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Queensland University of Technology is a research university in Brisbane, Australia. QUT is located on three campuses in the Brisbane area: Gardens Point, Kelvin Grove, and Caboolture. The university has approximately 35,000 undergraduate students and 5,000 post graduate students, of which 6,000 are international students. It has over 4 000 staff members, and an annual budget of more than AU$750 million.QUT ranks within the top 10 Australian Universities and the upper 3 per cent world-wide. QUT has been ranked as Australia's best university under 50 years of age by the Times Higher Education Top 100, and ranks 26th globally in that category. The university in its current form was founded 1989, when the then Queensland Institute of Technology merged with the Brisbane College of Advanced Education. Wikipedia.


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2013

Type 2 diabetes remains an escalating problem worldwide, despite a range of treatments being available. The revelation that insulin secretion is under the control of a gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1, has led to a new paradigm in the management of type 2 diabetes, ie, use of medicines that directly stimulate or prolong the actions of endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 at its receptors. Exenatide is an agonist at the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, and was initially developed as a subcutaneous medication twice daily (ExBID). Clinical trials with ExBID established a role for exenatide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Subsequently, exenatide once weekly (ExQW) was shown to have advantages over ExBID, and there is now more emphasis on the development of ExQW. ExQW alone reduces glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight, and is well tolerated. ExQW has been compared with sitagliptin, pioglitazone, and metformin, and been shown to have a greater ability to reduce HbA1c than these other medicines. The only preparation of insulin with which ExQW has been compared is insulin glargine, and ExQW had some favorable properties in this comparison, notably causing weight loss compared with the weight gain on insulin glargine. ExQW has been compared with another glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, liraglutide, and was noninferior to liraglutide in reducing HbA1c. The small amount of evidence available shows that subjects with type 2 diabetes prefer ExQW to ExBID, and that adherence is high in the clinical trial setting. Health care and economic modeling suggests that ExQW will reduce diabetic complications and be cost-effective, compared with other medications, in long-term use. Little is known about whether subjects with type 2 diabetes prefer ExQW to other medicines, and whether adherence is good with ExQW in practice. These important topics require further study. © 2013 Doggrell, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source


Steindl R.J.,Queensland University of Technology
International Sugar Journal | Year: 2011

Fermentation feedstocks in the sugar industry are based on cane juice, B molasses or final molasses. Brazil has been producing ethanol by directing sugarcane juice to fermentation directly or using lower quality juice as a diluent with B molasses to prepare the fermentation broth. One issue that has received only limited interest particularly from outside Brazil is the most appropriate conditions for clarification of the juice going to fermentation. Irrespective of whether the juice supply is the total flow from the milling tandem or a diffuser station or a part of the total flow, removal of the insoluble solids is essential. However, the standard defecation process used by sugar factories around the world to clarify juice can introduce unwanted calcium ions and remove other nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen that are considered essential for the fermentation process. An investigation was undertaken by SRI to assess the effects on the constituents of cane juice when subjected to the typical clarification process in an Australian factory and what conditions would be needed to provide a clarified juice suitable for fermentation. Typical juices from one factory were clarified in laboratory trials under a range of pH conditions and the resulting clarified juices analysed. The results indicated that pH had a major effect on the residual concentrations of key constituents in the clarified juice and that the selected clarification conditions are determined by the nominated quality criteria of clarified juice feedstock for fermentation. Further trials were conducted in overseas factories to confirm the results obtained in Australia. It became apparent that the preferred specifications for clarified juice going to fermentation varied from country to country. Each supplier of fermentation technology had criteria applying to clarified juice feedstock that would have a major impact on the standard of clarification required to achieve compliance with the criteria. Source


Recker J.,Queensland University of Technology
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2013

Process modeling grammars are used to create scripts of a business domain that a process-aware information system is intended to support. A key grammatical construct of such grammars is known as a Gateway. A Gateway construct is used to describe scenarios in which the workflow of a process diverges or converges according to relevant conditions. Gateway constructs have been subjected to much academic discussion about their meaning, role and usefulness, and have been linked to both process-modeling errors and process-model understandability. This paper examines perceptual discriminability effects of Gateway constructs on an individual's abilities to interpret process models. We compare two ways of expressing two convergence and divergence patterns-Parallel Split and Simple Merge-implemented in a process modeling grammar. On the basis of an experiment with 98 students, we provide empirical evidence that Gateway constructs aid the interpretation of process models due to a perceptual discriminability effect, especially when models are complex. We discuss the emerging implications for research and practice, in terms of revisions to grammar specifications, guideline development and design choices in process modeling. © 2013 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Bruns A.,Queensland University of Technology
First Monday | Year: 2013

The promise of 'big data' has generated a significant deal of interest in the development of new approaches to research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as a range of important critical interventions which warn of an unquestioned rush to 'big data'. Drawing on the experiences made in developing innovative 'big data' approaches to social media research, this paper examines some of the repercussions for the scholarly research and publication practices of those researchers who do pursue the path of 'big data'-centric investigation in their work. As researchers import the tools and methods of highly quantitative, statistical analysis from the 'hard' sciences into computational, digital humanities research, must they also subscribe to the language and assumptions underlying such 'scientificity'? If so, how does this affect the choices made in gathering, processing, analysing, and disseminating the outcomes of digital humanities research? In particular, is there a need to rethink the forms and formats of publishing scholarly work in order to enable the rigorous scrutiny and replicability of research outcomes? © First Monday, 1995-2013. Source


Hopkins M.,University of Leeds | Blundell J.E.,University of Leeds | King N.A.,Queensland University of Technology
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Background While compensatory eating following acute aerobic exercise is highly variable, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the alterations in exercise-induced eating behaviour. Methods Overweight and obese women (body mass index=29.6±4.0 kg/m2) performed a bout of cycling individually tailored to expend 400 kcal (EX) or a timematched no exercise control condition in a randomised, counter-balanced order. 60 min after the cessation of exercise, an ad libitum test meal was provided. Substrate oxidation and subjective appetite ratings were measured during exercise/time-matched rest, and during the period between the cessation of exercise and food consumption. Results While ad libitum energy intake (EI) did not differ between EX and the control condition (666.0 ±203.9 vs 664.6±174.4 kcal, respectively; ns), there was a marked individual variability in compensatory EI. The difference in EI between EX and the control condition ranged from -234.3 to 278.5 kcal. Carbohydrate oxidation during exercise was positively associated with postexercise EI, accounting for 37% of the variance in EI (r=0.57; p=0.02). Conclusions These data indicate that the capacity of acute exercise to create a short-term energy deficit in overweight and obese women is highly variable. Furthermore, exercise-induced CHO oxidation can explain a part of the variability in acute exercise-induced compensatory eating. Postexercise compensatory eating could serve as an adaptive response to facilitate the restoration of carbohydrate balance. Source


Lave and Wenger’s legitimate peripheral participation is an important aspect of online learning environments. It is common for teachers to scaffold varying levels of online participation in Web 2.0 contexts, such as online discussion forums and blogs. This study argues that legitimate peripheral participation needs to be redefined in response to students’ decentralised multiple interactions and non-linear engagement in hyperlinked learning environments. The study examines students’ levels of participation in online learning through theories of interactivity, distinguishing between five levels of student participation in the context of a first-year university course delivered via a learning management system. The data collection was implemented through two instruments: i) a questionnaire about students’ interactivity perception in the online reflective learning (n = 238) and then ii) an open discussion on the reason for the diverse perceptions of interactivity (n = 34). The study findings indicate that student participants, other than those who were active, need high levels of teacher or moderator intervention, which better enables legitimate peripheral participation to occur in online learning contexts. © 2014 Association for Information Technology in Teacher Education. Source


Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Li S.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The new simple, cost effective and well performing differential pulse stripping voltammetry method for the simultaneous determination of antibiotics - oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlorotetracycline was researched and developed. It depends on the reduction of these compounds at a hanging mercury drop electrode. The samples were extracted from (i) spiked animal feed, and (ii) fresh fish muscle dosed with the drugs. The voltammograms from the drug mixture produced complex, overlapping profiles, and chemometrics methods were applied for calibration modelling. The analytical linear ranges were within 0.02-0.18μgmL-1 and the corresponding LODs were 3-5μgL-1 for the three analytes. These values compare well with those from the HPLC and fluorescence methods in the literature. The % relative prediction errors from the verification trials were between 4% and 9% with % Recoveries being 103-107. Also, the % Recoveries of the antibiotics from animal feeds as measured by the new method were comparable with those from the HPLC analysis (85%), i.e. the method is highly competitive, especially as a screening approach. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cheung A.,Queensland University of Technology | Vickerstaff R.,Agresearch Ltd.
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2010

Successful navigation is fundamental to the survival of nearly every animal on earth, and achieved by nervous systems of vastly different sizes and characteristics. Yet surprisingly little is known of the detailed neural circuitry from any species which can accurately represent space for navigation. Path integration is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous navigation strategies in the animal kingdom. Despite a plethora of computational models, from equational to neural network form, there is currently no consensus, even in principle, of how this important phenomenon occurs neurally. Recently, all path integration models were examined according to a novel, unifying classification system. Here we combine this theoretical framework with recent insights from directed walk theory, and develop an intuitive yet mathematically rigorous proof that only one class of neural representation of space can tolerate noise during path integration. This result suggests many existing models of path integration are not biologically plausible due to their intolerance to noise. This surprising result imposes significant computational limitations on the neurobiological spatial representation of all successfully navigating animals, irrespective of species. Indeed, noise-tolerance may be an important functional constraint on the evolution of neuroarchitectural plans in the animal kingdom. © 2010 Cheung, Vickerstaff. Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2015

Several new medicines are in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular outcome trials are the gold standard for these medicines. This editorial demonstrates that despite being available for over 10 years, there are no cardiovascular outcome studies for any of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, which demonstrate cardiovascular safety or benefit in subjects with high cardiovascular risk. The author argues that the FDA should be ensuring that clinical outcome studies for subjects with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk be undertaken in a timelier manner. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Hoang V.-N.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2014

This article integrates the material/energy flow analysis into a production frontier framework to quantify resource efficiency (RE). The emergy content of natural resources instead of their mass content is used to construct aggregate inputs. Using the production frontier approach, aggregate inputs will be optimised relative to given output quantities to derive RE measures. This framework is superior to existing RE indicators currently used in the literature. Using the exergy/emergy content in constructing aggregate material or energy flows overcomes a criticism that mass content cannot be used to capture different quality of differing types of resources. Derived RE measures are both 'qualitative' and 'quantitative', whereas existing RE indicators are only qualitative. An empirical examination into the RE of 116 economies was undertaken to illustrate the practical applicability of the new framework. The results showed that economies, on average, could reduce the consumption of resources by more than 30% without any reduction in per capita gross domestic product (GDP). This calculation occurred after adjustments for differences in the purchasing power of national currencies. The existence of high variations in RE across economies was found to be positively correlated with participation of people in labour force, population density, urbanisation, and GDP growth over the past five years. The results also showed that economies of a higher income group achieved higher RE, and those economies that are more dependent on imports and primary industries would have lower RE performance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Xia Z.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of pyrocatechol, resorcin, hydroquinone and phenol based on their inhibitory effect on the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in acid medium at pH=3.0. A linear relationship was observed between the inhibitory effect and the concentrations of the compounds. The absorbance associated with the kinetic reactions was monitored at the maximum wavelength of 557nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, concentration of RhB and KBrO3, and temperature of the reaction were investigated and optimum conditions were established. The linear ranges were 0.22-3.30, 0.108-0.828, 0.36-3.96 and 1.52-19.76μgmL-1 for pyrocatechol, resorcin, hydroquinone and phenol, respectively, and their corresponding detection limits were 0.15, 0.044, 0.16 and 0.60μgmL-1. The measured data were processed by several chemometrics methods, such as principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN), and a set of synthetic mixtures of these compounds was used to verify the established models. It was found that the prediction ability of PLS, PCR and RBF-ANN was similar, however, the RBF-ANN model did perform somewhat better than the other methods. The proposed method was also applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous determination of pyrocatechol, resorcin, hydroquinone and phenol in real water samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kumar P.,University of Surrey | Morawska L.,Queensland University of Technology
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

While concrete recycling is practiced worldwide, there are many unanswered questions in relation to ultrafine particle (UFP; Dp<100nm) emissions and exposure around recycling sites. In particular: (i) Does recycling produce UFPs and in what quantities? (ii) How do they disperse around the source? (iii) What impact does recycling have on ambient particle number concentrations (PNCs) and exposure? (iv) How effective are commonly used dust respirators to limit exposure? We measured size-resolved particles in the 5-560nm range at five distances between 0.15 and 15.15m that were generated by an experimentally simulated concrete recycling source and found that: (i) the size distributions were multimodal, with up to ~93% of total PNC in the UFP size range; and (ii) dilution was a key particle transformation mechanism. UFPs showed a much slower decay rate, requiring ~62% more distance to reach 10% of their initial concentration compared with their larger counterparts in the 100-560nm size range. Compared with typical urban exposure during car journeys, exposure decay profiles showed up to ~5 times higher respiratory deposition within 10m of the source. Dust respirators were found to remove half of total PNC; however the removal factor for UFPs was only ~57% of that observed in the 100-560nm size range. These findings highlight a need for developing an understanding of the nature of the particles as well as for better control measures to limit UFP exposure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sun R.,Nanchang University | Wang Y.,Nanchang University | Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Talanta | Year: 2014

A novel, highly selective resonance light scattering (RLS) method was researched and developed for the analysis of phenol in different types of industrial water. An important aspect of the method involved the use of graphene quantum dots (GQDs), which were initially obtained from the pyrolysis of citric acid dissolved in aqueous solutions. The GQDs in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H2O2 were found to react quantitatively with phenol such that the RLS spectral band (310 nm) was quantitatively enhanced as a consequence of the interaction between the GQDs and the quinone formed in the above reaction. It was demonstrated that the novel analytical method had better selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of phenol in water as compared to other analytical methods found in the literature. Thus, trace amounts of phenol were detected over the linear ranges of 6.00×10-8-2.16×10-6 M and 2.40×10-6-2.88×10-5 M with a detection limit of 2.20×10-8 M. In addition, three different spiked waste water samples and two untreated lake water samples were analysed for phenol. Satisfactory results were obtained with the use of the novel, sensitive and rapid RLS method. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Visser T.A.W.,University of Queensland | Ohan J.L.,Queensland University of Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: When observers are asked to identify two targets in rapid sequence, they often suffer profound performance deficits for the second target, even when the spatial location of the targets is known. This attentional blink (AB) is usually attributed to the time required to process a previous target, implying that a link should exist between individual differences in information processing speed and the AB. Methodology/Principal Findings: The present work investigated this question by examining the relationship between a rapid automatized naming task typically used to assess information-processing speed and the magnitude of the AB. The results indicated that faster processing actually resulted in a greater AB, but only when targets were presented amongst high similarity distractors. When target-distractor similarity was minimal, processing speed was unrelated to the AB. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings indicate that information-processing speed is unrelated to target processing efficiency per se, but rather to individual differences in observers' ability to suppress distractors. This is consistent with evidence that individuals who are able to avoid distraction are more efficient at deploying temporal attention, but argues against a direct link between general processing speed and efficient information selection. © 2012 Visser, Ohan. Source


Menicucci N.C.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Ma X.,University of Queensland | Ralph T.C.,University of Queensland | Ralph T.C.,Queensland University of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We present a compact experimental design for producing an arbitrarily large optical continuous-variable cluster state using just one single-mode vacuum squeezer and one quantum nondemolition gate. Generating the cluster state and computing with it happen simultaneously: more entangled modes become available as previous modes are measured, thereby making finite the requirements for coherence and stability even as the computation length increases indefinitely. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Langton C.M.,Queensland University of Technology
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2012

Lumpectomy followed by whole breast radiation therapy (i.e. breast conservation therapy (BCT)) is the standard of care for management of early stage breast cancer. However, its utilization has not been maximized because of a number of reasons including the logistic issues associated with the 5-6. weeks of radiation treatment. Also, pathological and clinical data suggest that most ipsilateral breast cancer recurrences are in the vicinity of the lumpectomy. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2. cm margin, rather than the whole breast with higher doses of radiation in a shorter period of time. There has been growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed and are under phase I-III clinical studies. This paper reviews external beam conformal radiation therapy (EBCRT) as a possible technique to APBI. The various EBCRT approaches such as 3D conformal radiation therapy, IMRT, proton therapy, tomotherapy, and volumetric arc therapy are discussed. Issues with the implementation of these techniques such as target volume delineation and organ motion are also presented. It is evident that EBCRT has potential for APBI of a selected group of early breast cancer patient. However, issues with setup errors and breathing motions need to be adequately addressed. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Bruza P.D.,Queensland University of Technology | Wang Z.,Ohio State University | Busemeyer J.R.,Indiana University
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2015

