which management measures and forecasts the Company’s performance. The supplementary non-GAAP financial measures included are not meant to be considered superior to, or a substitute for results of operations prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The Company intends to continue to assess the potential value of reporting non-GAAP results consistent with applicable rules, regulations and guidance. (2) The contribution from acquisitions reflects only those acquisitions which were completed during fiscal year 2016 and 2015. (3) Organic revenue growth is defined as reported revenue growth adjusted for acquisitions, the 53rd week, and foreign exchange.
Shah S.A.,Merck Research Labs |
Berger R.L.,Merck Research Labs |
McDermott J.,Quotient Clinical |
Gupta P.,Merck Research Labs |
And 3 more authors.
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings | Year: 2015
Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS deposited significant drug into the posterior nasal cavity. Both nasal cast validation and mucociliary clearance confirm the radiolabel deposition distribution method accurately represented corticosteroid nasal deposition. Copyright © 2015, OceanSide Publications, Inc., U.S.A.
News Article | February 15, 2017
NOTTINGHAM, England--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Quotient Clinical (“Quotient”), the early phase drug development services provider, today announces that it has acquired QS Pharma, the contract development and manufacturing organisation (CDMO), based near Philadelphia, US, from Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. The acquisition increases Quotient’s footprint in the US and, combined with its recent acquisition of SeaView Research, the specialist clinical pharmacology business, paves the way for Quotient to replicate its Translational Pharmaceutics® platform in America. Founded in 2002, QS Pharma specialises in the formulation development and manufacturing of small molecule drug products, and is capable of supporting customer programs through all stages of development and commercialisation. Of particular relevance is QS Pharma’s capability to work with high potency molecules, which is a fast-growing market need. Mark Egerton, Chief Executive Officer, Quotient, said: “The acquisition of QS Pharma further supports our strategy in the US. Combined with the acquisition of SeaView, we have now increased the scale of the Quotient business to approximately 600 employees, with annualised revenues approaching $100m. We have proven the advantages of Translational Pharmaceutics, and believe that there are strong synergies with the QS Pharma business. We remain focused on continuing to deliver drug development solutions that save our customers both time and money.” Quotient’s proprietary and unique Translational Pharmaceutics platform integrates clinical testing with formulation development and real-time GMP manufacturing. This innovative approach is increasingly recognised in the industry for reducing clinical development timelines and cutting associated costs. Over 100 leading pharmaceutical and biotech companies have chosen Translational Pharmaceutics to accelerate the development of their products. Nutan Gangrade, Managing Director, QS Pharma, added: “We are delighted to join forces with Quotient. Translational Pharmaceutics represents a truly innovative solution that will synergise with our core formulation development and manufacturing services. We have grown our business successfully on the basis of quality and speed, and will continue to do so as part of Quotient.” The SeaView acquisition announcement can be viewed here: http://www.quotientclinical.com/quotient-clinical-expands-into-usa-through-acquisition-of-seaview-research-the-specialist-clinical-pharmacology-business/ Quotient Clinical offers unique services – based on its Translational Pharmaceutics® platform – that integrate formulation development, real-time drug product manufacturing and clinical testing, significantly reducing the time and cost of bringing a drug to market. For more than 25 years, Quotient Clinical has brought innovation to drug product development programs for pharmaceutical and biotechnology customers worldwide through the integration of formulation development, real-time GMP manufacturing and clinical testing activities. The company is based in purpose-built facilities offering a full range of support services, from study set-up right through to data analysis and reporting.
