Islamabad, Pakistan
Islamabad, Pakistan

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Ud Din A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Abdel-Reheem M.A.T.,King Saud University | Abdel-Reheem M.A.T.,Ain Shams University | Ullah H.,Quid i Azam University | And 4 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013

Objectives: Onion and potato (Allium cepa and Solanum tuberosum) are most commonly used vegetables in Pakistan. Different samples of local variety of onion and potato were collected from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and few samples imported from Afghanistan. Methods: Heavy metal contents of these vegetable were analysed for Cr, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cd using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The order of metal contents was found to be Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd > Ni > Co in onion (local variety), and a similar pattern Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd was also observed in onion (imported variety). Conclusion: Higher content of Fe Zn were found in onion from Pakistan and Afghanistan respectively. Metal levels observed in vegetables were compared with WHO and established permissible levels reported by different authors. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd and Co are 45.9, 37.63, 6.76, 5.78, 2.26, 1.623, 0.745, 0.636 and 0.0950 respectively. The study concludes that the cultivation, transportation and marketing systems of vegetables may play a significant role in elevating the contaminant levels of heavy metals which may pose a threat to the quality of the vegetables with consequences for the health of the consumers of locally produced foodstuffs. The distribution and characterization of heavy metals in vegetables was studied in detail and discussed in this paper.


Khan S.A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Ali H.,Quid i Azam University | Ihsan A.,NIBGE | Sabir N.,Government College University at Faisalabad
Colloid Journal | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to control the size of gelatin nanoparticles under varied conditions of nanoprecipitation. The gelatin concentration in the solvent phase and different combination of nonsolvents was used to see influence on the size, polydispersity and recovery yield of produced nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles was determined by dynamic light scattering. The yield of gelatin nanoparticles after freezedrying was found gravimetrically. The morphology of nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results suggest that the size of nanoparticles can be tuned within a range 250–350 nm with low polydispersity index because of the inhibition of particle aggregation during crosslinking. The produced nanoparticles are of spherical shape with a smooth surface. We found that the recovery yield was also dependent on the gelatin concentration in the solvent phase. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Majeed I.,Quid i Azam University | Nadeem M.A.,Quid i Azam University | Nadeem M.A.,SABIC | Al-Oufi M.,SABIC | And 5 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2016

Photo-catalytic hydrogen production has been studied on Au supported CdS catalysts under visible light irradiation in order to understand the effect of Au particle size as well as the reaction medium properties. Au nanoparticles of size about 2-5nm were deposited over hexagonal CdS particles using a new simple method involving reduction of Au3+ ions with iodide ions. Within the investigated range of Au (between 1 and 5wt.%) fresh particles with mean size of 4nm and XPS Au4f/Cd3d surface ratio of 0.07 showed the highest performance (ca. 1 molecule of H2/Auatoms-1) under visible light irradiation (>420nm and a flux of 35mW/cm2). The highest hydrogen production rate was obtained from water (92%)-ethanol (8%) in an electrolyte medium (Na2S-Na2SO3). TEM studies of fresh and used catalysts showed that Au particle size increases (almost 5 fold) with increasing photo-irradiation time due to photo-agglomeration effect yet no sign of deactivation was observed. A mechanism for hydrogen production from ethanol-water electrolyte mixture is presented and discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Ashraf F.,Quid i Azam University | Ahmed S.,Quid i Azam University | Syed A.A.,Quid i Azam University | Naqvi Q.A.,Quid i Azam University
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics | Year: 2015

We study the scattering of time harmonic electromagnetic plane wave from a topological insulator circular cylinder in chiral medium. Variation of scattering behavior for different values of radii and permittivity of the cylinder is noted when time reversal symmetry is protected and we also studied the scattering behavior when time reversal symmetry is broken. Although scattering behavior of co-polarized component of field is not significantly different from chiral cylinder in chiral medium yet it is found that the same, when time reversal symmetry broken, is similar to scattering from a perfect conductors. Scattering behaviour of cross-polarized field component of topological cylinder in chiral medium is remarkably different from chiral cylinder i.e. it has stronger scattering possibly due to the presence of conducting states near the surface. Moreover, it is noted that the scattering in forward direction for cross-polarized and co-polarized components are not correlated with permittivity but for carefully selected values of permittivity, we can control the scattering behavior of topological insulator circular cylinder © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Umar M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Umar M.,University of Balochistan | Waseem A.,Quid i Azam University | Kassi A.M.,University of Balochistan | And 3 more authors.
Global Nest Journal | Year: 2014