What type of probability theory best describes the way humans make judgments under uncertainty and decisions under conflict? Although rational models of cognition have become prominent and have achieved much success, they adhere to the laws of classical probability theory despite the fact that human reasoning does not always conform to these laws. For this reason we have seen the recent emergence of models based on an alternative probabilistic framework drawn from quantum theory. These quantum models show promise in addressing cognitive phenomena that have proven recalcitrant to modeling by means of classical probability theory. This review compares and contrasts probabilistic models based on Bayesian or classical versus quantum principles, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Miao X.,Queensland University of Technology | Sun D.,University of Ulster
Materials | Year: 2010

Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young's moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. © 2010 by the authors. Source


Fisher D.E.,Queensland University of Technology
Environmental and Planning Law Journal | Year: 2010

The status of rights and interests in relation to water has never been unambiguous. Are they rights of access, of use or of property? Is the status of individual rights the same as the status of the statutory rights of the State to the use and control of water? Much depends upon which stage of the hydrological cycle is relevant: water in its natural state, water stored in a reservoir, water piped to a distant destination, or water contained in a receptacle. The High Court has recently addressed some of these issues in the context of s 51(xxxi) of the Commonwealth Constitution restricting acquisition of property to acquisition on just terms. In undertaking this analysis the High Court has revealed an interesting range of approaches to legal reasoning. This article seeks to review some of these issues. Source


Srinivasan M.V.,Queensland University of Technology
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2010

Among the so-called simpler organisms, the honey bee is one of the few examples of an animal with a highly evolved social structure, a rich behavioral repertoire, an exquisite navigational system, an elaborate communication system, and an extraordinary ability to learn colors, shapes, fragrances, and navigational routes quickly and accurately. This review examines vision and complex visually mediated behavior in the honey bee, outlining the structure and function of the compound eyes, the perception and discrimination of colors and shapes, the learning of complex tasks, the ability to establish and exploit complex associations, and the capacity to abstract general principles from a task and apply them to tackle novel situations. All this is accomplished by a brain that weighs less than a milligram and carries fewer than a million neurons, thus making the bee a promising subject in which to study a variety of fundamental questions about behavior and brain function. © 2010 by Annual Reviews All rights reserved. Source


Abbosh A.M.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2012

A method to design microstrip bandpass filters with ultra-wideband (UWB) performance, wide stopband, and practical dimensions is presented. According to the proposed method, three subsections of different lengths and coupling factors are connected to form a stepped-impedance parallel-coupled microstrip structure. A theoretical model is derived and used to find the optimum length and coupling factor for each of those subsections for an UWB passband and suppressed second and third harmonic responses in the stopband. The required performance is realized by generating and proper positioning of three transmission zeros in the upper stopband and three transmission poles in the passband. The derived model shows that the total length of the three-subsection coupled structure is one-third of the effective wavelength at the center of the passband. The theoretical model is used to find the required design values for the whole structure. The presented method is validated by building a bandpass filter that has a passband from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz with less than 1-dB insertion loss and a wide upper stopband that extends up to 28 GHz. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Martins C.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Kulseng B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | King N.A.,Queensland University of Technology | Holst J.J.,Copenhagen University | Blundell J.E.,University of Leeds
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Context: The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of medium-term exercise on fasting/postprandial levels of appetite-related hormones and subjective appetite sensations in overweight/ obese individuals. Design and Setting: We conducted a longitudinal study in a university research center. Participants and Intervention: Twenty-two sedentary overweight/obese individuals (age, 36.9 ± 8.3 yr; body mass index, 31.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2) took part in a 12-wk supervised exercise programme (five times per week, 75% maximal heart rate) and were requested not to change their food intake during the study. Main Outcome Measures: We measured changes in body weight and fasting/postprandial plasma levels of glucose, insulin, total ghrelin, acylated ghrelin (AG), peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 and feelings of appetite. Results: Exercise resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin and an increase in AG plasma levels and fasting hunger sensations. A significant reduction in postprandial insulin plasma levels and a tendency toward an increase in the delayed release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (90-180 min) were also observed after exercise, as well as a significant increase (127%) in the suppression of AG postprandially. Conclusions: Exercise-induced weight loss is associated with physiological and biopsychological changes toward an increased drive to eat in the fasting state. However, this seems to be balanced by an improved satiety response to a meal and improved sensitivity of the appetite control system. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source


Shukla A.,ABB | Ghosh A.,Queensland University of Technology | Joshi A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a flying-capacitor-based chopper circuit for dc capacitor voltage equalization in diode-clamped multilevel inverters. Its important features are reduced voltage stress across the chopper switches, possible reduction in the chopper switching frequency, improved reliability, and ride-through capability enhancement. This topology is analyzed using three- and four-level flying-capacitor-based chopper circuit configurations. These configurations are different in capacitor and semiconductor device count and correspondingly reduce the device voltage stresses by half and one-third, respectively. The detailed working principles and control schemes for these circuits are presented. It is shown that, by preferentially selecting the available chopper switch states, the dc-link capacitor voltages can be efficiently equalized in addition to having tightly regulated flying-capacitor voltages around their references. The various operating modes of the chopper are described along with their preferential selection logic to achieve the desired performances. The performance of the proposed chopper and corresponding control schemes are confirmed through both simulation and experimental investigations. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Araujo D.,University of Lisbon | Davids K.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Consciousness Studies | Year: 2011

In this paper we propose that the term skill acquisition, as commonly used in traditional psychology, and the philosophy, education, movement science and performance development literatures, has been biased by an organismic asymmetry. In cognitive and experimental psychology, for example, it refers to the establishment of an internal state or representation of an act which is believed to be acquired as a result of learning and task experience. Here we elucidate an ecological perspective which suggests that the term skill acquisition may not refer to an entity but rather to the emergence of an adaptive, functional relationship between an organism and its environment, thus avoiding an inherent organismic asymmetry in theorizing. In this respect, the terms 'skill adaptation' or 'skill attunement' might be more suitable to describe this process. © Imprint Academic 2011. Source


Phillips M.J.,Queensland University of Technology
Systematic Biology | Year: 2016

In modern evolutionary divergence analysis the role of geological information extends beyond providing a timescale, to informing molecular rate variation across the tree. Here I consider the implications of this development. I use fossil calibrations to test the accuracy of models of molecular rate evolution for placental mammals, and reveal substantial misspecification associated with life history rate correlates. Adding further calibrations to reduce dating errors at specific nodes unfortunately tends to transfer underlying rate errors to adjacent branches. Thus, tight calibration across the tree is vital to buffer against rate model errors. I argue that this must include allowing maximum bounds to be tight when good fossil records permit, otherwise divergences deep in the tree will tend to be inflated by the interaction of rate errors and asymmetric confidence in minimum and maximum bounds. In the case of placental mammals I sought to reduce the potential for transferring calibration and rate model errors across the tree by focusing on well-supported calibrations with appropriately conservative maximum bounds. The resulting divergence estimates are younger than others published recently, and provide the long-Anticipated molecular signature for the placental mammal radiation observed in the fossil record near the 66 Ma Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. Source


Krosch M.N.,Queensland University of Technology
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

The eastern Australian rainforests have experienced several cycles of range contraction and expansion since the late Miocene that are closely correlated with global glaciation events. Together with ongoing aridification of the continent, this has resulted in current distributions of native closed forest that are highly fragmented along the east coast. Several closed forest endemic taxa exhibit patterns of population genetic structure that are congruent with historical isolation of populations in discrete refugia and reflect evolutionary histories dramatically affected by vicariance. Currently, limited data are available regarding the impact of these past climatic fluctuations on freshwater invertebrate taxa. The non-biting midge species Echinocladius martini Cranston is distributed along the east coast and inhabits predominantly montane streams in closed forest habitat. Phylogeographic structure in E. martini was resolved here at a continental scale by incorporating data from a previous pilot study and expanding the sampling design to encompass populations in the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland, south-east Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Patterns of phylogeographic structure revealed several deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages from central and south-eastern Australia that were previously unrecognised and were geographically endemic to closed forest refugia. Estimated divergence times were congruent with late Miocene onset of rainforest contractions across the east coast of Australia. This suggested that dispersal and gene flow among E. martini populations isolated in refugia has been highly restricted historically. Moreover, these data imply, in contrast to existing preconceptions about freshwater invertebrates, that this taxon may be acutely susceptible to habitat fragmentation. © 2011 The Author; Journal compilation © 2011 Australian Entomological Society. Source


Bradley A.P.,Queensland University of Technology
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2013

This paper describes a simple, non-parametric and generic test of the equivalence of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on a modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The test is described in relation to the commonly used techniques such as the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the Neyman-Pearson method. We first review how the KS test is used to test the null hypotheses that the class labels predicted by a classifier are no better than random. We then propose an interval mapping technique that allows us to use two KS tests to test the null hypothesis that two classifiers have ROC curves that are equivalent. We demonstrate that this test discriminates different ROC curves both when one curve dominates another and when the curves cross and so are not discriminated by AUC. The interval mapping technique is then used to demonstrate that, although AUC has its limitations, it can be a model-independent and coherent measure of classifier performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Smith G.,Queensland University of Technology
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2013

In the structure of the title complex, [Cs(C7H 4NO2)(H2O)2]n, the caesium salt of 4-nitrobenzoic acid, the irregular CsO9coordination sphere comprises three bridging nitro O-atom donors, a bidentate carboxylate O,O′-chelate interaction, a triple-bridging water molecule and a monodentate water molecule. A three-dimensional framework polymer is generated, within which there are water-carboxylate O-H⋯O and water-water O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interactions. Source


Smith G.,Queensland University of Technology
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2013

In the structure of the title complex, [Cs(C8H 4Cl3O2)(H2O)] n, the caesium salt of the commercial herbicide fenac [(2,3,6-trichlorophenyl)acetic acid], the irregular eight-coordination about Cs+ comprises a bidentate O:Cl-chelate interaction involving a carboxylate-O atom and an ortho-related ring-substituted Cl atom, which is also bridging, a triple-bridging carboxylate-O atom and a bridging water molecule. A two-dimensional polymer is generated, lying parallel to (100), within which there are water-carboxylate O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interactions. Source


Abbosh A.M.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2012

In the design of reflection-type phase shifters, the coupler that represents the shifter's backbone is usually assumed to be a quarter-wavelength 3-dB coupler. In this paper, a derived theoretical model shows that, for certain values for the odd- and even-mode impedances, a coupled structure with a length that is less than one tenth of a wavelength is sufficient to build a high-performance reflection phase shifter. The presented analysis indicates that reflection phase shifters can be designed with a more compact size and larger phase range compared with the conventional method of using a quarter-wavelength 3-dB coupler. However, the required odd-mode impedance in the proposed design is low (≈10 Ω), whereas the required even-mode impedance is high (≈200 Ω). To realize those impedances when using parallel-coupled lines, slotted ground and shunt chip capacitor are used. The proposed design is supported by full-wave electromagnetic simulations and measurements. The simulated results show that 0.085λ coupled structure achieves 255° phase range across 36% fractional bandwidth with less than 1-dB insertion loss and more than 10-dB return loss. In another design, a full-cycle phase range is obtained with less than 1.5-dB insertion loss across the same band by using two 0.076λ coupled sections. A manufactured prototype for a full-cycle phase range validates the simulation results and, thus, the proposed method. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source


Tong S.,Queensland University of Technology
Environmental health : a global access science source | Year: 2014

Few data on the relationship between temperature variability and childhood pneumonia are available. This study attempted to fill this knowledge gap. A quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to quantify the impacts of diurnal temperature range (DTR) and temperature change between two neighbouring days (TCN) on emergency department visits (EDVs) for childhood pneumonia in Brisbane, from 2001 to 2010, after controlling for possible confounders. An adverse impact of TCN on EDVs for childhood pneumonia was observed, and the magnitude of this impact increased from the first five years (2001-2005) to the second five years (2006-2010). Children aged 5-14 years, female children and Indigenous children were particularly vulnerable to TCN impact. However, there was no significant association between DTR and EDVs for childhood pneumonia. As climate change progresses, the days with unstable weather pattern are likely to increase. Parents and caregivers of children should be aware of the high risk of pneumonia posed by big TCN and take precautionary measures to protect children, especially those with a history of respiratory diseases, from climate impacts. Source


Lin T.R.,Cooperative Research Center for Infrastructure and Engineering Asset Management | Lin T.R.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

An analytical solution is presented in this paper for the vibration response of a ribbed plate clamped on all its boundary edges by employing a traveling wave solution. A clamped ribbed plate test rig is also assembled in this study for the experimental investigation of the ribbed plate response and to provide verification results to the analytical solution. The dynamic characteristics and mode shapes of the ribbed plate are measured and compared to those obtained from the analytical solution and from finite element analysis (FEA). General good agreements are found between the results. Discrepancies between the computational and experimental results at low and high frequencies are also discussed. Explanations are offered in the study to disclose the mechanism causing the discrepancies. The dependency of the dynamic response of the ribbed plate on the distance between the excitation force and the rib is also investigated experimentally. It confirms the findings disclosed in a previous analytical study [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, A closed form solution for the dynamic response of finite ribbed plates, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119 (2006) 917-925] that the vibration response of a clamped ribbed plate due to a point force excitation is controlled by the plate stiffness when the source is more than a quarter plate bending wavelength away from the rib and from the plate boundary. The response is largely affected by the rib stiffness when the source location is less than a quarter bending wavelength away from the rib. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lui H.-S.,Chalmers University of Technology | Shuley N.V.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2012

Automated target recognition based on resonances embedded in the ultrawideband transient signatures has been of significant research interest throughout the years. In most studies, targets are usually illuminated and measured using a linear polarized basis. This could lead to an incorrect result for target recognition as some resonant modes may not be well excited at that particular incident aspect and polarization state. In this communication, the possibility of using a full-polarimetric ultrawideband target signature is investigated. Target recognition of some simple wire targets using the extinction pulse technique demonstrate that it would be easier to fully excite all of the important resonances using a circular polarization basis with due consideration of the co- and cross-polarized target signatures. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source


While some existing carrying capacity methodologies offer significant insights into the assessment of population carrying capacities, a comprehensive model is yet to be developed. This research identifies, examines and compares a range of methodological approaches to carrying capacity assessment and considers their relevance to future spatial planning. A range of key criteria are employed to compare various existing carrying capacity assessment models. These criteria include integrated systems analysis, dynamic responses, levels of risk, systemic constraints, applicability to future planning and the consideration of regional boundary delineation. It is suggested that by combining successful components from various authors, and collecting a range of interconnected data, a practical and workable system-based model may be achievable in the future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Barakat N.,German University of Technology in Oman | Bradley A.P.,Queensland University of Technology
Neurocomputing | Year: 2010

Over the last decade, support vector machine classifiers (SVMs) have demonstrated superior generalization performance to many other classification techniques in a variety of application areas. However, SVMs have an inability to provide an explanation, or comprehensible justification, for the solutions they reach. It has been shown that the '. black-box' nature of techniques like artificial neural networks (ANNs) is one of the main obstacles impeding their practical application. Therefore, techniques for rule extraction from ANNs, and recently from SVMs, were introduced to ameliorate this problem and aid in the explanation of their classification decisions. In this paper, we conduct a formal review of the area of rule extraction from SVMs. The review provides a historical perspective for this area of research and conceptually groups and analyzes the various techniques. In particular, we propose two alternative groupings; the first is based on the SVM (model) components utilized for rule extraction, while the second is based on the rule extraction approach. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the topic in addition to summarizing the main features of individual algorithms. The analysis is then followed by a comparative evaluation of the algorithms' salient features and relative performance as measured by a number of metrics. It is concluded that there is no one algorithm that can be favored in general. However, methods that are kernel independent, produce the most comprehensible rule set and have the highest fidelity to the SVM should be preferred. In addition, a specific method can be preferred if the context of the requirements of a specific application, so that appropriate tradeoffs may be made. The paper concludes by highlighting potential research directions such as the need for rule extraction methods in the case of SVM incremental and active learning and other application domains, where special types of SVMs are utilized. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Chatterjee D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Ghosh A.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the use of trajectory sensitivity analysis (TSA) in determining the transient stability margin of a power system compensated by a shunt FACTS device. The shunt device used is static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). It is shown that TSA can be used for the design of controller for the STATCOM. The preferable locations for the placement of the STATCOM for different fault conditions are also identified. The effects of STATCOM in maintaining different bus voltages in the post-fault condition are studied. The STATCOM is modeled by a voltage source connected to the system through a transformer. The systems used for the study are the WSCC 3-machine 9-bus system and the IEEE 16-machine 68-bus system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Frost R.L.,Queensland University of Technology
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids | Year: 2011