Smith K.,Mundipharma Research Ltd. |
Hopp M.,Mundipharma Research GmbH and Co. KG |
Mundin G.,Mundipharma Research Ltd. |
Bond S.,University of Cambridge |
And 6 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2011
Objectives: This exploratory study in healthy volunteers investigated the effect of single doses of oxycodone on gastrointestinal (GI) transit time and the degree to which a single dose of naloxone reverses the oxycodone-induced effect. Methods: Fifteen healthy male volunteers received: oxycodone 10 and 20 mg, oxycodone/naloxone 10/5 and 20/10 mg (all as prolonged release tablets) and placebo. Each dose was radiolabelled and administered with a capsule containing radiolabelled resin (surrogate for GI contents). Results: Scintigraphic analysis showed that 20 mg oxycodone significantly increased colon arrival time (mean 7.19 vs 5.15 h for placebo, p = 0.0159). Mean colon arrival time for oxycodone/naloxone 20/10 mg (5.16 h) was similar to placebo, although the difference between oxycodone/naloxone 20/10 mg versus oxycodone 20 mg was not significant (p = 0.0653). Colonic geometric centre analysis showed a significant increase in mean time for the resin to reach the colon following oxycodone 10 and 20 mg compared with placebo (increases of 5.3 and 8.8 h). There was no significant effect of naloxone at the lower dose; however, oxycodone/naloxone 20/10 mg significantly reduced mean colonic transit time by 2.1 h (p = 0.0376). Conclusion: A single dose of oxycodone 20 mg significantly prolonged GI transit time but this effect was reduced by co-administration of naloxone. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Kim N.,LG Corp |
Patrick L.,Quotient Clinical |
Mair S.,Quotient Clinical |
Stevens L.,Quotient Clinical |
And 3 more authors.
Xenobiotica | Year: 2014
Gemigliptin (formerly known as LC15-0444) is a newly developed dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Following oral administration of 50mg (5.4MBq) [14C]gemigliptin to healthy male subjects, absorption, metabolism and excretion were investigated.A total of 90.5% of administered dose was recovered over 192hr postdose, with 63.4% from urine and 27.1% from feces. Based on urinary recovery of radioactivity, a minimum 63.4% absorption from gastrointestinal tract could be confirmed.Twenty-three metabolites were identified in plasma, urine and feces. In plasma, gemigliptin was the most abundant component accounting for 67.2%∼100% of plasma radioactivity. LC15-0636, a hydroxylated metabolite of gemigliptin, was the only human metabolite with systemic exposure more than 10% of total drug-related exposure. Unchanged gemigliptin accounted for 44.8%∼67.2% of urinary radioactivity and 27.7%∼51.8% of fecal radioactivity. The elimination of gemigliptin was balanced between metabolism and excretion through urine and feces. CYP3A4 was identified as the dominant CYP isozyme converting gemigliptin to LC15-0636 in recombinant CYP/FMO enzymes. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.
Sousa T.,University College London |
Yadav V.,University College London |
Zann V.,Quotient Clinical |
Borde A.,Astrazeneca |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014
Azo- bonded prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine)-sulfasalazine, balsalazide, and olsalazine, which are used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, rely on colonic bacteria to cleave the azo bond and liberate the active drug in the large intestine. The aim of this study was to use an in vitro colonic simulator to determine the rates of metabolism of these three prodrugs in the presence of colonic bacteria, and to link the data to results obtained previously in humans. In individual fecal slurries prepared from five different donors, sulfasalazine degradation was rapid and virtually complete within 4 h, confirming the ubiquitous nature of azo-reduction between individuals. In pooled fecal slurry, the rate of degradation of sulfasalazine was faster (t1/2 , 32.8 min) than balsalazide (t1/2 , 80.9 min) and olsalazine (t1/2 , 145.1 min). These results are in agreement with data in humans, where it was found that sulfasalazine was more extensively metabolized on passage through the human colon than the other two drugs. These findings indicate that other than the azo bond itself, the broader chemical structure of the molecules play a role in the degradation of this class of compound, and highlight the utility of this in vitro model to evaluate the metabolism of drugs in the presence of colonic microbiota. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
News Article | April 13, 2016
Quotient Clinical, the Translational Pharmaceutics company, has expanded its clinical spray drying capability through the acquisition of a Niro Mobile Minor Spray Dryer. Quotient has a proven track record of developing spray-dried dispersions to overcome drug compound solubility issues, and the addition of a larger scale spray dryer will allow the production of a range of batch sizes, from milligrams up to two kilograms. Sited at Quotient’s new GMP facility at MediCity in Nottingham, UK – scheduled to open later in 2016 – this expansion is a direct response to customer requests for ongoing product development support, including toxicology and later stage clinical studies. Nikki Whitfield, VP of Pharmaceutical Sciences, commented: “Poor solubility is increasingly prevalent in drug pipelines across the industry. We have established a broad suite of formulation approaches within our Translational Pharmaceutics platform to address these complex solubility and bioavailability challenges, and this latest investment will allow us to efficiently scale up the production of optimized formulations to support our clients’ downstream clinical development programs.”
