Santiago de Queretaro, Mexico
Santiago de Queretaro, Mexico

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Chavez F.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Ruiz A.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo
Journal of Composite Materials | Year: 2017

Low-velocity impact response of glass/epoxy composite plates and fiber metal laminates with and without holes is investigated. The critical parameters that affect the delamination characteristics of laminates are impact energy, holes separation distance, type and directionality of fibers. An experimental investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effect of the presence of holes and the incorporation of aluminum layers in the extent of delamination. The extent of damage introduced during the impact event was observed on images obtained from C-scan non-destructive ultrasonic technique. Results indicate that fiber metal laminate made with aluminum layers exhibits an improved dynamic response in comparison with that of conventional laminates. The beneficial effect of using aluminum layers to reduce the extent of delamination produced by impact loading especially on laminates with holes is demonstrated. Furthermore, fiber metal laminates show better load carrying capability than conventional composite plates. The better response of fiber metal laminate with multidirectional fabric in comparison with fiber metal laminate with woven fabric is also examined. These results may be useful to better design the location of holes in composite structures. © SAGE Publications.

Montes L.G.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Ricardo-Garcell J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | de la Torre L.B.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Fernandez-Bouzas A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Acosta D.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown decreased caudate volumes in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most of these studies have been carried out in male children. Very little research has been done in adults, and the results obtained in children are difficult to extrapolate to adults. We sought to compare the volume of the caudate of adults with ADHD with that of healthy controls; we also compared these volumes between men and women. Methods: We performed an MRI scan on 20 adults with ADHD (10 men and 10 women) aged 25-35 years and 20 healthy controls matched by age and sex. We used voxel-based morphometry with the DARTEL algorithm for image analyses. We used the specifically designed Friederichsen, Almeida, Serrano, Cortes Test (FASCT) to measure the severity of ADHD; both the self-reported (FASCT-SR) and the observer (FASCT-O) versions were used. Results: The statistical parametric map showed a smaller region with low grey matter volume and a smaller concentration of grey matter in this region of the right caudate in ADHD patients than in health controls, both in the entire sample and within each sex. There was a significant correlation between the volume of this region of the caudate with the number of DSM IV-TR criteria, as well as with the total scores and most of the factors of the FASCT-SR and FASCT-O scales. A separate correlation analysis by sex gave similar results. Limitations: The study design was cross-sectional. Conclusion: The region of the right caudate with low grey matter volume was smaller in adults with ADHD in both sexes and was correlated with ADHD severity. © 2010 Canadian Medical Association.

Cardador-Martinez A.,Research Center Asistencia Tecnologia Diseno del Estado Jalisco | Cardador-Martinez A.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Jimenez-Martinez C.,Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas IPN | Sandoval G.,Research Center Asistencia Tecnologia Diseno del Estado Jalisco
Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos | Year: 2011

Recently, an increased interest in antioxidant activity and health-improving capacity of cactus pear has been registered. The antioxidant capacity of the pulp of cactus-pear fruits has been previously assessed. In this work, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins of peel and seeds of four cactus pear cultivars were examined as well as their antioxidant capacity. Tannins were the major phenolics in cactus pear seeds accounting for almost fifty percent for all cultivars. Analysis of variance revealed that ripeness, cultivar, and its interaction had highly significant effect on the total phenolics, tannin, and flavonoid contents of cactus pear peel. With regard to the seeds, only the stage of ripeness and interaction (ripeness stage × cultivar) were significant on total phenolics and tannins contents. The flavonoid content in seeds was not affected by any of the factors or their interactions. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the peel than in the seeds. Generally, fruits with light-green or yellow-brown peel have higher antiradical activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values compared with those with red-purple peel. Cactus pear by-products can indeed be exploited as a good and cheap source of natural antioxidants.

Espindola-Gonzalez A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez-Hernandez A.L.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Angeles-Chavez C.,Mexican Institute of Petroleum | Castano V.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Velasco-Santos C.,Queretaro Institute of Technology
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2010

The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids (Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product (humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure. © 2010 The Author(s).