Raman spectra of the uranyl titanate mineral holfertite Ca xU2-xTi(O8-xOH4x)3H2O were analyzed and related to the mineral structure. Observed bands are attributed to the TiO and (UO2)2+ stretching and bending vibrations, U-OH bending vibrations, and H2O stretching and bending. The mineral holfertite is metamict, as is evidenced by the order/disorder of the mineral. Unexpectedly, the Raman spectrum of holfertite does not show any metamictization. The intensities of the UO stretching and bending modes show normal intensity and the bands are sharp. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Veldman S.L.,Queensland University of Technology
Composite Structures | Year: 2013

The wing and tail of an aircraft typically consist of a stiffened skin, combined with ribs and spars. This arrangement divides the skin into rectangular pocket. These pockets may be designed for over a thousand different load cases so it is important to understand the interaction between load combinations in order to asses which load cases are critical. Buckling interaction curves are well known for isotropic materials but not for anisotropic materials. This paper presents approximate buckling interaction curves for anisotropic plates. A comparison between eigenvalues derived using the approximate method and finite element method is made and it is shown that both methods correlate well. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Fawzia S.,Queensland University of Technology
Composite Structures | Year: 2013

Advanced composite materials offer remarkable potential in the strengthening of Civil Engineering structures. This research is targeted to provide in depth knowledge and understanding of bond characteristics of advanced and corrosion resistant material carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) that has a unique design tailor-ability and cost effective nature. The objective of this research is to investigate and compare the bonding mechanism between CFRP strengthened single and double strap steel joints. Investigations have been made in regards to failure mode, ultimate load and effective bond length for CFRP strengthened double and single strap joints. A series of tensile tests were conducted with different bond lengths for both type of joints. The bond behaviour of these specimens was further investigated by using nonlinear finite element analysis. Finally a bilinear relationship of shear stress-slip has been proposed by using the Finite element model for single and double strap joints. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Swayne N.,Queensland University of Technology
Environmental and Planning Law Journal | Year: 2012

The current regulatory approach to coal seam gas projects in Queensland is based on the philosophy of adaptive environmental management. This method of "learning by doing" is implemented in Queensland primarily through the imposition of layered monitoring and reporting duties on the coal seam gas operator alongside obligations to compensate and "make good" harm caused. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the Queensland regulatory approach to the approval and minimisation of adverse impacts from coal seam gas activities. Following an overview of the hallmarks of an effective adaptive management approach, this article begins by addressing the mosaic of approval processes and impact assessment regimes that may apply to coal seam gas projects. This includes recent Strategic Cropping Land reforms. This article then turns to consider the preconditions for land access in Queensland and the emerging issues for landholders relating to the negotiation of access and compensation agree- ments. This article then undertakes a critical review of the environmental duties imposed on coal seam gas operators relating to hydraulic fracturing, well head leaks, groundwater management and the disposal and beneficial use of produced water. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding the overall effectiveness of the Queensland framework and the lessons that may be drawn from Queensland's adaptive environmental management approach. Source


Zhang Q.,Nanchang University | Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The effect of ionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on the interaction between β-agonist salbutamol (SAL) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated with the use of fluorescence spectroscopy (FLS) and chemometrics methods [multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) and parallel factor analysis algorithm (PARAFAC)]. It was found that the binding constant of SAL to BSA in the presence of CTAB was much larger than that without this ligand. The ligand/BSA stoichiometry was 4:1, that is, (CTAB)4-BSA, and was 2:1 with the ligand, that is, (SAL)2-BSA. These results were obtained from the concentration profiles extracted by MCR-ALS for all three reactants. Quantitative information on the complex CTAB-BSA-SAL species was obtained with the resolution of the excitation-emission fluorescence three-way data matrices by PARAFAC. This research has implications for the analysis of SAL in food and might be performed in laboratories associated with organizations such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC). © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Dong W.,Nanchang University | Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the discrimination of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major) fruit from three geographical regions as well as for the estimation of the total sugar, total acid, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for the discrimination of the fruit on the basis of their geographical origin. Three pattern recognition methods, linear discriminant analysis, partial least-squares-discriminant analysis, and back-propagation artificial neural networks, were applied to classify and compare these samples. Furthermore, three multivariate calibration models based on the first derivative NIR spectroscopy, partial least-squares regression, back-propagation artificial neural networks, and least-squares-support vector machines, were constructed for quantitative analysis of the four analytes, total sugar, total acid, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity, and validated by prediction data sets. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Matthews B.,Queensland University of Technology | Heinemann T.,University of Southern Denmark
Design Studies | Year: 2012

Since the 'empirical turn' in design studies, many methods drawn from the social and human sciences have been applied to the study of designers' activities. Recently, conversation analysis (CA) has been gaining some attention as one of these approaches that may offer promise for design studies. In this paper, we present an analysis of design work informed by CA. Our analysis is intended both as a means of exemplifying how the approach can be applied to design, and as empirical groundwork for sketching out what a CA program of research in design studies could offer the field. We argue that CA can provide an empirical respecification of central conceptual and theoretical topics in design research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Wan H.-X.,Wuhan University of Technology | Mahendran M.,Queensland University of Technology
Engineering Structures | Year: 2015

The LiteSteel beam (LSB) is a cold-formed high strength steel channel section made of two torsionally rigid closed flanges and a slender web. Due to its mono-symmetric characteristics, its centroid and shear centre do not coincide. The LSBs can be used in floor systems as joists or bearers and in these applications they are often subjected to transverse loads that are applied away from the shear centre. Hence they are often subjected to combined bending and torsion actions. Previous researches on LSBs have concentrated on their bending or shear behaviour and strengths, and only limited research has been undertaken on their combined bending and torsion behaviour. Therefore in this research a series of nine experiments was first conducted on LSBs subject to combined bending and torsion. Three LSB sections were tested to failure under eccentric loading at mid-span, and appropriate results were obtained from seven tests. A special test rig was used to simulate two different eccentricities and to provide accurate simple boundary conditions at the supports. Finite element models of tested LSBs were developed using ANSYS, and the ultimate strengths, failure modes, and load-displacement curves were obtained and compared with corresponding test results. Finite element analyses agreed well with test results and hence the developed models were used in a parametric study to investigate the effects of load locations, eccentricities, and spans on the combined bending and torsion behaviour of LSBs. The interaction between the ultimate bending and torsional moment capacities was studied and a simple design rule was proposed. This paper presents the details of the tests, finite element analyses, and parametric study of LSBs subject to combined bending and torsion, and the results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Collins P.F.,University of Southampton | Collins P.F.,Queensland University of Technology | Elia M.,University of Southampton | Stratton R.J.,University of Southampton
Respirology | Year: 2013

Currently, there is confusion about the value of using nutritional support to treat malnutrition and improve functional outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCT) aimed to clarify the effectiveness of nutritional support in improving functional outcomes in COPD. A systematic review identified 12 RCT (n = 448) in stable COPD patients investigating the effects of nutritional support (dietary advice (1 RCT), oral nutritional supplements (10 RCT), enteral tube feeding (1 RCT)) versus control on functional outcomes. Meta-analysis of the changes induced by intervention found that while respiratory function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, lung capacity, blood gases) was unresponsive to nutritional support, both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory mouth pressure +3.86 standard error (SE) 1.89 cm H2O, P = 0.041; maximal expiratory mouth pressure +11.85 SE 5.54 cm H2O, P = 0.032) and handgrip strength (+1.35 SE 0.69 kg, P = 0.05) were significantly improved and associated with weight gains of ≥2 kg. Nutritional support produced significant improvements in quality of life in some trials, although meta-analysis was not possible. It also led to improved exercise performance and enhancement of exercise rehabilitation programmes. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that nutritional support in COPD results in significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant functional outcomes, complementing a previous review showing improvements in nutritional intake and weight. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source


Wiles J.,Queensland University of Technology
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2011

Mercier & Sperber (M&S) argue for their argumentative theory in terms of communicative abilities. Insights can be gained by extending the discussion beyond human reasoning to rodent and robot navigation. The selection of arguments and conclusions that are mutually reinforcing can be cast as a form of abductive reasoning that I argue underlies the construction of cognitive maps in navigation tasks. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source


Bilandzic M.,Queensland University of Technology
Interactive Learning Environments | Year: 2016

Learning is most effective when intrinsically motivated through personal interest, and situated in a supportive socio-cultural context. This paper reports on findings from a study that explored implications for design of interactive learning environments through 18 months of ethnographic observations of people's interactions at “Hack The Evening” (HTE). HTE is a meetup group initiated at the State Library of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, and dedicated to provide visitors with opportunities for connected learning in relation to hacking, making and do-it-yourself technology. The results provide insights into factors that contributed to HTE as a social, interactive and participatory environment for learning – knowledge is created and co-created through uncoordinated interactions among participants that come from a diversity of backgrounds, skills and areas of expertise. The insights also reveal challenges and barriers that the HTE group faced in regards to connected learning. Four dimensions of design opportunities are presented to overcome those challenges and barriers towards improving connected learning in library buildings and other free-choice-learning environments that seek to embody a more interactive and participatory culture among their users. The insights are relevant for librarians as well as designers, managers and decision-makers of other interactive and free-choice-learning environments. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Ekaputra A.K.,National University of Singapore | Prestwich G.D.,University of Utah | Cool S.M.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Hutmacher D.W.,Queensland University of Technology
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

A significant stumbling block in the creation of functional three-dimensional (3D) engineered tissues is the proper vascularization of the constructs. Furthermore, in the context of electrospinning, the development of 3D constructs using this technique has been hindered by the limited infiltration of cells into their structure. In an attempt to address these issues, a hybrid mesh of poly (e{open}-caprolactone)-collagen blend (PCL/Col) and hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, Heprasil™ was created via a dual electrodeposition system. Simultaneous deposition of HA and PCL/Col allowed the dual loading and controlled release of two potent angiogenic growth factors VEGF 165 and PDGF-BB over a period of five weeks in vitro. Furthermore, this manner of loading sustained the bioactivity of the two growth factors. Utilizing an in-house developed 3D co-culture assay model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and lung fibroblasts, the growth factor-loaded hybrid meshes was shown to not only support cellular attachment, but also their infiltration and the recapitulation of primitive capillary network in the scaffold's architecture. Thus, the creation of a PCL/Col-Heprasil hybrid scaffold is a step forward toward the attainment of a 3D bio-functionalized, vascularized tissue engineering construct. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Nayak R.,Queensland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

Due to the higher expectation more and more online matching companies adopt recommender systems with content-based, collaborative filtering or hybrid techniques. However, these techniques focus on users explicit contact behaviors but ignore the implicit relationship among users in the network. This paper proposes a personalized social matching system for generating potential partners' recommendations that not only exploits users' explicit information but also utilizes implicit relationships among users. The proposed system is evaluated on the dataset collected from an online dating network. Empirical analysis shows the recommendation success rate has increased to 31% as compared to the baseline success rate of 19%. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Ishaq M.,CSIRO | Evans M.D.M.,CSIRO | Ostrikov K.K.,CSIRO | Ostrikov K.K.,Queensland University of Technology
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2014

Atmospheric pressure gas plasma (AGP) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce apoptosis in cultured cancer cells. The majority of cancer cells develop a ROS-scavenging anti-oxidant system regulated by Nrf2, which confers resistance to ROS-mediated cancer cell death. Generation of ROS is involved in the AGP-induced cancer cell death of several colorectal cancer cells (Caco2, HCT116 and SW480) by activation of ASK1-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway without affecting control cells (human colonic sub-epithelial myofibroblasts; CO18, human fetal lung fibroblast; MRC5 and fetal human colon; FHC). However, the identity of an oxidase participating in AGP-induced cancer cell death is unknown. Here, we report that AGP up-regulates the expression of Nox2 (NADPH oxidase) to produce ROS. RNA interference designed to target Nox2 effectively inhibits the AGP-induced ROS production and cancer cell death. In some cases both colorectal cancer HT29 and control cells showed resistance to AGP treatment. Compared to AGP-sensitive Caco2 cells, HT29 cells show a higher basal level of the anti-oxidant system transcriptional regulator Nrf2 and its target protein sulfiredoxin (Srx) which are involved in cellular redox homeostasis. Silencing of both Nrf2 and Srx sensitized HT29 cells, leads to ROS overproduction and decreased cell viability. This indicates that in HT29 cells, Nrf2/Srx axis is a protective factor against AGP-induced oxidative stress. The inhibition of Nrf2/Srx signaling should be considered as a central target in drug-resistant colorectal cancer treatments. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Gable G.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Strategic Information Systems | Year: 2010

The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (JSIS) has been an international outlet for Information Systems research that focuses on strategic issues since 1991. This paper reports on an analysis of the research published in JSIS to date. The paper presents a preliminary classification system for research topics related to Strategic Information Systems into which all 316 JSIS research papers as at end 2009 are classified. Discussion on changing emphases in topics over time is provided, in the context of the editorial philosophy of the journal. The paper seeks to stimulate discussion on future directions for research in Strategic Information Systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Branciard C.,Queensland University of Technology
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

A common problem in Bell-type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply postselects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all postselected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this postselected local polytope in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives interesting insights on the detection loophole problem. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Bishop C.,University of South Australia | Paul G.,Queensland University of Technology | Thewlis D.,University of South Australia
Gait and Posture | Year: 2013

Kinematic models are commonly used to quantify foot and ankle kinematics, yet no marker sets or models have been proven reliable or accurate when wearing shoes. Further, the minimal detectable difference of a developed model is often not reported. We present a kinematic model that is reliable, accurate and sensitive to describe the kinematics of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg during walking gait. In order to achieve this, a new marker set was established, consisting of 25 markers applied on the shoe and skin surface, which informed a four segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg. Three independent experiments were conducted to determine the reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of the marker set and model. Inter-rater reliability of marker placement on the shoe was proven to be good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.98) indicating that markers could be applied reliably between raters. Intra-rater reliability was better for the experienced rater (ICC=0.68-0.99) than the inexperienced rater (ICC=0.38-0.97). The accuracy of marker placement along each axis was <6.7mm for all markers studied. Minimal detectable difference (MDD90) thresholds were defined for each joint; tibiocalcaneal joint - MDD90=2.17-9.36°, tarsometatarsal joint - MDD90=1.03-9.29° and the metatarsophalangeal joint - MDD90=1.75-9.12°. These thresholds proposed are specific for the description of shod motion, and can be used in future research designed at comparing between different footwear. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hughes S.W.,Queensland University of Technology
Physics Education | Year: 2011

Although the siphon has been in use since ancient times, the exact mechanism of operation is still under discussion. For example, most dictionaries assert that atmospheric pressure is essential to the operation of a siphon rather than gravity. Although there is general agreement that gravity is the motivating force in a siphon, there is disagreement on how liquid enters a siphon - is it atmospheric push or tensile pull? This article describes a classroom experiment that can serve as the basis for discussing how a siphon works. The experiment involves the construction of a siphon in which the water level in the upper reservoir is held constant during the operation of the siphon. Since the atmosphere is not doing any work on the water in the upper reservoir, only gravity is at work. The special situation of a bubble-in-a-siphon is also discussed in which both atmospheric pressure and gravity are at work. © IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Zhou X.,Queensland University of Technology
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012

The centenary of the Proceedings of the IEEE is celebrated with achievements in data storage and data retrieval research, development, and application. Masaru Kitsuregawa and his colleagues at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, are studying data storage and data management for more than three decades, working in parallel database management systems, web-scale applications, and intelligent massive data storage systems. They present a brief history of data storage technology from the precomputer era to the latest trends in this area. They also report their firsthand experiences in archiving the World Wide Web for more than ten years. Mark Sanderson and Bruce Croft give an expert view on the chronicled development in information retrieval. Source


Morgan P.B.,University of Manchester | Efron N.,Queensland University of Technology
Contact Lens and Anterior Eye | Year: 2015

We sought to determine the impact of optometric practice setting on contact lens prescribing by analysing annual survey data of lens fits collected between 2009 and 2013 from independent and national group practices throughout the United Kingdom. Compared to national group practices, independent practices fit contact lenses to older patients and more females. Independent practices also undertake a lower proportion of soft lens fits overall (and thus a higher proportion of rigid lens fits), soft toric lens fits and daily disposable lens fits. There is a higher proportion of soft extended wear and multifocal lens fits in independent practices. We conclude that contact lens fitting behaviour is influenced by optometric practice setting. © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Source


Hine J.,University of Ulster | Kamruzzaman M.,Queensland University of Technology
Health and Place | Year: 2012

