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Hamden, CT, United States

Quinnipiac University /ˈkwɪnɨpiːæk/ is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university located in Hamden, Connecticut, United States at the foot of Sleeping Giant State Park. The university grants undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through its College of Arts and science; School of Business and Engineering; School of Communications; School of Health science; School of Law; School of Nursing and School of Education. U.S. News & World Report's 2013 America's Best Colleges issue has ranked Quinnipiac University first among northern universities with master's degree programs as having made the most promising and innovative changes in academics, faculty, campus or facilities. Quinnipiac is home to the well-known Quinnipiac University Polling Institute. Wikipedia.


Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg), B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission? © 2013 Wikel. Source


Brisson D.,University of Pennsylvania | Drecktrah D.,University of Montana | Eggers C.H.,Quinnipiac University | Samuels D.S.,University of Montana
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2012

The spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies group cycle in nature between tick vectors and vertebrate hosts. The current assemblage of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, of which three species cause Lyme disease in humans, originated from a rapid species radiation that occurred near the origin of the clade. All of these species share a unique genome structure that is highly segmented and predominantly composed of linear replicons. One of the circular plasmids is a prophage that exists as several isoforms in each cell and can be transduced to other cells, likely contributing to an otherwise relatively anemic level of horizontal gene transfer, which nevertheless appears to be adequate to permit strong natural selection and adaptation in populations of B. burgdorferi. Although the molecular genetic toolbox is meager, several antibiotic-resistant mutants have been isolated, and the resistance alleles, as well as some exogenous genes, have been fashioned into markers to dissect gene function. Genetic studies have probed the role of the outer membrane lipoprotein OspC, which is maintained in nature by multiple niche polymorphisms and negative frequency-dependent selection. One of the most intriguing genetic systems in B. burgdorferi is vls recombination, which generates antigenic variation during infection of mammalian hosts. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. Source


Gerald C.,Quinnipiac University
Anatomical Record | Year: 2015

Over the past two decades, computed tomography, CT, has become one of the most significant imaging modalities in clinical medicine. The hardware and software innovations responsible for the advances in image quality have also resulted in the desire to incorporate CT into mummy research. Although manufacturers have endeavored to simplify the operation of the equipment, the intended use has been primarily living humans and not dehydrated remains. However, with a thorough understanding of the underlying principles of the modality, including the limitations, and the consequences of the manipulation of technical settings, satisfactory results can be obtained. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Nicholson N.R.,Quinnipiac University
Journal of Primary Prevention | Year: 2012

Social isolation is a major and prevalent health problem among community-dwelling older adults, leading to numerous detrimental health conditions. With a high prevalence, and an increasing number of older persons, social isolation will impact the health, well-being, and quality of life of numerous older adults now and in the foreseeable future. For this review, a series of literature searches of the CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Medline databases were conducted, using the key words "social isolation," "social networks," "older adults," "elderly," "belonging," "perceived isolation," "social engagement," "social contacts," and "social integration," for the period of 1995-2010. The results show that there is an overabundance of evidence demonstrating numerous negative health outcomes and potential risk factors related to social isolation. However, there is scarce evidence that public health professionals are assessing social isolation in older persons, despite their unique access to very socially isolated, homebound older adults. Additionally, few viable interventions were found; therefore, it is advisable to focus on the prevention of social isolation in older adults. Public health professionals can take steps toward increasing the early assessment of social isolation and referring at-risk individuals to available community resourcesin ordertoprevent social isolation or further isolation, which would serve to reduce the numerous negative health outcomes associated with this condition. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Werth R.,Quinnipiac University
Theoretical Criminology | Year: 2012

Although parole and the processes of prisoner reentry have received considerable attention, how individuals on parole respond to the State's efforts to regulate their conduct and govern their personhood remains under theorized. Drawing from ethnographic research with individuals on parole, this article examines how parolees navigate the social control inherent in this penal practice. Parole entails both productive and repressive power; responsibilizing and de-responsibilizing elements. The parole agency's efforts to govern up-close-through supervision and regulation of everyday conduct-are frequently met with subversion, resistance, and hostility, while efforts to govern-at-a-distance are more productive. In general paroled subjects reproduce the injunction to transform their lives, becoming committed to 'going straight', ethical reformation, and responsible citizenship. This 'reformed subjectivity' guides how individuals enact parole, but does not reflect subjection or their full acquiescence to penal power. Rather, by engaging selectively with the rules, they render their conditions of parole malleable. These individuals on parole are committed to going straight but doing so, as much as possible, on their own terms. In this way, the reformed subjectivities they display both reflect and resist penal power. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

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