Present investigation is an exertion to explore safe means of water for the community in the water scare region. In order to accomplish such goal origin of springs as well as chemical analyses of groundwater samples from different locations were carried out. Four zones are discovered on the basis of nature of water points, rock types and water chemistry. These zones are Hard Rocks Springs (HRS), Valley Springs (VS), Recharge Areas Aquifers (RAA) and Central Valley Aquifers (CVA). HRS are originated from thick successions of limestone (Kirthar Limestone) and thick packages of channelized sandstone and conglomerates of the Siwalik Group. It is recommended that Chiltan, Parh, Kirthar, Dhok Pathan and Soan formations may be focused for future needs of safe water supply in the Quetta valley. This study includes the analysis of different physico-chemical parameters such as Total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, turbidity, Electrical conductivity (EC), hydrochemical facies, Sodium Adsorption Ration (SAR), Sodium Percent (Na%), Kelleys Index (KI), Permeability Index (PI), major cations and anions to assess the quality of groundwater sources. The outcomes of groundwater analyses were equated with various drinking water standards e.g., NSDWQ-Pak, USEPA, and EU. The results are plotted for determination of lateral variations and to empathize the reasons of these variations. The affects of rock types, geological structures as well as anthropogenic causes on origin and results are discussed systematically. The hydrochemical facies identified show that the alkaline earth exceeds alkalies, strong acids exceeds weak acids, mixed type (no cation, anion exceeds 50%), no dominant cation and anion types but water of VS is calcium chloride and sulfate type. The water is classified as C2-S1 (HRS), C3-S1 (CVA & RAA) and C3-S2 (VS) based on SAR and EC values, which intend that most water samples can be used for irrigation safely except water samples collected from VS. Based on the Na% the water samples are categorized as excellent to good and good to permissible limits. The water is suitable for irrigation as all samples bear KI less than 1. The PI values in the water samples studied (less than 40) also contemplate that the water is desirable for irrigation use, although caution is needed of VS water. © 2014 Global NEST Printed in Greece. All rights reserved.


Rana S.M.,Quid i Azam University | Khan E.A.,Quid i Azam University | Yaqoob A.,Quid i Azam University | Latif A.A.,Lahore College for Women University | Abbasi M.M.,Quid i Azam University
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT In southern Punjab, Pakistan, Muzaffargarh District is known to have insecticideresistant Anopheles and drug-resistant Plasmodium spp. In this part of the country, five anopheline mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Anopheles culicifacies Giles, Anopheles fluviatilis James, Anopheles superpictus Grassi, and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) are known as malaria vectors. Among these, An. culicifacies is the primary and An. stephensi is the secondary malaria vector. Outbreaks of malaria usually occur after rainy episodes. We conducted field surveys to collect field strains of An. culicifacies and An. stephensi mosquitoes from different areas of Muzaffargarh District. We determined susceptibility and irritability levels of their adult stages to the discriminative dose of different insecticides. For this purpose, we used World Health Organization's established criteria for assessment. Mortality was calculated after 1 h exposure and for 24 h recovery period for various insecticides. An. stephensi was found to be significantly resistant to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, an organochlorine), dieldrin (a chlorinated hydrocarbon), and malathion (organophosphorus), with lethal times (LT50) of 83.17, 52.48, and 37.53, respectively. However, the species was significantly sensitive to permethrin, deltamethrin (pyrethroids), and fenitrothion (organophosphate) with LT50 of 2.85, 2.34, and 13.18, respectively. Among these, permethrin showed more promising results against adult An. stephensi. When analyzed for irritancy, we found that among pyrethroids, permethrin was the most irritant insecticide for both An. stephensi and An. culicifacies. DDT and dieldrin showed least irritancy with 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.77 ±0.12 takeoffs per minute per adult, respectively, against An. stephensi. The mean number of takeoffs per minute per adult with permethrin showed significant irritancy for permethrin when compared with DDT. Based on this study, we conclude that the use of organochlorine (DDT) and chlorinated hydrocarbon (dieldrin) should not be reintroduced in Malaria Control Programme in Pakistan until there is enough evidence to do so at any stage in future, and the use of pyrethroids should continue, with preference to permethrin for better control of malaria by indoor residual spraying. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


Ullah H.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Ullah H.,Quid i Azam University | Noreen S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Fozia,Khyber Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