This paper examines changing patterns in the utilisation and geographic access to health services in Great Britain using National Travel Survey data (1985-2006). The utilisation rate was derived using the proportion of journeys made to access health services. Geographic access was analysed by separating the concept into its accessibility and mobility dimensions. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the differences between different socio-spatial groups in these indicators over the period 1985-2006. This study found that journey distances to health facilities were significantly shorter and also gradually reduced over the period in question for Londoners, females, those without a car or on low incomes, and older people. However, most of their rates of utilisation of health services were found to be significantly lower because their journey times were significantly longer and also gradually increased over the periods. These findings indicate that the rate of utilisation of health services largely depends on mobility level although previous research studies have traditionally overlooked the mobility dimension. © 2011. Source


Karim M.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

Air-conditioning forms a large proportion of annual peak electrical demand, requiring expansion of power plants to meet the peak demand, which goes unused most of the time. Use of well-designed cool thermal storage can offset the peak demand to a large extent. In this study, an air-conditioning system with naturally stratified storage tank was designed, constructed and tested. A new type of diffuser was designed and used in this study. Factors that influenced the performance of chilled-water storage tanks were investigated. The results indicated that stratified storage tank consistently stratified well without any physical barrier. Investigation also showed that storage efficiency decreased with increasing flow rate due to increased mixing of warm and chilled water. Diffuser design and layout primarily affected the mixing near the inlet diffuser and the extent of this mixing had primary influence on the shape of the thermocline. The heat conduction through tank walls and through the thermocline caused widening of mixed volume. Thermal efficiency of stratified storage tanks was as high as 90%, which indicates that stratified tanks can effectively be used as a load management technique. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yigitbasioglu O.,Queensland University of Technology
Australasian Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2014

This paper uses transaction cost theory to study cloud computing adoption. A model is developed and tested with data from an Australian survey. According to the results, perceived vendor opportunism and perceived legislative uncertainty around cloud computing were significantly associated with perceived cloud computing security risk. There was also a significant negative relationship between perceived cloud computing security risk and the intention to adopt cloud services. This study also reports on adoption rates of cloud computing in terms of applications, as well as the types of services used. Source


Reichert J.C.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine | Year: 2010

Recently, research has focused on bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) and osteoblasts (OB) for clinical use in bone engineering. Prior to clinical application, cell based treatment concepts need to be evaluated in preclinical, large animal models. Sheep in particular are considered a valid model for orthopaedic and trauma related research. However, only sheep aged > 6 years show secondary osteon formation characteristic of human bone. Osteogenic cells isolated from animals of this age group remain poorly characterized. In the present study, ex vivo expanded MPC isolated from ovine bone marrow proliferated at a higher rate than OB derived from tibial compact bone as assessed in standard 2D cultures. MPC expressed the respective phenotypic profile typical for different mesenchymal cell populations (CD14(-)/CD31(-)/CD45(-)/CD29(+)/CD44(+)/CD166(+)) and showed a multilineage differentiation potential. When compared to OB, MPC had a higher mineralization potential under standard osteogenic culture conditions and expressed typical bone related markers such as osteocalcin, osteonectin and type I collagen at the mRNA and protein level. After 4 weeks in 3D culture, MPC constructs demonstrated higher cell density and mineralization, whilst cell viability on the scaffolds was assessed > 90%. Cells displayed a spindle-like morphology and formed interconnected networks. In contrast, when implanted subcutaneously into NOD/SCID mice, MPC presented a lower osteogenic potential than OB. In summary, this study provides a detailed characterisation of ovine MPC and OB from a bone engineering perspective and suggests that MPC and OB provide promising means for future bone disease related treatment applications. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Mendling J.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Recker J.,Queensland University of Technology | Reijers H.A.,TU Eindhoven
International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design | Year: 2010

The value of business process models is dependent on the choice of graphical elements in the model and their annotation with additional textual and graphical information. This research discusses the use of text and icons for labeling the graphical constructs in a process model. The authors use two established verb classification schemes to examine the choice of activity labels in process modeling practice. Based on the author's findings, this paper synthesizes a set of twenty-five activity label categories. Proposed is a systematic approach for graphically representing these label categories through the use of graphical icons, such that the resulting process models are easier and more readily understandable by end users. The author's findings contribute to an ongoing stream of research investigating the practice of process modeling and thereby contribute to the body of knowledge about conceptual modeling quality overall. Copyright © 2010 IGI Global. Source


Seeburger J.,Queensland University of Technology
NordiCHI 2012: Making Sense Through Design - Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction | Year: 2012

Although mobile phones are often used in public urban places to interact with one's geographically dispersed social circle, they can also facilitate interactions with people in the same public urban space. The PlaceTagz study investigates how physical artefacts in public urban places can be utilised and combined with mobile phone technologies to facilitate interactions. Printed on stickers, PlaceTagz are QR codes linking to a digital message board enabling collocated users to interact with each other over time resulting in a place-based digital memory. This exploratory project set out to investigate if and how PlaceTagz are used by urban dwellers in a real world deployment. We present findings from analysing content received through PlaceTagz and interview data from application users. QR codes, which do not contain any contextual information, piqued the curiosity of users wondering about the embedded link's destination and provoked comments in regards to people, place and technology. Copyright © 2012 ACM. Source


Ho S.T.B.,National University of Singapore | Cool S.M.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Hui J.H.,National University of Singapore | Hutmacher D.W.,Queensland University of Technology
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are frequently incorporated into osteochondral implants and cell seeding is often facilitated with hydrogels which exert a profound influence on the chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. An attempt was made to elucidate this effect by comparing the chondrogenic differentiation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSC) in fibrin and fibrin alginate composites. A biphasic osteochondral model which simulated the native in vivo environment was employed in the study. In the first stage of the experiment, BMSC was encapsulated in fibrin, Fibrin Alginate 0.3% (FA0.3) and 0.6% (FA0.6). Chondrogenic differentiation within these cell-hydrogel pellets was compared against that of standard cell pellets under inductive conditions and the matrices which supported chondrogenesis were used in the cartilage phase of biphasic constructs. Neo-cartilage growth was monitored in these cocultures. It was observed that hydrogel encapsulation influenced mesenchymal condensation which preceded chondrogenic differentiation. Early cell agglomeration was observed in fibrin as compared to fibrin alginate composites. These fibrin encapsulated cells differentiated into chondrocytes which secreted aggrecan and collagen II. When the alginate content rose from 0.3 to 0.6%, chondrogenic differentiation declined with a reduction in the expression of collagen II and aggrecan. Fibrin and FA0.3 were tested in the cartilage phase of the biphasic osteochondral constructs and the former supported superior cartilage growth with higher cellularity, total Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen II levels. The FA0.3 cartilage phase was found to be fragmented and partially calcified. The use of fibrin for cartilage repair was advocated as it facilitated BMSC chondrogenesis and cartilaginous growth in an osteochondral environment. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kunde L.,Queensland University of Technology | McMeniman E.,Dermatology | Parker M.,University of Queensland
Australasian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Background/Objective: Clinical photography has long been an important aspect in the management of dermatological pathology and has many applications in contemporary dermatology practice. With the continuous evolution of digital and smartphone technology, clinicians must maintain ethical and medico-legal standards. This article reviews how dermatology trainees are utilising this technology in their clinical practice and what procedures they follow when taking photos of patients. We review the ethical and legal considerations of clinical photography in dermatology and present a hypothetical medico-legal scenario. Methods Dermatology registrars were surveyed on their use of personal smartphones and digital equipment for photographing patients in their clinical practice. Numerous medico-legal providers were approached to provide medico-legal advice about a hypothetical scenario. Conclusions We found that the use of these technologies is prevalent among dermatology registrars and all respondents reported regular use. Clinicians should routinely obtain and document adequate patient consent in relation to clinical photography, utilise strict privacy settings on smartphones and other digital devices and ensure that the images are stored on these devices for minimal periods. Express consent documentation in the clinical file puts the clinician in a more defensible position if a complaint is made to the medical board or privacy commissioner. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists. Source


Ranasinghe C.D.,University of Colombo | Ranasinghe P.,University of Colombo | Jayawardena R.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2013

Physical activity (PA) has many beneficial physical and mental health effects. Physical inactivity is considered the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. At present there are no systematic reviews on PA patterns among South Asian adults residing in the region. The present study aims to systematically evaluate studies on PA patterns in South Asian countries. A five-staged comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in Medline, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus using keywords 'Exercise', 'Walking', 'Physical activity', 'Inactivity', 'Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'International Physical Activity Questionnaire', 'IPAQ', 'Global Physical Activity Questionnaire' and 'GPAQ', combined with individual country names. The search was restricted to English language articles conducted in humans and published before 31st December 2012. To obtain additional data a manual search of the reference lists of articles was performed. Data were also retrieved from the search of relevant web sites and online resources. The total number of hits obtained from the initial search was 1,771. The total number of research articles included in the present review is eleven (India-8, Sri Lanka-2, Pakistan-1). In addition, eleven country reports (Nepal-3, Bangladesh-2, India-2, Sri Lanka-2, Bhutan-1, Maldives-1) of World Health Organization STEPS survey from the South-Asian countries were retrieved online. In the research articles the overall prevalence of inactivity was as follows; India (18.5%-88.4%), Pakistan (60.1%) and Sri Lanka (11.0%-31.8%). STEPS survey reports were available from all countries except Pakistan. Overall in majority of STEPS surveys females were more inactive compared to males. Furthermore, leisure related inactivity was >75% in studies reporting inactivity in this domain and people were more active in transport domain when compared with the other domains. In conclusion, our results show that there is a wide variation in the prevalence of physical inactivity among South-Asian adults within and between countries. Furthermore, physical inactivity in South Asian adults was associated with several socio-demographic characteristics. Majority of South Asian adults were inactive during their leisure time. These Factors need to be considered when planning future interventions and research aimed at improving PA in the region. © 2013 Ranasinghe et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Coetzee J.C.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Decoupling networks can alleviate the effects of mutual coupling in antenna arrays. Conventional decoupling networks can provide decoupled and matched ports at a single frequency. This paper describes dual-frequency decoupling which is achieved by using a network of series or parallel resonant circuits instead of single reactive elements. Copyright © 2011 Jacob Carl Coetzee. Source


Hughes S.,Queensland University of Technology
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2011

This paper presents evidence of an apparent connection between ball lightning and a green fireball. On the evening of the 16 May 2006 at least three fireballs were seen by many people in the skies of Queensland, Australia. One of the fireballs was seen passing over the Great Divide about 120km west of Brisbane, and soon after, a luminous green ball about 30 cm in diameter was seen rolling down the slope of the Great Divide. A detailed description given by a witness indicates that the phenomenon was probably a highly luminous form of ball lightning. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that the passage of the Queensland fireball meteor created an electrically conductive path between the ionosphere and ground, providing energy for the ball lightning phenomenon. A strong similarity is noted between the Queensland fireball and the Pasamonte fireball seen in New Mexico in 1933. Both meteors exhibit a twist in the tail that could be explained by hydrodynamic forces. The possibility that multiple sightings of fireballs across southeast Queensland were produced owing to fragments from comet 73P Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 is discussed. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source


Goncher A.,Queensland University of Technology | Johri A.,George Mason University
Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2015

Background: Engineering design is of significant interest to engineering educators. As yet, how the higher education context shapes student outcomes in engineering design courses remains underexplored. Since design courses are the primary way students are taught the critical topic of design, it is important to understand how the institutional and organizational contexts shape student outcomes and how we could improve design projects, given the context. Purpose: We sought to answer two questions: What aspects of the design education process are salient, or important, for students? How do these salient aspects affect their design practices? Design/Method: We used a qualitative case study approach to address the research questions because of our emphasis on understanding process-related aspects of design work and developing an interpretive understanding from the students' perspective. Results: Using a nested structuration framework, we show that the context of design practices shaped students' outcomes by constraining their approach to the project and by providing a framework for their design process. We provide recommendations for design educators to help students overcome impediments to achieving learning objectives for design activities. Our research questions the efficacy of teaching engineering design when a design problem lacks a context beyond the classroom. Conclusions: The institutional and organizational contexts influence student design practices. Engineering educators should carefully consider the potential effects of the design projects they implement within a higher education context. © 2015 ASEE. Source


Taimre T.,University of Queensland | Rakic A.D.,Queensland University of Technology
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

Quasi-static interferometric signals in lasers under feedback arise from slowly varying perturbations of the intracavity electric field resulting from the reinjection of a portion of the emitted field into the cavity. Such interferometric signals are well described by the steady-state solution to the Lang-Kobayashi rate equation model. We give an exact series expansion for this steady-state solution that shows precisely how Acket's characteristic parameter C and Henry's linewidth enhancement factor α influence such signals. We show how the series coefficients canbe extracted easily and explain how to determine C and α directly from them. Moreover, we draw a precise analogy between self-mixing and FM signals, showing that C plays exactly the same role in self-mixing as the modulation index doesin FM. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source


O'Shea P.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems | Year: 2010

Newton algorithms are commonly used in the final "refinement" stage of parameter estimation for sinusoids and higher order phase polynomial signals. Such parameter estimation scenarios arise commonly in radar applications where the radial target velocity (which is possibly time-varying) must be estimated. The author and coworkers have previously proposed an elegant and efficient alternative to a Newton gradient search type algorithm based on filtering and phase unwrapping. A statistical and computational analysis of this filtering/phase unwrapping method is presented here. The analysis shows the algorithm to be computationally efficient and much less sensitive to the accuracy of the initial guesses for the parameters than a Newton algorithm. A first-order statistical analysis of the filtering/phase unwrapping algorithm is performed, and guidelines are derived for the required accuracy of the initial estimates. Simulations are presented to confirm the analysis. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Berglund E.,Queensland University of Technology
Applied Intelligence | Year: 2010

The original Parameter-Less Self-Organising Map (PLSOM) algorithm was introduced as a solution to the problems the Self-Organising Map (SOM) encounters when dealing with certain types of mapping tasks. Unfortunately the PLSOM suffers from over-sensitivity to outliers and over-reliance on the initial weight distribution. The PLSOM2 algorithm is introduced to address these problems with the PLSOM. PLSOM2 is able to cope well with outliers without exhibiting the problems associated with the standard PLSOM algorithm. The PLSOM2 requires very little computational overhead compared to the standard PLSOM, thanks to an efficient method of approximating the diameter of the inputs, and does not rely on a priori knowledge of the training input space. This paper provides a discussion of the reasoning behind the PLSOM2 and experimental results showing its effectiveness for mapping tasks. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Della Gatta P.A.,Deakin University | Garnham A.P.,Deakin University | Peake J.M.,Queensland University of Technology | Cameron-Smith D.,University of Auckland
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity | Year: 2014

Aging is associated with increased circulating pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exercise training, in addition to improving muscle function, reduces these circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, few studies have evaluated changes in the expression of cytokines within skeletal muscle after exercise training. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression of cytokines both at rest and following a bout of isokinetic exercise performed before and after 12. weeks of resistance exercise training in young (n=8, 20.3. ±. 0.8. yr) and elderly men (n=8, 66.9. ±. 1.6. yr). Protein expression of various cytokines was determined in muscle homogenates. The expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 (which are traditionally classified as 'pro-inflammatory') increased substantially after acute exercise. By contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 increased only slightly (or not at all) after acute exercise. These responses were not significantly different between young and elderly men, either before or after 12. weeks of exercise training. However, compared with the young men, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines 2. h post exercise tended to be greater in the elderly men prior to training. Training attenuated this difference. These data suggest that the inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise increases with age. Furthermore, regular exercise training may help to normalize this inflammatory response, which could have important implications for muscle regeneration and adaptation in the elderly. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Ling M.T.,Queensland University of Technology | Luk S.U.,University of Hong Kong | Al-Ejeh F.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Khanna K.K.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Vitamin E is composed of two structurally similar compounds: tocopherols (TPs) and tocotrienols (T3). Despite being overshadowed by TP over the past few decades, T3 is now considered to be a promising anticancer agent due to its potent effects against a wide range of cancers. A growing body of evidence suggests that in addition to its antioxidative and pro-apoptotic functions, T3 possesses a number of anticancer properties that make it superior to TP. These include the inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions, the suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor tumor angiogenic pathway and the induction of antitumor immunity. More recently, T3, but not TP, has been shown to have chemosensitization and anti-cancer stem cell effects, further demonstrating the potential of T3 as an effective anticancer therapeutic agent. With most of the previous clinical studies on TP producing disappointing results, research has now focused on testing T3 as the next generation vitamin E for chemoprevention and cancer treatment. This review will summarize recent developments in the understanding of the anticancer effects of T3. We will also discuss current progress in clinical trials involving T3 as an adjuvant to conventional cancer therapy. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


McGee A.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan's arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. Source


