Meloni-Ehrig A.M.,Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics | Year: 2010
Cytogenetic and related changes in human cancer constitute part of a constantly developing and enlarging continuum of known genetic alterations associated with cancer development and biology. The cytogenetic component of this continuum has fulfilled much of its pioneering role and now constitutes a small but dynamic segment of the vast literature on cancer genetics, in which it has played an important if not initiating role. The goals of this article are (a) to address historical and methodological aspects of cancer cytogenetics; (b) to present information on diagnostic translocations in leukemias, lymphomas, bone and soft tissue tumors, and carcinomas; (c) to connect some of these chromosomal aberrations with their molecular equivalents; and (d) to describe anomalies in some solid tumors indicative of the complexity of the genomic alterations in cancer. We also look at a few of the more recent genomic developments in cancer and offer an opinion as to what all these findings add up to. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Sanders H.R.,Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics | Year: 2010
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for approximately 85% of cases. A significant proportion of NSCLC cases are not diagnosed until a late stage, when aggressive treatments are required but often prolong survival only modestly. Recent advances in molecular characterization of NSCLC have enabled identification of numerous cell growth and proliferation pathways that are disrupted in these tumors. This knowledge has provided insight into the mechanisms of tumor development in various histologic subtypes of NSCLC and has pointed the way toward targeted treatment strategies. In this review, we highlight literature findings of somatic mutations in genes involved in cell growth and proliferation that are commonly found in the various subtypes of NSCLC, and we discuss how these findings may relate to treatment strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakamoto J.M.,Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011
Objective: To estimate the screening rate and prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the screening rate and prevalence of postpartum diabetes, in a large, national sample of pregnant women. We also estimated the potential effects of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups recommendations, which replace the 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with the 75-g OGTT, on GDM prevalence and gestational plasma glucose testing practices. Methods: We identified pregnant women who used the laboratory services of Quest Diagnostics and who were screened for GDM and were tested postpartum. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence was calculated according to the current American Diabetes Association/ Carpenter-Coustan criteria, and the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Results: Sixty-eight percent (632,820/924,873) of pregnant women aged 25 to 40 (ie, those not in a low-risk age group) who utilized the services of Quest Diagnostics during this study were screened for GDM. Of the entire adult pregnant population (ages 18-40) who received GDM screening, 5% (40,955/842,993) had positive test results under the current criteria. Nineteen percent (4,486/23,299) of those with GDM received postpartum diabetes testing within a 6-month period. Ninety percent (148,749/166,085) of all confirmatory GDM tests performed on pregnant women at Quest Diagnostics were the 100-g OGTT. The number of women with GDM after receiving the 75-g OGTT would have doubled under the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Conclusion: Many women may not be receiving GDM screening during pregnancy. Postpartum diabetes screening rates after pregnancy remain low. Adoption of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria would require a significant change in current clinical practice. © 2010 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Stanczyk F.Z.,University of Southern California |
Clarke N.J.,Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010
Although steroid hormones have been measured, primarily in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays for many years, in the past decade both clinical and research laboratories have dramatically increased usage of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays for measuring circulating levels of steroid hormones. Because of their high validity and throughput, mass spectrometry (MS) assays have replaced conventional radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and direct immunoassays for steroid hormones in larger reference laboratories, and they are touted to become the " gold standard" for steroid hormone quantitation. These advances in MS assays present several major challenges, which include the affordability of smaller laboratories to purchase MS instruments and pay for related operating costs; improving assay sensitivity, especially for measuring low estradiol levels in postmenopausal women and women treated with aromatase inhibitors; developing assays for quantitating profiles of steroid hormone metabolites in serum and tissues; standardizing steroid MS assays; and obtaining reliable reference intervals. The present review discusses the advantages of MS assays over conventional RIAs and direct immunoassays in steroid hormone measurements, and points out some of the important challenges facing the rapid increase in usage of MS assays. © 2010.
Pesano R.L.,Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2012
Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment are providing physicians with new options for managing patients with chronic HCV infection. The potential of these new technologies, however, can only be fully realized in the US if surveillance of new cases is improved; this can be achieved by establishing and implementing comprehensive test reporting requirements and by ensuring that physicians have a good understanding of appropriate test ordering and interpretation. Harmonized reporting standards, combined with physician education, will lead to improved identification of infected individuals and increased timeliness of medical interventions. ©2012 International Medical Press.