Connor A.,Quotient Clinical |
Evans P.,Quotient Clinical
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition | Year: 2011
Danoprevir, a potent, selective inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, has a short half-life in humans. Therefore, the feasibility of a controlled release (CR) formulation to allow less frequent dosing was investigated using experimental approaches and physiological modeling to examine whether danoprevir is absorbed in the colon. Danoprevir absorption was studied in portal-vein-cannulated monkeys and in monkeys surgically modified to make intraduodenal, intrajejunal, intracolonic and oral administration possible. In portal-vein-cannulated monkeys, absorption was apparent up to 24 h after administration. The observed relative bioavailability from intracolonic delivery in the monkey was approximately 30% relative to oral administration, consistent with the model prediction of 40%. Human relative bioavailability for a tablet delivered to the colon compared with an immediate release (IR) formulation was predicted to be 4-28%. Preclinical data and modeling suggested that CR development would be challenging for this Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IV compound. Therefore, a confirmative study in healthy volunteers was conducted to investigate the relative bioavailability of danoprevir in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In a randomized, open-label, crossover study, subjects received 100 mg danoprevir IR soft gel capsule, 100 mg danoprevir solution delivered to the distal small bowel and colon via an Enterion™ capsule (a remotely activated capsule for regional drug delivery) and 100 mg danoprevir powder to the colon via an Enterion™ capsule. The relative bioavailability of danoprevir (compared with IR) delivered to the colon was 6.5% for a solution and 0.6% for a powder formulation, indicating that a CR formulation is not feasible. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PubMed | Quotient Clinical
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Therapeutic delivery | Year: 2015
Traditional formulation development studies involve expensive and time-consuming screening of prototypes in preclinical species to select lead systems for evaluation in human clinical pharmacokinetic studies. A new paradigm, Translational Pharmaceutics, has emerged to integrate pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and clinical functions to address these restrictions. Rapid Formulation development and Clinical Testing (RapidFACT) is applied to exploit the benefits of Translational Pharmaceutics in the clinical screening and optimization of drug products. Benefits are maximized by the adapted utilization of the concept of formulation design space. This article presents the experience of the application of design space within RapidFACT and is supported by data from over 200 formulations studied to date, including case studies on how the approach has been applied.
PubMed | Pfizer, Bend Research Inc. and Quotient Clinical
Type: | Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society | Year: 2016
Ziprasidone, like many BCS Class II drugs with low intrinsic solubility and a strong tendency to crystallize from supersaturated solutions, presents significant technical challenges when developing an oral controlled release dosage form. In order to achieve acceptable bioavailability and prolonged exposures for once-daily dosing, good colonic absorption and a reliable controlled release (CR) technology are necessary. To this end, a novel solubilized drug form--coated crystals made by spray drying (CCSD), was formulated and progressed into human clinical studies. This report describes studies of colonic absorption for the CCSD using the Enterion capsule and a pharmacoscintigraphy study in which the CCSD was orally administered via a radiolabelled osmotic tablet formulation. These studies demonstrated that the probability of achieving the required drug solubilization in the colon with the CCSD concept and thereby the desired once daily pharmacokinetic profile was extremely low.