Doherty W.O.S.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Saha S.C.,Queensland University of Technology | Khan M.M.K.,Central Queensland University
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

A scaling analysis for the natural convection boundary layer adjacent to an inclined semi-infinite plate subject to a non-instantaneous heating in the form of an imposed wall temperature which increases linearly up to a prescribed steady value over a prescribed time is reported. The development of the boundary layer flow from start-up to a steady-state has been described based on scaling analyses and verified by numerical simulations. The analysis reveals that, if the period of temperature growth on the wall is sufficiently long, the boundary layer reaches a quasi-steady mode before the growth of the temperature is completed. In this mode the thermal boundary layer at first grows in thickness and then contracts with increasing time. However, if the imposed wall temperature growth period is sufficiently short, the boundary layer develops differently, but after the wall temperature growth is completed, the boundary layer develops as though the startup had been instantaneous. The steady state values of the boundary layer for both cases are ultimately the same. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Bailey I.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Lovie-Kitchin J.E.,Queensland University of Technology
Vision Research | Year: 2013

The need for precision in visual acuity assessment for low vision research led to the design of the Bailey-Lovie letter chart. This paper describes the decisions behind the design principles used and how the logarithmic progression of sizes led to the development of the logMAR designation of visual acuity and the improved sensitivity gained from letter-by-letter scoring. While the principles have since been adopted by most major clinical research studies and for use in most low vision clinics, use of charts of this design and application of letter-by-letter scoring are also important for the accurate assessment of visual acuity in any clinical setting. We discuss the test protocols that should be applied to visual acuity testing and the use of other tests for assessing profound low vision when the limits of visual acuity measurement by letter charts are reached. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Vlacic-Zischke J.,Griffith University | Hamlet S.M.,Griffith University | Friis T.,Queensland University of Technology | Tonetti M.S.,European Research Group on Periodontology | Ivanovski S.,Griffith University
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

The topography of titanium implants has been identified as an important factor affecting the osseointegration of surgically placed dental implants. Further modification to produce a hydrophilic microrough titanium implant surface has been shown to increase osseointegration compared with microrough topology alone. This study aimed to determine possible molecular mechanisms to explain this clinical observation by examining differences in the whole genome mRNA expression profile of primary human osteoblasts in response to sand-blasted acid-etched (SLA) and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA) titanium surfaces. A decrease in osteoblast proliferation associated with the titanium surfaces (modSLA > SLA > control) correlated with an increase in expression of the osteogenic differentiation markers BSPII and osteocalcin. Pathway analysis demonstrated that a number of genes associated with the TGFβBMP signalling cascade (BMP2, BMP6, SP1, CREBBP, RBL2, TBS3, ACVR1 and ZFYVE16) were significantly differentially up-regulated with culture on the modSLA surface. BMP2 was shown to have the largest fold change increase in expression which was subsequently confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Several other genes associated with the functionally important mechanisms relevant to bone healing, such as Wnt signalling (CTNNA1, FBX4, FZD6), angiogenesis (KDR), osteoclastogenesis (HSF2, MCL1) and proteolysis (HEXB, TPP1), were also differentially regulated. These results suggest that chemical (hydrophilic) modification of the SLA surface may result in more successful osseointegration through BMP signalling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mortimer G.,Queensland University of Technology
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this paper is to segment male and female grocery shoppers based on store and product attribute evaluations. A rich profile for each segment is developed. Gender comparisons are operationalised and these developed contemporary shopper typologies are further contrasted against earlier works. Data of 560 grocery shoppers were attained by a survey questionnaire. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and ANOVA were employed to develop specific segments of shoppers. Four distinct cohorts of male shoppers and three cohorts of female shoppers emerged from the data of eight constructs, measured by 46 items. One new shopper type, not found in earlier typology literature, emerged from this research. This shopper presented as young, well educated, at the commencement of their career and family life cycle, attracted by a strong value offer and willingness to share the family food shopping responsibilities. This research makes a contribution to segmentation literature and grocery retail practice in several ways. It presents the first retail typology of male supermarket shoppers, employing a cluster analysis technique. Comparisons between male and female grocery-shopping typologies are accordingly facilitated. The research provides insights into the modern family food shopping behaviour of men; a channel in which men are now recognised as equal contributors. Research outcomes encourage supermarket retailers to implement targeted marketing and rationalised operational strategies that deliver on attributes of importance. Finally, this research provides the basis for further cross-cultural, cross-contextual comparative studies. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Croker B.,Queensland University of Technology
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2012

A method for detecting vocalization of giant barred frogs (Mixophyes iteratus) in noisy audio is proposed. Audio recordings from remote wireless sensor nodes were segmented into individual sounds and from each sound a small set of features was extracted. Feature vectors were compared to those of example calls using a Euclidean distance formula as a detection system. The system achieved a sensitivity of 0.85 with specificity of 0.92 when distinguishing M. iteratus calls from other species' calls and sensitivity of 0.88 with specificity 0.82 against background noise. Source


Swedberg J.E.,University of Queensland | Harris J.M.,Queensland University of Technology
ChemBioChem | Year: 2012

The serine protease plasmin is ubiquitously expressed throughout the human body in the form of the zymogen plasminogen. Conversion to active plasmin occurs through enzymatic cleavage by plasminogen activators. The plasminogen activator/plasmin system has a well-established function in the removal of intravascular fibrin deposition through fibrinolysis and the inhibition of plasmin activity; this has found widespread clinical use in reducing perioperative bleeding. Increasing evidence also suggests diverse, although currently less defined, roles for plasmin in a number of physiological and pathological processes relating to extracellular matrix degradation, cell migration and tissue remodelling. In particular, dysregulation of plasmin has been linked to cancer invasion/metastasis and various chronic inflammatory conditions; this has prompted efforts to develop inhibitors of this protease. Although a number of plasmin inhibitors exist, they commonly suffer from poor potency and/or specificity of inhibition that either results in reduced efficacy or prevents clinical use. Consequently, there is a need for further development of high-affinity plasmin inhibitors that maintain selectivity over other serine proteases. This review summarises clearly defined and potential applications for plasmin inhibition. The properties of naturally occurring and engineered plasmin inhibitors are discussed in the context of current knowledge regarding plasmin structure, specificity and function. This includes design strategies to obtain the potency and specificity of inhibition in addition to controlled temporal and spatial distribution tailored for the intended use. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Li Z.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Liu J.,CAS Institute of Automation | Yang Y.,Queensland University of Technology | Zhou X.,CAS Institute of Automation | Lu H.,CAS Institute of Automation
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2014

Many pattern analysis and data mining problems have witnessed high-dimensional data represented by a large number of features, which are often redundant and noisy. Feature selection is one main technique for dimensionality reduction that involves identifying a subset of the most useful features. In this paper, a novel unsupervised feature selection algorithm, named clustering-guided sparse structural learning (CGSSL), is proposed by integrating cluster analysis and sparse structural analysis into a joint framework and experimentally evaluated. Nonnegative spectral clustering is developed to learn more accurate cluster labels of the input samples, which guide feature selection simultaneously. Meanwhile, the cluster labels are also predicted by exploiting the hidden structure shared by different features, which can uncover feature correlations to make the results more reliable. Row-wise sparse models are leveraged to make the proposed model suitable for feature selection. To optimize the proposed formulation, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted on 12 diverse benchmarks, including face data, handwritten digit data, document data, and biomedical data. The encouraging experimental results in comparison with several representative algorithms and the theoretical analysis demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for feature selection. © 1989-2012 IEEE. Source


Dixon J.,Australian National University | Richards C.,Queensland University of Technology
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2016

This paper offers one explanation for the institutional basis of food insecurity in Australia, and argues that while alternative food networks and the food sovereignty movement perform a valuable function in building forms of social solidarity between urban consumers and rural producers, they currently make only a minor contribution to Australia’s food and nutrition security. The paper begins by identifying two key drivers of food security: household incomes (on the demand side) and nutrition-sensitive, ‘fair food’ agriculture (on the supply side). We focus on this second driver and argue that healthy populations require an agricultural sector that delivers dietary diversity via a fair and sustainable food system. In order to understand why nutrition-sensitive, fair food agriculture is not flourishing in Australia we introduce the development economics theory of urban bias. According to this theory, governments support capital intensive rather than labour intensive agriculture in order to deliver cheap food alongside the transfer of public revenues gained from rural agriculture to urban infrastructure, where the majority of the voting public resides. We chart the unfolding of the Urban Bias across the twentieth century and its consolidation through neo-liberal orthodoxy, and argue that agricultural policies do little to sustain, let alone revitalize, rural and regional Australia. We conclude that by observing food system dynamics through a re-spatialized lens, Urban Bias Theory is valuable in highlighting rural–urban socio-economic and political economy tensions, particularly regarding food system sustainability. It also sheds light on the cultural economy tensions for alternative food networks as they move beyond niche markets to simultaneously support urban food security and sustainable rural livelihoods. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Schroeter R.,Queensland University of Technology
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW | Year: 2012

Local governments struggle to engage time poor and seemingly apathetic citizens, as well as the city's young digital natives, the digital locals. This project aims at providing a lightweight, technological contribution towards removing the hierarchy between those who build the city and those who use it. We aim to narrow this gap by enhancing people's experience of physical spaces with digital, civic technologies that are directly accessible within that space. This paper presents the findings of a design trial allowing users to interact with a public screen via their mobile phones. The screen facilitated a feedback platform about a concrete urban planning project by promoting specific questions and encouraging direct, in-situ, real-time responses via SMS and twitter. This new mechanism offers additional benefits for civic participation as it gives voice to residents who otherwise would not be heard. It also promotes a positive attitude towards local governments and gathers information different from more traditional public engagement tools. © 2012 ACM. Source


Mortimer G.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to segment primary male grocery shoppers based on store and product attribute evaluations. A rich profile for each segment is developed. These developed contemporary shopper typologies are contrasted against earlier works. Design/methodology/approach: Data of 280 male grocery shoppers was attained by a survey questionnaire. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and ANOVA were employed to develop specific segments of male shoppers. Findings: Four distinct cohorts of male shoppers emerge from the data of eight constructs, measured by 46 items. One new shopper type, not found in earlier typology literature, emerged from this research. This shopper presented as young, well educated, at the commencement of their career and family lifecycle, attracted by a strong value offer and willingness to share the family food shopping responsibilities. Practical implications: Research outcomes encourage supermarket retailers to implement targeted marketing and rationalized operational strategies that deliver on attributes of importance. Originality/value: This research makes a contribution to segmentation literature and grocery retail practice in several ways. It presents the first retail typology of male supermarket shoppers, employing a cluster analysis technique. The research provides insights into the modern family food shopping behaviour of men, a channel in which men are now recognised as equal contributors. The research provides the basis for further gender comparative and cross-contextual studies. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Hines S.,Queensland University of Technology
International journal of evidence-based healthcare | Year: 2010

This systematic review aimed to establish best practice in relation to thickened fluids for people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities. This review considered all types of studies that examined the prescription and administration of thickened fluids to people with dementia in residential aged care facilities. English-language articles published from 1995 to 2008 were sought in a comprehensive search of an extensive range of databases, online sources and unpublished literature. Two independent reviewers critically appraised each article using the relevant Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (JBI-SUMARI) instruments, then data were extracted from those articles that met the inclusion criteria. No meta-analysis was possible because of significant clinical and methodological heterogeneity, therefore results are reported narratively. From 112 papers originally identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the findings. Nine studies recommend the use of thickened fluids as a strategy to maintain adequate fluid intake for persons with dementia with dysphagia in residential aged care and four papers recommend their use for people with dementia in general. One paper reported that the use of thickened fluids was found to be acceptable to older people in the event of dementia and dysphagia. From the retrieved data, evidence-based best practices cannot be concluded. It can, however, be cautiously inferred that thickened fluids may be effective for residents with dementia if set guidelines are instituted. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2010 The Joanna Briggs Institute. Source


Jayaswal V.,Queensland University of Technology | Jayaswal V.,University of Sydney | Wong T.K.F.,CSIRO | Robinson J.,University of Sydney | And 2 more authors.
Systematic Biology | Year: 2014

Molecular phylogenetic studies of homologous sequences of nucleotides often assume that the underlying evolutionary process was globally stationary, reversible, and homogeneous (SRH), and that a model of evolution with one or more site-specific and time-reversible rate matrices (e.g., the GTR rate matrix) is enough to accurately model the evolution of data over the whole tree. However, an increasing body of data suggests that evolution under these conditions is an exception, rather than the norm. To address this issue, several non-SRH models of molecular evolution have been proposed, but they either ignore heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites (HAS) or assume it can be modeled accurately using the Γ distribution. As an alternative to these models of evolution, we introduce a family ofmixture models that approximate HAS without the assumption of an underlying predefined statistical distribution. This family of mixture models is combined with non-SRH models of evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across lineages (HAL). We also present two algorithms for searching model space and identifying an optimal model of evolution that is less likely to over- or underparameterize the data. The performance of the two new algorithms was evaluated using alignments of nucleotides with 10 000 sites simulated under complex non-SRH conditions on a 25-tipped tree. The algorithms were found to be very successful, identifying the correct HAL model with a 75% success rate (the average success rate for assigning rate matrices to the tree's 48 edges was 99.25%) and, for the correct HAL model, identifying the correct HAS model with a 98% success rate. Finally, parameter estimates obtained under the correct HAL-HAS model were found to be accurate and precise. The merits of our new algorithms were illustrated with an analysis of 42 337 second codon sites extracted from a concatenation of 106 alignments of orthologous genes encoded by the nuclear genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. kudriavzevii, S. castellii, S. kluyveri, S. bayanus, and Candida albicans. Our results show that second codon sites in the ancestral genome of these species contained 49.1% invariable sites, 39.6% variable sites belonging to one rate category (ν1), and 11.3% variable sites belonging to a second rate category (ν2). The ancestral nucleotide content was found to differ markedly across these three sets of sites, and the evolutionary processes operating at the variable sites were found to be non-SRH and best modeled by a combination of eight edge-specific rate matrices (four for ν1 and four for ν2). The number of substitutions per site at the variable sites also differed markedly, with sites belonging to ν1 evolving slower than those belonging to ν2 along the lineages separating the seven species of Saccharomyces. Finally, sites belonging to ν1 appeared to have ceased evolving along the lineages separating S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. kudriavzevii, and S. bayanus, implying that they might have become so selectively constrained that they could be considered invariable sites in these species. © CSIRO 2014. Source


Turner L.R.,Queensland University of Technology
Prehospital and disaster medicine | Year: 2013

Introduction Heat waves have significant impacts on mortality and morbidity. However, little is known regarding effects on pre-admission health outcomes such as ambulance attendances, particularly in subtropical regions. Problem This study investigated both main temperature effects and the added effects of heat waves on ambulance attendances in Brisbane, a subtropical city in Australia. Daily data relating to 783,935 ambulance attendances, along with data on meteorological variables and air pollutants, were collected for the period 2000-2007. Ambient temperature (main) effects were assessed using a distributed lag nonlinear approach that accounted for delayed effects of temperature, while added heat wave effects were incorporated separately using a local heat wave definition. Effect estimates were obtained for total, cardiovascular and respiratory attendances, and different age groups. Main effects of temperature were found for total attendances, which increased by 50.6% (95% CI, 32.3%-71.4%) for a 9.5°C increase above a reference temperature of 29°C. An added heat wave effect on total attendances was observed (18.8%; 95% CI, 6.5%-32.5%). Significant effects were found for both respiratory and cardiovascular attendances, particularly for those aged 65 and above. Ambulance attendances can be significantly impacted by sustained periods of high temperatures, and are a valid source of early detection of the effects of extreme temperatures on the population. The planning of ambulance services may need to be adapted as a consequence of increasing numbers of heat waves in the future. Ambulance attendance data also should be utilized in the development of heat warning systems and climate change adaptation strategies. Source


Davids K.,Queensland University of Technology | Araujo D.,University of Lisbon
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2010

The concept of organismic asymmetry refers to an inherent bias for seeking explanations of human performance and behaviour based on internal mechanisms and referents. A weakness in this tendency is a failure to consider the performer-environment relationship as the relevant scale of analysis. In this paper we elucidate the philosophical roots of the bias and discuss implications of organismic asymmetry for sport science and performance analysis, highlighting examples in psychology, sports medicine and biomechanics. © 2010. Source


Miller E.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Leisure Research | Year: 2016

How do older adults living in residential aged care experience leisure activities? What restricts and facilitates participation? These two research questions guided this semi-longitudinal qualitative research, tracking the lived experience of aged care from the perspective of 20 new-aged care residents over 18 months (average age, 80 years) through repeated in-depth semi-structured interviews. Interview data were analyzed using phenomenography, an under-utilized qualitative analysis technique that identifies the variations in how people experience, understand, or conceive of a phenomenon. Phenomenography revealed three qualitatively different ways to understand residents' leisure experience: (1) as a structure for living, (2) creating social connections and (3) maintaining ability. By illustrating the variation and similarities in how these older Australian residents conceptualise and experience leisure in aged care, the findings may help facilitate a more thoughtful understanding that informs theory, policy, and practice. Source