The study was undertaken in order to determine heavy metal content in fifteen (n = 15) cosmetics products both imported and locally manufactured by unauthorized company marketed at district Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. An analytical test was performed for eight metals in cosmetics products using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The overall mean (n = 15) concentration for each heavy metal was analyzed i.e. Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn were 141.6 ± 0.016, 0.238 ± 0.001, 26.62 ± 0.012, 0.527 ± 0.002, 860.8 ± 0.061, 0.074 ± 0.002, 0.674 ± 0.002 and 268.6 ± 0.086 μg/g, respectively. The results of our study revealed that the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cu in the samples within each class under investigation were higher. It also emphasize that the spurious nature of these products cannot be ignored because most of the developing and under developed countries are facing the problems to manufacture good cosmetics products. Hence, are selling these products under the brand name of well reputed national and international companies. Since no safe limit relating to cosmetic products is available in Pakistan, it is therefore difficult to ascertain if the values of metals obtained in this study are too high or low. Prolonged use of such products containing these elements may pose threat to human health and could curb the beauty of the environment. © 2013.


Ahmad L.,Quid i Azam University | Ahmad L.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Jalali S.,Quid i Azam University | Shami S.A.,Quid i Azam University | And 3 more authors.
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2010

This study examined the effects of cryopreservation on DNA integrity of spermatozoa from 34 fertile subjects and 166 infertile subjects comprised of 80 teratospermic, 32 normospermic, 30 astheno-teratospermic, and 24 oligo-astheno-teratospermic individuals. Semen samples were prepared by swim-up and the Percoll density gradient centrifugation method (Pdgc) prior to freezing in liquid nitrogen. Neat and prepared samples were supplemented with cryoprotectant (SpermFreez) in cryoampoules and were frozen using the static phase vapor cooling procedure. Sperm DNA integrity of all thawed samples was determined using the alkaline comet assay. It was noticed that the sperm DNA integrity of frozen samples of fertile subjects was considerably higher than that of infertile subjects with greater catch-up integrity similar to the fresh samples. Freezing caused less chromatin damage to sperm of Pdgc samples from both fertile and infertile subjects as was compared to the neat and swim-up samples. It is concluded that the increase in comet frequency of frozen-thawed samples from infertile subjects was more prominent (8.25-22.78%; P<0.01) than in the fresh samples. Frozen-thawed samples from Ts (Teratospermic individuals) and ATs (Astheno-teratozoosspermic) showed higher level of OTM (Olive tail moment) indicating a higher level of chromatin fragmentation than fertile, Ns (Normospermics), and OATs (Oligo-astheno-teratozoospermics). © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


PubMed | Quid i Azam University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Systems biology in reproductive medicine | Year: 2010

This study examined the effects of cryopreservation on DNA integrity of spermatozoa from 34 fertile subjects and 166 infertile subjects comprised of 80 teratospermic, 32 normospermic, 30 astheno-teratospermic, and 24 oligo-astheno-teratospermic individuals. Semen samples were prepared by swim-up and the Percoll density gradient centrifugation method (Pdgc) prior to freezing in liquid nitrogen. Neat and prepared samples were supplemented with cryoprotectant (SpermFreez) in cryoampoules and were frozen using the static phase vapor cooling procedure. Sperm DNA integrity of all thawed samples was determined using the alkaline comet assay. It was noticed that the sperm DNA integrity of frozen samples of fertile subjects was considerably higher than that of infertile subjects with greater catch-up integrity similar to the fresh samples. Freezing caused less chromatin damage to sperm of Pdgc samples from both fertile and infertile subjects as was compared to the neat and swim-up samples. It is concluded that the increase in comet frequency of frozen-thawed samples from infertile subjects was more prominent (8.25-22.78%; P<0.01) than in the fresh samples. Frozen-thawed samples from Ts (Teratospermic individuals) and ATs (Astheno-teratozoosspermic) showed higher level of OTM (Olive tail moment) indicating a higher level of chromatin fragmentation than fertile, Ns (Normospermics), and OATs (Oligo-astheno-teratozoospermics).


Ullah H.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khattak N.U.,University of Peshawar | Fozia,Khyber Medical University | Ali N.,PINSTICS | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2013

Fission Track Technique has been applied for the estimation of uranium in 30 drinking water sources of Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati and District Karak, Pakistan. These samples have mean, minimum and maximum concentration of uranium of 13.45 ± 3.207, 1.07 ± 0.6, 84.23 ± 15.63 μg l -1, respectively. The significant finding was the observation of very high level of uranium in drinking water sources obtained from uranium rich bedrocks than the safe limit of WHO (15 μg l-1) for human consumption. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that the origin of uranium is potentially due to one of the Asia richest mineral deposit of uranium in Union council (UC) Shanawa Gudi Khel (Karak, Pakistan). The results could be of vital concern in diagnosis and prognosis of uranium induced disease in the local population under investigation.

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