Bustos-Ramirez K.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez-Hernandez A.L.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Martinez-Hernandez A.L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez-Barrera G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 4 more authors.
Materials | Year: 2013

Carbon nanostructures have played an important role in creating a new field of materials based on carbon. Chemical modification of carbon nanostructures through grafting has been a successful step to improve dispersion and compatibility in solvents, with biomolecules and polymers to form nanocomposites. In this sense carbohydrates such as chitosan are extremely valuable because their functional groups play an important role in diversifying the applications of carbon nanomaterials. This paper reports the covalent attachment of chitosan onto graphene oxide, taking advantage of this carbohydrate at the nanometric level. Grafting is an innovative route to modify properties of graphene, a two-dimensional nanometric arrangement, which is one of the most novel and promising nanostructures. Chitosan grafting was achieved by redox reaction using different temperature conditions that impact on the morphology and features of graphene oxide sheets. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman and Energy Dispersive spectroscopies were used to study the surface of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide. Results show a successful modification indicated by the functional groups found in the grafted material. Dispersions of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide samples in water and hexane revealed different behavior due to the chemical groups attached to the graphene oxide sheet. © 2013 by the authors.

Saucedo-Rivalcoba V.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez-Hernandez A.L.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Martinez-Barrera G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Velasco-Santos C.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Castano V.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2011

Actually, chicken feathers are considered as waste from the poultry industry; however, 90% of feather structure is constituted by a protein called keratin. In this research, the properties of feather keratin and polyurethane are combined in order to synthesize hybrid synthetic-natural membranes. Both polymers are linked by urethane bonds which are similar to peptide bonds found in proteins. Keratin is incorporated onto the polyurethane matrix by dissolving protein in a salt solution (urea and 2-mercaptoethanol) at different concentrations: 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21% (w/w). In order to know the effect of urea on membranes, keratin is incorporated to polyurethane in two ways; as keratin salt solution and after dialyzing. Both membrane types were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to observe their morphologic changes. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used to study membrane structures. Results show that keratin is grafted in polyurethane and, therefore, there is an influence of amino acids through the amino and carboxylic groups (NH and COOH) into the synthetic polymer structure. According with characterization results, the obtained membranes are functional materials that can be useful in diverse applications, among them the separation process can be emphasized. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Rangel-Vazquez N.A.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Leal-Garcia T.,Queretaro Institute of Technology
Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society | Year: 2010

The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work, surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modifications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR. © 2010, Sociedad Química de México.

Arora P.K.,Chandigarh Institute of Microbial Technology | Arora P.K.,Central University of Costa Rica | Sharma A.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Mehta R.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos | And 3 more authors.
Microbial Cell Factories | Year: 2012

Background: Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however.Results: A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP) and 2-aminophenol (2AP) as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil.Conclusions: Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i) the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii) the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium. © 2012 Arora et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Dodero J.M.,University of Cádiz | del Val A.M.,University of Cádiz | Torres J.,Queretaro Institute of Technology
Journal of Visual Languages and Computing | Year: 2010

Learning management systems (LMS) provide an operational environment in which an online course can be created and later executed. Inter-operation between creators and their authoring facilities, and the LMS execution engine are based on defining standards and specifications, such as the IMS Learning Design (LD). Because an LMS better serves as a course player than as a course creator, a large number of approaches and environments for standards-compliant course authoring have been developed. These approaches and environments propose a number of issues that deal with how adaptations are edited and how to define the connection of learning activities with external learning applications and services. These questions have raised concern, mostly because of the excessive commitment of the creators' methods and tools used with an educational modeling language, as well as the isolation of the language used to describe the course from the host LMS. This work describes an abstract, extendible language used to specify the learning design of a course, which can be transformed into any LD language as required by the execution environment. The language is used from a generative authoring environment that offers the possibility of editing web services as an additional resource to assess learning activities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Xaman J.,CENIDET | Mejia G.,Queretaro Institute of Technology | Alvarez G.,CENIDET | Chavez Y.,CENIDET
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2010

A theoretical study on conjugated heat transfer (natural convection, radiation and conduction) in a square cavity with turbulent flow is presented. The cavity is a representation of a room, where the left wall is isothermal, the right wall is semitransparent (glass), the lower wall is considered as insulated and on the upper opaque wall heat conduction is present. Both conductive walls (opaque and semitransparent) interact with the ambient. The semitransparent wall is subject to a constant heat flux (G2 = 736 W/m2) whereas on the opaque wall a constant heat flux (G1 = 875 W/m2) falls perpendicularly. The sizes of the cavity under study were 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and 2.0 m. The upper opaque wall was considered as a mixture of concrete and a composite material (concrete-expanded polystyrene) with different thicknesses and diverse types of water-repellent coatings on top of it. From the results, it was found that the white coating on top of the opaque wall significantly reduces the amount of energy towards the inside of the cavity. It was also determined that the opaque wall with a 20 cm thickness shows the best thermal performance and it is the most adequate to reduce thermal gains inside the cavity. Correlations for the total heat transfer as a function of the cavity size, the type of coating and material of the opaque upper wall are proposed. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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