Recker J.,Queensland University of Technology
Information and Management | Year: 2010

Our objective was to determine the factors that lead users to continue working with process modeling grammars after their initial adoption. We examined the explanatory power of three theoretical models of IT usage by applying them to two popular process modeling grammars. We found that a hybrid model of technology acceptance and expectation-confirmation best explained user intentions to continue using the grammars. We examined differences in the model results, and used them to provide three contributions. First, the study confirmed the applicability of IT usage models to the domain of process modeling. Second, we discovered that differences in continued usage intentions depended on the grammar type instead of the user characteristics. Third, we suggest implications and practice. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Costello M.-E.,Queensland Medical Laboratory | Huygens F.,Queensland University of Technology
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Emergence and dissemination of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains are being reported with increasing frequency in Australia and worldwide. These strains of CA-MRSA are genetically diverse and distinct in Australia. Genotyping of CA-MRSA using eight highly-discriminatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a rapid and robust method for monitoring the dissemination of these strains in the community. In this study, a SNP genotyping method was used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of 249 community acquired non-multiresistant MRSA (nm-MRSA) isolates over a 12-month period from routine diagnostic specimens. A real-time PCR for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also performed on these isolates. The CA-MRSA isolates were sourced from a large private laboratory in Brisbane, Australia that serves a wide geographic region encompassing Queensland and Northern New South Wales. This study identified 16 different STs and 98% of the CA-MRSA isolates were positive for the PVL gene. The most common ST was ST93 with 41% of isolates testing positive for this clone. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Demark-Wahnefried W.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Campbell K.L.,University of British Columbia | Hayes S.C.,Queensland University of Technology
Cancer | Year: 2012

Overweight and obesity are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, and many women diagnosed with breast cancer, irrespective of menopausal status, gain weight after diagnosis. Weight management plays an important role in rehabilitation and recovery because obesity and/or weight gain may lead to poorer breast cancer prognosis, as well as prevalent comorbid conditions (eg, cardiovascular disease and diabetes), poorer surgical outcomes (eg, increased operating and recovery times, higher infection rates, and poorer healing), lymphedema, fatigue, functional decline, and poorer health and overall quality of life. Health care professionals should encourage weight management at all phases of the cancer care continuum as a means to potentially avoid adverse sequelae and late effects, as well as to improve overall health and possibly survival. Comprehensive approaches that involve dietary and behavior modification, and increased aerobic and strength training exercise have shown promise in either preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss, reducing biomarkers associated with inflammation and comorbidity, and improving lifestyle behaviors, functional status, and quality of life in this high-risk patient population. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Source


Chen X.,Star Intellect Pty Ltd. | Jones H.M.,Australian National University | Jayalath D.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2011

In wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), packet transmission is impaired by radio link fluctuations. This paper proposes a novel channel adaptive routing protocol which extends the Ad hoc On-Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol to accommodate channel fading. Specifically, the proposed Channel-Aware AOMDV (CA-AOMDV) uses the channel average nonfading duration as a routing metric to select stable links for path discovery, and applies a preemptive handoff strategy to maintain reliable connections by exploiting channel state information. Using the same information, paths can be reused when they become available again, rather than being discarded. We provide new theoretical results for the downtime and lifetime of a live-die-live multiple path system, as well as detailed theoretical expressions for common network performance measures, providing useful insights into the differences in performance between CA-AOMDV and AOMDV. Simulation and theoretical results show that CA-AOMDV has greatly improved network performance over AOMDV. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Hutmacher D.W.,Queensland University of Technology | Dalton P.D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Chemistry - An Asian Journal | Year: 2011

Melt electrospinning is relatively under-investigated compared to solution electrospinning but provides opportunities in numerous areas, in which solvent accumulation or toxicity are a concern. These applications are diverse, and provide a broad set of challenges to researchers involved in electrospinning. In this context, melt electrospinning provides an alternative approach that bypasses some challenges to solution electronspinning, while bringing new issues to the forefront, such as the thermal stability of polymers. This Focus Review describes the literature on melt electrospinning, as well as highlighting areas where both melt and solution are combined, and potentially merge together in the future. New kid on the block: Melt electrospinning is comparatively under-investigated compared to solution electrospinning but provides opportunities in numerous areas where solvent accumulation or toxicity are a concern. This Focus Review provides an historical perspective and covers all published articles on melt electrospinning. Additionally, we describe two uses for melt-electrospun fibersa-textiles and scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) applicationsa-and put forth our opinions on the future in these areas. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Parker R.,Queensland University of Technology
European Urban and Regional Studies | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to advance understandings of the processes of cluster-building and evolution, or transformative and adaptive change, through the conscious design and reflective activities of private and public actors. A model of transformation is developed which illustrates the importance of actors becoming exposed to new ideas and visions for industrial change by political entrepreneurs and external networks. Further, actors must be guided in their decision-making and action by the new vision, and this requires that they are persuaded of its viability through the provision of test cases and supportive resources and institutions. In order for new ideas to become guiding models, actors must be convinced of their desirability through the portrayal of models as a means of confronting competitive challenges and serving the economic interests of the city/region. Subsequent adaptive change is iterative and reflexive, involving a process of strategic learning amongst key industrial and political actors. © The Author(s) 2010. Source


Freestone R.,University of New South Wales | Baker D.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2010

The privatization of major Australian airports in the late 1990s unleashed an unprecedented development wave as corporate lessees implemented ambitious business plans. While planning and environmental regulations governing on-airport development were significantly enhanced, there has been national disquiet about a governance regime that remains under the auspices of the federal government and is not effectively integrated into state and local decision-making machinery. Tensions in major airport regions have been exacerbated by the building of highly conspicuous non-aeronautical developments approved with no determining input by local decision-makers as well as the growing pressures on off-airport locations for aviation-related development. This paper canvasses this context and overviews the evolving structure of planning controls for Australia's privatized federal airports. A range of issues surfacing through the National Aviation Policy Review process in 2008-2009 is described. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Algergawy A.,Tanta University | Mesiti M.,University of Milan | Nayak R.,Queensland University of Technology | Saake G.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2011

In the last few years we have observed a proliferation of approaches for clustering XML documents and schemas based on their structure and content. The presence of such a huge amount of approaches is due to the different applications requiring the clustering of XML data. These applications need data in the form of similar contents, tags, paths, structures, and semantics. In this article, we first outline the application contexts in which clustering is useful, then we survey approaches so far proposed relying on the abstract representation of data (instances or schema), on the identified similarity measure, and on the clustering algorithm. In this presentation, we aim to draw a taxonomy in which the current approaches can be classified and compared. We aim at introducing an integrated view that is useful when comparing XML data clustering approaches, when developing a new clustering algorithm, and when implementing an XML clustering component. Finally, the article moves into the description of future trends and research issues that still need to be faced. © 2011 ACM. Source


Wang H.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Photoenergy | Year: 2011

The research in thin film solar cells has been dominated by light absorber materials based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) in the last several decades. The concerns of environment impact of cadmium and the limited availability of indium in those materials have driven the research towards developing new substitute light absorbers made from earth abundant, environment benign materials. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductor material has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for this aim and has attracted considerable interest recently. Significant progress in this relatively new research area has been achieved in the last three years. Over 130 papers on CZTS have been published since 2007, and the majority of them are on the preparation of CZTS thin films by different methods. This paper, will review the wide range of techniques that have been used to deposit CZTS semiconductor thin films. The performance of the thin film solar cells using the CZTS material will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Hongxia Wang. Source


Saha S.C.,Queensland University of Technology | Saha S.C.,Central Queensland University | Khan M.M.K.,Central Queensland University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

This paper presents a review of studies on natural convection heat transfer in the triangular enclosure namely, in attic-shaped space. Much research activity has been devoted to this topic over the last three decades with a view to providing thermal comfort to the occupants in attic-shaped buildings and to minimising the energy costs associated with heating and air-conditioning. Two basic thermal boundary conditions of attic are considered to represent hot and cold climates or day and night time. This paper also reports on a significant number of studies which have been performed recently on other topics related to the attic space, for example, attics subject to localized heating and attics filled with porous media. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Pangga I.B.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos | Hanan J.,Queensland University of Technology | Chakraborty S.,CSIRO
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Canopy-level interactions have been largely ignored in epidemiological models and their applications in defining disease risks under climate change, although these interactions are important for disease management. This paper uses anthracnose of Stylosanthes scabra as a case study and reviews research on dynamics of the pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) at the canopy level and pathogen evolution under changing climate. It argues that linking of pathogen dynamics, crop growth and climate models is essential in predicting disease risks under climate change. A plant functional-structural model was used to couple S. scabra growth and architecture with disease under ambient and elevated CO2. A level of induced resistance in plants with enlarged canopy determined anthracnose severity at elevated CO2. Moisture-related microclimatic variables determined infection at ambient but not at elevated CO2. At high CO2 increased disease level from raised pathogen fecundity in enlarged canopy accelerated pathogen evolution after 25 sequential infection cycles. Modelling of pathogen dynamics under climate change currently suffers from a paucity of quantitative data, mismatch of scales in coupling climate and disease models, and model uncertainties. Further experimental research on interactions of biotic and abiotic factors on plant diseases under climate change and validation of models are essential prior to their use in climate-change prediction. Understanding and anticipating trends in host-pathogen evolution under climate change will improve the durability of resistance and lay the foundation for increased crop adaptation through pre-emptive plant breeding. © 2011 CSIRO. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP. Source


Adam C.,Queensland University of Technology
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2012

Two major difficulties facing widespread clinical implementation of existing Tissue Engineering (TE) strategies for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders are (1) the cost, space and time required for ex vivo culture of a patient's autologous cells prior to re-implantation as part of a TE construct, and (2) the potential risks and availability constraints associated with transplanting exogenous (foreign) cells. These hurdles have led to recent interest in endogenous TE strategies, in which the regenerative potential of a patient's own cells is harnessed to promote tissue regrowth without ex vivo cell culture. This article provides a focused perspective on key issues in the development of endogenous TE strategies, progress to date, and suggested future research directions toward endogenous repair and regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues and organs. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source


James A.,Queensland University of Technology
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2010

Expert elicitation is the process of retrieving and quantifying expert knowledge in a particular domain. Such information is of particular value when the empirical data is expensive, limited or unreliable. This paper describes a new software tool, called Elicitator, which assists in quantifying expert knowledge in a form suitable for use as a prior model in Bayesian regression. Potential environmental domains for applying this elicitation tool include habitat modelling, assessing detectability or eradication, ecological condition assessments, risk analysis and quantifying inputs to complex models of ecological processes. The tool has been developed to be user-friendly, extensible and facilitate consistent and repeatable elicitation of expert knowledge across these various domains. We demonstrate its application to elicitation for logistic regression in a geographically based ecological context. The underlying statistical methodology is also novel, utilizing an indirect elicitation approach to target expert knowledge on a case-by-case basis. For several elicitation sites (or cases), experts are asked simply to quantify their estimated ecological response (e.g. probability of presence), and its range of plausible values, after inspecting (habitat) covariates via GIS. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Conant R.T.,Colorado State University | Conant R.T.,Queensland University of Technology
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2011

Current climate mitigation policies have not fully resolved contentious issues regarding the inclusion of carbon sequestration through changes in forestry and agricultural management practices. Terrestrial carbon sinks could be a low-cost mitigation option that fosters conservation and development, yet issues related to accurately documenting the amount of carbon sequestered undermine confidence that emission offsets through sequestration are equivalent to emission reductions. From an atmospheric perspective, net of CO 2 removals through sequestration are equivalent to emission reductions over a given period of time. But carbon will not remain sequestered in biomass or soils indefinitely and investments in sequestration could stifle investments in reducing emissions from other sources. Many international climate agreements cap emissions from some countries or sectors but enable participation of uncapped countries or sectors for forestry and agricultural sequestration. This structure can prompt emission increases in parts of the uncapped entities that weaken the value of emission reductions earned through sequestration. This has been a minor issue under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. Reduced emissions through deforestation and degradation is susceptible to the same problems. The purpose of this article is to review the science, politics, and policy that form the basis of arguments for and against the inclusion forestry and agricultural sequestration as a component of current and future international climate mitigation policies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

There is a debate as to whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is the best procedure for subjects with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease requiring revascularization. There is some evidence that by following these procedures, there is less further revascularization with CABG than PCI in subjects with diabetes. Two recent studies, namely, the FREEDOM (Future Revascularization Evaluation in patients with Diabetes mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease) trial and a trial using a real-world diabetic population from a Registry have shown that the benefits of CABG over PCI in subjects with type 2 diabetes extend to lower rates of death and myocardial infarction, in addition to lower rates of revascularization. However, the rates of stroke may be higher with CABG than PCI with drug-eluting stents in this population. Thus, if CABG is going to be preferred to PCI in subjects with type 2 diabetes and multivessel coronary disease, consideration should be given as to how to reduce the rates of stroke with CABG. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Frost R.L.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

The Raman spectra of a series of related minerals of the pinakiolité group have been collected and the spectra related to the mineral structure. These minerals are based upon an isolated BO3 3- ion. The site symmetry is reduced from D3h to C1. Intense Raman bands are observed for the minerals takeuchiité, pinakiolité, fredrikssonité and azoproité at 1084, 1086, 1086 and 1086 cm -1. These bands are assigned to the ν1 BO 3 3- symmetric stretching mode. Low-intensity Raman bands are observed for the minerals at 1345, 1748; 1435, 1748; 1435, 1750; and 1436, 1749 cm-1, respectively. One probable assignment is to ν3 BO3 3- antisymmetric stretching mode. Intense Raman bands of the studied minerals at 712 cm-1 are attributed to the ν2 out-of-plane bending mode. Importantly, through the comparison of the Raman spectra, the molecular structure of borate minerals with ill-defined structures can be obtained. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Mcgee A.,Queensland University of Technology
Bioethics | Year: 2015

This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Frost R.L.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

Raman spectroscopy has been used to study selected mineral samples of the copiapite group. Copiapite (Fe2+Fe3+(SO4) 6(OH)2 · 20H2O) is a secondary mineral formed through the oxidation of pyrite. Minerals of the copiapite group have the general formula AFe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O, where A has a + 2 charge and can be either magnesium, iron, copper, calcium and/or zinc. The formula can also be B 2/3Fe4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O, where B has a + 3 charge and may be either aluminium or iron. For each mineral, two Raman bands are observed at around 992 and 1029 cm-1, assigned to the (SO4)2-ν1 symmetric stretching mode. The observation of two bands provides evidence for the existence of two non-equivalent sulfate anions in the mineral structure. Three Raman bands at 1112, 1142 and 1161 cm-1 are observed in the Raman spectrum of copiapites, indicating a reduction of symmetry of the sulfate anion in the copiapite structure. This reduction in symmetry is supported by multiple bands in the ν2 and ν4(SO4) 2- spectral regions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Gilmore L.,Queensland University of Technology | Cuskelly M.,University of Queensland
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities | Year: 2011

Despite a lack of consistent empirical evidence, there has been an ongoing assumption that intellectual disability is associated with reduced levels of motivation. The participants in this study were 33 children with Down syndrome ages 10-15 years and 33 typically developing 3-8-year-old children. Motivation was measured through observational assessments of curiosity, preference for challenge, and persistence, as well as maternal reports. There were no significant group differences on motivation tasks, but mothers of children with Down syndrome rated their children significantly lower on motivation than did parents of typically developing children. There were some intriguing group differences in the pattern of correlations among observations and parent reports. The findings challenge long-held views that individuals with intellectual disability are invariably deficient in motivation. © American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Source


Taylor Z.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention | Year: 2010

Reduced order modelling, in which a full system response is projected onto a subspace of lower dimensionality, has been used previously to accelerate finite element solution schemes by reducing the size of the involved linear systems. In the present work we take advantage of a secondary effect of such reduction for explicit analyses, namely that the stable integration time step is increased far beyond that of the full system. This phenomenon alleviates one of the principal drawbacks of explicit methods, compared with implicit schemes. We present an explicit finite element scheme in which time integration is performed in a reduced basis. The computational benefits of the procedure within a GPU-based execution framework are examined, and an assessment of the errors introduced is given. Speedups approaching an order of magnitude are feasible, without introduction of prohibitive errors, and without hardware modifications. The procedure may have applications in medical image-guidance problems in which both speed and accuracy are vital. Source


Zare F.,Queensland University of Technology
IET Electric Power Applications | Year: 2010

This study presents a practical method to find a high-frequency model of AC machine in order to predict leakage current and shaft voltage. A voltage-source inverter with hard switches generates pulse width modulated voltage with high dv/dt and common-mode voltage, which causes leakage current and shaft voltage due to stray capacitances in an electric motor. At fundamental frequency (a few hundred hertz), an equivalent circuit of an electric motor consists of inductances and resistances without considering stray capacitances. This study presents a practical approach in extracting high-frequency parameters of an electric motor for leakage current and shaft voltage analysis. Input impedance (magnitude and phase values) of several configurations of an AC motor is measured using a network analyser. All capacitive couplings between windings, stator and rotor are extracted based on theoretical analysis and measurement results. Simulations are compared with test results to verify the proposed method and model. © 2010 The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology | Hancox J.C.,University of Bristol
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2014

Introduction: Domperidone is a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist developed as an antiemetic and prokinetic agent. Oral domperidone is not approved in the United States, but it is used in many countries to treat nausea and vomiting, gastroparesis and as a galactogogue (to promote lactation). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have issued a warning about the cardiac safety of domperidone. Areas covered: The authors undertook a review of the cardiac safety of oral domperidone. Expert opinion: The data from preclinical studies are unambiguous in identifying domperidone as able to produce marked hERG channel inhibition and action potential prolongation at clinically relevant concentrations. The compound's propensity to augment instability of action potential duration and action potential triangulation are also indicative of proarrhythmic potential. Domperidone should not be administered to subjects with pre-existing QT prolongation/LQTS, subjects receiving drugs that inhibit CYP3A4, subjects with electrolyte abnormalities or with other risk factors for QT-prolongation. With these provisos, it is possible that domperidone may be used as a galactogogue without direct risk to healthy breast feeding women, but more safety information should be sought in this situation. Also, more safety information is required regarding risk to breast feeding infants before domperidone is routinely used in gastroparesis or gastroesphageal reflux in children. © Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Smith G.,Queensland University of Technology
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

The crystal structures of the rubidium and caesium complexes with 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (orthanilic acid), [Rb 4(C 6H 6NO 3S) 4(H 2O)] n(1) and [Cs(C 6H 6NO 3S)] n(2), have been determined at 200 K. Complex 1 has a repeating unit comprising four independent and different Rb coordination centres, (RbO 8), (RbO 7), (RbN 2O 4) and (RbO 10), each having irregular stereochemistry and involving several bidentate chelate sulfonate-O,O′-metal and bridging interactions, giving a two-dimensional polymeric layered structure. Anhydrous complex 2 is also polymeric with the irregular (CsO 7) coordination polyhedron comprising six sulfonate oxygen donors from three separate bidentate chelate sulfonate ligands and one monodentate bridging sulfonate oxygen, giving a two-dimensional layered structure. © 2012 CSIRO. Source


Hewitt B.,University of Queensland | Turrell G.,Queensland University of Technology
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

The authors investigated the health consequences of marital separation and whether the partners who initiated the separation had better health than those who did not. The data came from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) panel study (2001-2007), comprising an analytic sample of 1,786 men and 2,068 women who were in their first marriages in 2001. For participants who separated, the authors distinguished between self-initiated, partner-initiated, and jointly initiated separations. Using linear random-intercept models, they examined scores on the 8 physical and mental health dimensions of Short Form 36, with scale scores ranging from 0 to 100. The results indicated that in general, men who separated had a decline in health, although this was more pronounced for mental dimensions than for physical dimensions. Among separated men, those whose partner initiated the separation had poorer mental health than those for whom the separation was self-initiated or jointly initiated (-4.61). Women's physical health improved with separation, but their mental health declined. For separated women, those whose partner initiated the separation had lower scores on the general health (-5.39), role-emotional (-11.08), and mental health (-7.18) scales than women who self-initiated separation. The health consequences of separation were less severe for self- or jointly initiated separations, suggesting that not all marital dissolutions are equally bad for health. © 2011 The Author. Source


Lei Z.,Shaanxi Normal University | Liu Z.,Shaanxi Normal University | Wang H.,Shaanxi Normal University | Sun X.,Shaanxi Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

A graphene-based supercapacitor electrode suitable for ionic liquid electrolytes was designed and prepared based on the electrostatic interactions between negatively charged graphene oxides (GO) and positively charged mesoporous carbon CMK-5 platelets. Thermal annealing of the GO-CMK-5 composite under an inert atmosphere yielded a hierarchical carbon nanostructure with CMK-5 platelets uniformly intercalated between the GO sheets. The electrochemical results demonstrated that the CMK-5 platelets with straight and short mesochannels served as a highway for the fast transport of electrolyte ions, while the separated graphene sheets with more exposed electrochemical surface area favored the formation of electrical double layer capacitance. The RGO-CMK-5 electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 144.4 F g-1 in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid electrolyte, which can be charged/discharged at an operating voltage of 3.5 V. As a result, an energy density of 60.7 W h kg-1 and a power density as high as 10 kW kg-1 were achieved, which outperforms most of the present graphene-based supercapacitors. Moreover, the superior rate performance together with the excellent cycle performance makes the RGO-CMK-5 composite a promising candidate for next generation supercapacitor electrodes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013. Source


Hughes S.W.,Queensland University of Technology
Physics Education | Year: 2010

In this article, some classroom experiments are described for correcting the common misconception that the operation of a siphon depends on atmospheric pressure. One experiment makes use of a chain model of a siphon and another demonstrates that flow rate is dependent on the height difference between the inflow and outflow of a siphon and not atmospheric pressure. A real-life example of the use of a siphon to refill a lake in South Australia is described, demonstrating that the siphon is not only of academic interest but has practical applications. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Brown R.,Queensland University of Technology | Chanson H.,University of Queensland
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2013

In urbanized areas, flood flows constitute a hazard to populations and infrastructure, as illustrated during major floods in 2011. During the 2011 Brisbane River flood, some turbulent velocity data were collected using acoustic Doppler velocimetry in an inundated street. The field deployment showed some unusual features of flood flow in the urban environment. That is, the water elevations and velocities fluctuated with distinctive periods between 50 and 100 s linked with some local topographic effects. The instantaneous velocity data were analyzed using a triple decomposition. The velocity fluctuations included a large energy component in the slow fluctuation range, whereas the turbulent motion components were much smaller. The suspended sediment data showed some significant longitudinal flux. Altogether, the results highlighted that the triple decomposition approach originally developed for periodic flows is well-suited to complicated flows in an inundated urban environment. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2011

Oestrogen receptor positive (ER +) breast cancers are susceptible to endocrine treatments, such as tamoxifen. However, resistance is a major problem when treating breast cancer with these agents. ERα phosphorylation is implicated in this resistance to tamoxifen, and kinases are the enzymes that catalyse phosphorylation. A kinome search in human breast cancer cells identified lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3). In primary breast cancer samples, high nuclear LMTK3 expression was associated with a shorter disease-free survival time. In tamoxifen-resistant cell lines, the addition of LMTK3 siRNA, increased the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen. In nude mice, with established human MCF-7 breast cancer tumours, LMTK3 siRNA decreased tumour growth. In conclusion, LMKT3 is a possible target and marker of breast cancer. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Taulis M.,Queensland University of Technology | Milke M.,University of Canterbury
Water Research | Year: 2013

A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO2) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO2 degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pemsel S.,Lund University | Wiewiora A.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2013

Current research into project management offices (PMOs) has stressed the PMOs' potential to act as knowledge brokers between projects, and between project and top management. Nonetheless, the literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the brokering role of PMOs. The research reported here aims to examine PMO's functions from a knowledge sharing perspective and explore whether or not these functions reflect the knowledge sharing needs of project managers (PMs). These issues are investigated through a cross-case analysis of seven organisations. The main contribution is insight into how PMs share knowledge and awareness of the need to structure PMOs to align with PMs' nature, needs and expectations in order to improve knowledge sharing in PBOs. Finally, some practical steps for helping PMOs to better adapt their functions to the needs of PMs and their learning and knowledge sharing style are proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Iu C.K.,Queensland University of Technology
Engineering Structures | Year: 2015

The finite element method in principle adaptively divides the continuous domain with complex geometry into discrete simple subdomain by using an approximate element function, and the continuous element loads are also converted into the nodal load by means of the traditional lumping and consistent load methods, which can standardise a plethora of element loads into a typical numerical procedure, but element load effect is restricted to the nodal solution. It in turn means the accurate continuous element solutions with the element load effects are merely restricted to element nodes discretely, and further limited to either displacement or force field depending on which type of approximate function is derived. On the other hand, the analytical stability functions can give the accurate continuous element solutions due to element loads. Unfortunately, the expressions of stability functions are very diverse and distinct when subjected to different element loads that deter the practical applications. To this end, this paper presents a displacement-based finite element function (generalised element load method) with a plethora of element load effects in the similar fashion that never be achieved by the stability function, as well as it can generate the continuous first- and second-order elastic displacement and force solutions along an element without loss of accuracy considerably as the analytical approach that never be achieved by neither the lumping nor consistent load methods. Hence, the salient and unique features of this paper (generalised element load method) embody its robustness, versatility and accuracy in continuous element solutions when subjected to the great diversity of transverse element loads. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Knibbs L.D.,Queensland University of Technology | de Dear R.J.,University of Sydney
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

Concentrations of ultrafine (<0.1 μm) particles (UFPs) and PM2.5 (<2.5 μm) were measured whilst commuting along a similar route by train, bus, ferry and automobile in Sydney, Australia. One trip on each transport mode was undertaken during both morning and evening peak hours throughout a working week, for a total of 40 trips. Analyses comprised one-way ANOVA to compare overall (i.e. all trips combined) geometric mean concentrations of both particle fractions measured across transport modes, and assessment of both the correlation between wind speed and individual trip means of UFPs and PM2.5, and the correlation between the two particle fractions. Overall geometric mean concentrations of UFPs and PM2.5 ranged from 2.8 (train) to 8.4 (bus) × 104 particles cm-3 and 22.6 (automobile) to 29.6 (bus) μg m-3, respectively, and a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between modes was found for both particle fractions. Individual trip geometric mean concentrations were between 9.7 × 103 (train) and 2.2 × 105 (bus) particles cm-3 and 9.5 (train) to 78.7 (train) μg m-3. Estimated commuter exposures were variable, and the highest return trip mean PM2.5 exposure occurred in the ferry mode, whilst the highest UFP exposure occurred during bus trips. The correlation between fractions was generally poor, and in keeping with the duality of particle mass and number emissions in vehicle-dominated urban areas. Wind speed was negatively correlated with, and a generally poor determinant of, UFP and PM2.5 concentrations, suggesting a more significant role for other factors in determining commuter exposure. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wood J.M.,Queensland University of Technology
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2013

To compare the on-road driving performance of visually impaired drivers using bioptic telescopes with age-matched controls. Participants included 23 persons (mean age = 33 ± 12 years) with visual acuity of 20/63 to 20/200 who were legally licensed to drive through a state bioptic driving program, and 23 visually normal age-matched controls (mean age = 33 ± 12 years). On-road driving was assessed in an instrumented dual-brake vehicle along 14.6 miles of city, suburban, and controlled-access highways. Two backseat evaluators independently rated driving performance using a standardized scoring system. Vehicle control was assessed through vehicle instrumentation and video recordings used to evaluate head movements, lane-keeping, pedestrian detection, and frequency of bioptic telescope use. Ninety-six percent (22/23) of bioptic drivers and 100% (23/23) of controls were rated as safe to drive by the evaluators. There were no group differences for pedestrian detection, or ratings for scanning, speed, gap judgments, braking, indicator use, or obeying signs/signals. Bioptic drivers received worse ratings than controls for lane position and steering steadiness and had lower rates of correct sign and traffic signal recognition. Bioptic drivers made significantly more right head movements, drove more often over the right-hand lane marking, and exhibited more sudden braking than controls. Drivers with central vision loss who are licensed to drive through a bioptic driving program can display proficient on-road driving skills. This raises questions regarding the validity of denying such drivers a license without the opportunity to train with a bioptic telescope and undergo on-road evaluation. Source


Coffey B.,Deakin University | Marston G.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning | Year: 2013

'Sustainability' provides the dominant frame within which environmental policy debate occurs, notwithstanding its divergent meanings. However, how different discourses combine to shape understanding of the environment, the causes of environmental issues, and the responses required, is less clear cut. Drawing primarily on the approach to critical discourse analysis (CDA) developed by Fairclough, this paper explores the way in which neoliberal and ecologically modern discourses combine to shape environmental policy. Environmental scholars have made relatively little use of this approach to CDA to date, despite the significant interest in the discursive aspects of environmental issues, and its wide use in other areas of policy interest. Using the case of environmental policy-making in Victoria, Australia, this paper illustrates how neoliberalism and weak ecological modernization represented sustainability in ways that seriously limited the importance of environmental issues. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Lin X.,Nanchang University | Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists - clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0-36.0ngmL-1, respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58-1.46ngmL-1 range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Andersen U.L.,Technical University of Denmark | Ralph T.C.,Queensland University of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Martin-Martinez E.,University of Waterloo | Martin-Martinez E.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Aasen D.,University of Waterloo | Kempf A.,University of Waterloo | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We show that particle detectors, such as two-level atoms, in noninertial motion (or in gravitational fields) could be used to build quantum gates for the processing of quantum information. Concretely, we show that through suitably chosen noninertial trajectories of the detectors the interaction Hamiltonian's time dependence can be modulated to yield arbitrary rotations in the Bloch sphere due to relativistic quantum effects. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Hopkins S.,Queensland University of Technology
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: Little is known about the prevalence of refractive error, binocular vision, and other visual conditions in Australian Indigenous children. This is important given the association of these visual conditions with reduced reading performance in the wider population, which may also contribute to the suboptimal reading performance reported in this population. The aim of this study was to develop a visual profile of Queensland Indigenous children. METHODS: Vision testing was performed on 595 primary schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia. Vision parameters measured included visual acuity, refractive error, color vision, nearpoint of convergence, horizontal heterophoria, fusional vergence range, accommodative facility, AC/A ratio, visual motor integration, and rapid automatized naming. Near heterophoria, nearpoint of convergence, and near fusional vergence range were used to classify convergence insufficiency (CI). RESULTS: Although refractive error (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p = 0.04) and strabismus (Indigenous, 0%; non-Indigenous, 3%; p = 0.03) were significantly less common in Indigenous children, CI was twice as prevalent (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 5%; p = 0.04). Reduced visual information processing skills were more common in Indigenous children (reduced visual motor integration [Indigenous, 28%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p < 0.01] and slower rapid automatized naming [Indigenous, 67%; non-Indigenous, 59%; p = 0.04]). The prevalence of visual impairment (reduced visual acuity) and color vision deficiency was similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous children have less refractive error and strabismus than their non-Indigenous peers. However, CI and reduced visual information processing skills were more common in this group. Given that vision screenings primarily target visual acuity assessment and strabismus detection, this is an important finding as many Indigenous children with CI and reduced visual information processing may be missed. Emphasis should be placed on identifying children with CI and reduced visual information processing given the potential effect of these conditions on school performance. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry Source


Hoang T.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of pupil centration after application of common topical ocular drugs. METHODS: Single drops of 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride, 1% tropicamide, and 2% pilocarpine hydrochloride were applied on different days to the right eyes of 12 participants. Anterior eye images were captured, at 5-min intervals for an hour, using an infrared-sensitive camera. The images were analyzed to determine pupil diameter and pupil center, the latter with respect to the limbal center. As a control, natural pupil size and pupil center were determined under different illuminances. RESULTS: Pupil centers of natural pupils shifted temporally as pupils dilated. At common pupil sizes, drug-induced pupil centers were different from natural pupil centers. Phenylephrine produced a center shift in the nasal and inferior directions that peaked after a mean of 30 min, whereas dilation was continuing up to 60 min. Tropicamide produced transient center shifts in the nasal and inferior directions that peaked at about 10 min before reducing toward baseline values, whereas dilation reached a peak at about 25 min. Pilocarpine produced a small sustained superior shift that, like constriction, reached a peak after about 25 min. CONCLUSIONS: Application of topical ophthalmic drugs cause shifts in pupil center that do not match those produced by natural changes in pupil size and that, in the cases of phenylephrine and tropicamide, follow a different time course than the pupil size changes. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry Source


Alzahrani Y.,Queensland University of Technology
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To determine if Langerhans cells in the lid wiper are upregulated in contact lens-induced dry eye (CLIDE). METHODS: The lid wiper of one eye of 17 participants with CLIDE (assessed using the CLDEQ-8) and 29 without CLIDE (NO-CLIDE) was examined using a Heidelberg laser scanning confocal microscope after 6 months wear of daily disposable hydrogel contact lenses (Biomedics 1 day Extra). Twenty non–contact-lens-wearing controls were also examined. Langerhans cell density (LCD) in each participant was taken as the mean cell count calculated manually from six clear, randomly selected images of known dimensions. RESULTS: There were significant overall differences in LCD in the lid wiper among the three groups (p < 0.001). LCD was significantly greater in the lid wiper in CLIDE (17 ± 10 cells/mm) compared to controls (8 ± 4 cells/mm) (p < 0.001); however, there was no difference in LCD between NO-CLIDE (10 ± 5 cells/mm) and controls (p = 0.489). LCD was significantly greater in CLIDE than NO-CLIDE (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Langerhans cells in the lid wiper are upregulated in CLIDE, suggesting an inflammatory component in the etiology of this condition. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry Source


Bennett P.J.,Queensland University of Technology
Foot | Year: 2012

Background: Understanding frequency of foot problems can assist health care planners with resource deployment to new and emerging services such as paediatric podiatry and focus future research on the most salient foot conditions. Methods: A review of 2187 patient consultations during a three month period was conducted. Patient medical and podiatric history was coded using industry standards. All patients were recruited for convenience from a metropolitan university podiatry clinic. Results: 392 new patients were identified with mean age 40.6 years old (range 1-95), with 65% being female. Arthritic diseases, asthma, hypertension and allergies were the most common medical conditions reported. The frequency of new consultations in younger people (n=102; 27%) exceeded those of the elderly (n=75; 20%). Conversely, the elderly were nearly three times more prevalent in this cohort (n=910; 43%) compared to younger people (n=332; 16%). Conclusion: This study illustrates the diverse nature of pathology seen by podiatrists. Knowledge that skin lesions are highly prevalent is of relevance to health departments, given the aging nature of most populations. Moreover there appears to be a growing trend in the number of young people who present for care, however government funded access to these services are limited. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wallace D.F.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Harris J.M.,Queensland University of Technology | Subramaniam V.N.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2010

Ferroportin disease is a heterogeneous iron release disorder resulting from mutations in the ferroportin gene. Ferroportin protein is a multitransmembrane domain iron transporter, responsible for iron export from cells, which, in turn, is regulated by the peptide hormone hepcidin. Mutations in the ferroportin gene may affect either regulation of the protein's transporter function or the ability of hepcidin to regulate iron efflux. We have used a combination of functional analysis of epitope-tagged ferroportin variants coupled with theoretical modeling to dissect the relationship between ferroportin mutations and their cognate phenotypes. Myc epitope-tagged human ferroportin expression constructs were transfected into Caco-2 intestinal cells and protein localization analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy and colocalization with organelle markers. The effect of mutations on iron efflux was assessed by costaining with anti-ferritin antibodies and immunoblotting to quantitate cellular expression of ferritin and transferrin receptor 1. Wild-type ferroportin localized mainly to the cell surface and intracellular structures. All ferroportin disease-causing mutations studied had no effect on localization at the cell surface. N144H, N144T, and S338R mutant ferroportin retained the ability to transport iron. In contrast, A77D, V162Δ, and L170F mutants were iron transport defective. Surface staining experiments showed that both ends of the protein were located inside the cell. These data were used as the basis for theoretical modeling of the ferroportin molecule. The model predicted phenotypic clustering of mutations with gain-of-function variants associated with a hypothetical channel through the axis of ferroportin. Conversely, loss-of-function variants were located at the membrane/cytoplasm interface. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society. Source


De La Fuente-Nunez C.,University of British Columbia | Reffuveille F.,University of British Columbia | Fairfull-Smith K.E.,Queensland University of Technology | Hancock R.E.W.,University of British Columbia
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

The ability of nitric oxide (NO) to induce biofilm dispersion has been well established. Here, we investigated the effect of nitroxides (sterically hindered nitric oxide analogues) on biofilm formation and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A transposon mutant unable to produce nitric oxide endogenously (nirS) was deficient in swarming motility relative to the wild type and the complemented strain. Moreover, expression of the nirS gene was upregulated by 9.65-fold in wild-type swarming cells compared to planktonic cells. Wild-type swarming levels were substantially restored upon the exogenous addition of nitroxide containing compounds, a finding consistent with the hypothesis that NO is necessary for swarming motility. Here, we showed that nitroxides not only mimicked the dispersal activity of NO but also prevented biofilms from forming in flow cell chambers. In addition, a nirS transposon mutant was deficient in biofilm formation relative to the wild type and the complemented strain, thus implicating NO in the formation of biofilms. Intriguingly, despite its stand-alone action in inhibiting biofilm formation and promoting dispersal, a nitroxide partially restored the ability of a nirS mutant to form biofilms. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Massoni S.,Queensland University of Technology
Consciousness and Cognition | Year: 2014

Emotion and cognition are known to interact during human decision processes. In this study we focus on a specific kind of cognition, namely metacognition. Our experiment induces a negative emotion, worry, during a perceptual task. In a numerosity task subjects have to make a two alternative forced choice and then reveal their confidence in this decision. We measure metacognition in terms of discrimination and calibration abilities. Our results show that metacognition, but not choice, is affected by the level of worry anticipated before the decision. Under worry individuals tend to have better metacognition in terms of the two measures. Furthermore understanding the formation of confidence is better explained with taking into account the level of worry in the model. This study shows the importance of an emotional component in the formation and the quality of the subjective probabilities. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Njeh C.F.,Texas Oncology Tyler | Saunders M.W.,Texas Oncology Tyler | Langton C.M.,Queensland University of Technology
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2010

Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is the procedure of choice for the management of the early stage breast cancer. However, its utilization has not been maximized because of logistics issues associated with the protracted treatment involved with the radiation treatment. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin, rather than the whole breast. Hence because of the small volume of irradiation a higher dose can be delivered in a shorter period of time. There has been growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include Mammosite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy and Contura, Hybrid brachytherapy devices include SAVI and ClearPath. This paper reviews the different techniques, identifying the weaknesses and strength of each approach and proposes a direction for future research and development. It is evident that APBI will play a role in the management of a selected group of early breast cancer. However, the relative role of the different techniques is yet to be clearly identified.© 2010 Njeh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Xiao Y.,Queensland University of Technology
International journal of oral science | Year: 2010

Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolated from a small aspirate of bone marrow and readily generate single-cell-derived colonies. These cells have the capacity to undergo extensive replication in an undifferentiated state ex vivo. In addition, BMSCs have the potential to develop either in vitro or in vivo into distinct mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Thus, BMSCs are an attractive cell source for tissue engineering approaches. However, BMSCs are not homogeneous and the quantity of stem cells decreases in the bone marrow in aged population. A sequential loss of lineage differentiation potential has been found in the mixed culture of bone marrow stromal cells due to a heterogenous population. Therefore, a number of studies have proposed that homogenous bone marrow stem cells can be generated from clonal culture of bone marrow cells and that BMSC clones have the greatest potential for the application of bone regeneration in vivo. Source


Kok J.,Australian Research Center for Aerospace Automation | Gonzalez L.F.,Australian Research Center for Aerospace Automation | Kelson N.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2013

In this paper, a hardware-based path planning architecture for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) adaptation is proposed. The architecture aims to provide UAVs with higher autonomy using an application-specific evolutionary algorithm (EA) implemented entirely on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. The physical attributes of an FPGA chip, being compact in size and low in power consumption, makes it an ideal platform for UAV applications. The design, which is implemented entirely in hardware, consists of EA modules, population storage resources, and 3-D terrain information necessary to the path planning process, subject to constraints accounted for separately via UAV, environment, and mission profiles. The architecture has been successfully synthesized for a target Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA platform with 32% logic slice utilization. Results obtained from case studies for a small UAV helicopter with environment derived from light-detection and ranging data verify the effectiveness of the proposed FPGA-based pathplanner, and demonstrate convergence at rates above the typical 10 Hz update frequency of an autopilot system. © 1997-2012 IEEE. Source


Adherence to medicines is a major determinant of their effectiveness. However, estimates of non-adherence in the older-aged (defined as those aged ≥65 years) with chronic conditions vary from 40 to 75. The problems caused by non-adherence in the older-aged include residential care and hospital admissions, progression of the disease and increased costs to society. The reasons for non-adherence in the older-aged include items related to the medicine (e.g. cost, number of medicines, adverse effects) and those related to the person (e.g. cognition, vision, depression). It is also known that there are many ways adherence can be increased (e.g. use of blister packs, cues).Although it is assumed that interventions by allied health professionals (i.e. other than the prescriberdoctor), including a discussion of adherence, will improve adherence to medicines in the older-aged, the evidence for this has not been reviewed. There is some evidence that telephone counselling concerning adherence by a nurse or pharmacist improves short-and long-term adherence. However, face-to-face intervention counselling at the pharmacy or during a home visit by a pharmacist has shown variable results, with some studies showing improved adherence and some not. Broad-based education programmes during hospital stays have not been shown to improve medication adherence following discharge, whereas education programmes specifically for subjects with hypertension have been shown to improve adherence. In combination with an education programme, both counselling and a medicine review programme have been shown to improve short-term adherence in the older-aged.Thus, there are many unanswered questions about the most effective interventions for promoting adherence. More studies are needed to determine the most appropriate interventions by allied health professionals, and such studies need to consider the disease state, demographics and socioeconomic status of the older-aged subject, and the intensity and duration of intervention required. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source


Frost R.L.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

Magnesium minerals are important for understanding the concept of geosequestration. One method of studying the hydrated hydroxy magnesium carbonate minerals is through vibrational spectroscopy. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the mineral hydromagnesite. An intense band is observed at 1121 cm -1, attributed to the CO 3 2-ν 1 symmetric stretching mode. A series of infrared bands at 1387, 1413 and 1474 cm -1 are assigned to the CO 3 2-ν 3 antisymmetric stretching modes. The CO 3 2-ν 3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations are extremely weak in the Raman spectrum and are observed at 1404, 1451, 1490 and 1520 cm -1. A series of Raman bands at 708, 716, 728 and 758 cm -1 are assigned to the CO 3 2-ν 2 in-plane bending mode. The Raman spectrum in the OH stretching region is characterized by bands at 3416, 3516 and 3447 cm -1. In the infrared spectrum, a broad band is found at 2940 cm -1, which is assigned to water stretching vibrations. Infrared bands at 3430, 3446, 3511, 2648 and 3685 cm -1 are attributed to MgOH stretching modes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Ng C.S.-P.,Yuan Ze University | Gable G.G.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Information Technology | Year: 2010

For many organizations, maintaining and upgrading enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (large packaged application software) is often far more costly than the initial implementation. Systematic planning and knowledge of the fundamental maintenance processes and maintenance-related management data are required in order to effectively and efficiently administer maintenance activities. This paper reports a revelatory case study of Government Services Provider (GSP), a high-performing ERP service provider to government agencies in Australia. GSP ERP maintenance-process and maintenance-data standards are compared with the IEEE/EIA 12207 software engineering standard for custom software, also drawing upon published research, to identify how practices in the ERP context diverge from the IEEE standard. While the results show that many best practices reflected in the IEEE standard have broad relevance to software generally, divergent practices in the ERP context necessitate a shift in management focus, additional responsibilities, and different maintenance decision criteria. Study findings may provide useful guidance to practitioners, as well as input to the IEEE and other related standards. © 2010 JIT Palgrave Macmillan All rights reserved. Source


Pakenham K.I.,University of Queensland | Cox S.,Queensland University of Technology
Annals of Behavioral Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: This study addresses limitations of prior research that have used group comparison designs to test the effects of parental illness on youth.Purpose: This study examined differences in adjustment between children of a parent with illness and peers from ‘healthy’ families controlling for the effects of whether a parent or non-parent family member is ill, illness type, demographics and caregiving.Methods: Based on questionnaire data, groups were derived from a community sample of 2,474 youth (‘healthy’ family, n = 1768; parental illness, n = 336; other family member illness, n = 254; both parental and other family illness, n = 116).Results: The presence of any family member with an illness is associated with greater risk of mental health difficulties for youth relative to peers from healthy families. This risk is elevated if the ill family member is a parent and has mental illness or substance misuse.Conclusions: Serious health problems within a household adversely impact youth adjustment. © 2014, The Society of Behavioral Medicine. Source


Recker J.,Queensland University of Technology
European Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2010

Process modeling grammars are used by analysts to describe information systems domains in terms of the business operations an organization is conducting. While prior research has examined the factors that lead to continued usage behavior, little knowledge has been established as to what extent characteristics of the users of process modeling grammars inform usage behavior. In this study, a theoretical model is advanced that incorporates determinants of continued usage behavior as well as key antecedent individual difference factors of the grammar users, such as modeling experience, modeling background and perceived grammar familiarity. Findings from a global survey of 529 grammar users support the hypothesized relationships of the model. The study offers three central contributions. First, it provides a validated theoretical model of post-adoptive modeling grammar usage intentions. Second, it discusses the effects of individual difference factors of grammar users in the context of modeling grammar usage. Third, it provides implications for research and practice.© 2010 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

There is a perception that women on oral endocrine treatments for oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer will be adherent to these medicines, as they are facing a serious life-threatening disease, and the oral endocrine treatments are effective, easy to use and generally well tolerated. This is not in fact the case, and this is the basis of the first half of this review. The second half is of whether the changes/interventions to 'improve' adherence do actually increase adherence to the oral endocrine medicines. The review shows that better outcomes are achieved with good adherence to endocrine treatments in breast cancer. The rates of adherence to endocrine treatments range between 15 and 50%, and are influenced by a large number of factors (e.g. adverse effects, lack of belief in treatment, psychological problems and poor patient-health care provider relationship). Interventions to minimise the adverse effects have been used in an attempt to improve the adherence to the endocrine treatment therapies, but it is not known whether these do actually improve adherence. Similar, it has been assumed that interventions by health professionals (doctors, nurses and pharmacists) will improve the adherence, but this has not been tested. In conclusion, in women with breast cancer, we know there is a problem with adherence. There are also many approaches and suggestions about how to improve adherence to the oral endocrine treatments, but none of these approaches/suggestions have been scientifically tested, and they need to be. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Jeung H.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Yiu M.L.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Zhou X.,Queensland University of Technology | Jensen C.S.,University of Aalborg
VLDB Journal | Year: 2010

In automotive applications, movement-path prediction enables the delivery of predictive and relevant services to drivers, e.g., reporting traffic conditions and gas stations along the route ahead. Path prediction also enables better results of predictive range queries and reduces the location update frequency in vehicle tracking while preserving accuracy. Existing moving-object location prediction techniques in spatial-network settings largely target short-term prediction that does not extend beyond the next road junction. To go beyond short-term prediction, we formulate a network mobility model that offers a concise representation of mobility statistics extracted from massive collections of historical object trajectories. The model aims to capture the turning patterns at junctions and the travel speeds on road segments at the level of individual objects. Based on the mobility model, we present a maximum likelihood and a greedy algorithm for predicting the travel path of an object (for a time duration h into the future). We also present a novel and efficient server-side indexing scheme that supports predictive range queries on the mobility statistics of the objects. Empirical studies with real data suggest that our proposals are effective and efficient. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Vincent S.J.,Queensland University of Technology
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To examine the change in corneal thickness and posterior curvature following 8 hours of miniscleral contact lens wear. METHODS: Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR; Oculus) was captured before, and immediately following, 8 hours of miniscleral contact lens wear for 15 young (mean age 22 ± 3 years), healthy participants with normal corneae. Natural diurnal variations were considered by measuring baseline corneal changes obtained on a separate control day without contact lens wear. RESULTS: Over the central 6 mm of the cornea, a small but highly statistically significant amount of edema was observed following 8 hours of miniscleral lens wear, after accounting for normal diurnal fluctuations (mean ± standard deviation percentage swelling 1.70 ± 0.98%, p < 0.0001). Posterior corneal topography remained stable following lens wear (−0.01 ± 0.07 mm steepening over the central 6 mm, p = 0.60). The magnitude of posterior corneal topographical changes following lens wear did not correlate with the extent of lens-related corneal edema (r = −0.16, p = 0.57). Similarly, the initial central corneal vault (maximum post-lens tear layer depth) was not associated with corneal swelling following lens removal (r = 0.27, p = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Although a small amount of corneal swelling was induced following 8 hours of miniscleral lens wear (on average <2%), modern high Dk miniscleral contact lenses that vault the cornea do not induce clinically significant corneal edema or hypoxic-related posterior corneal curvature changes during short-term wear. Longer-term studies of compromised eyes (e.g. corneal ectasia) are still required to inform the optimum lens and fitting characteristics for safe scleral lens wear to minimize corneal hypoxia. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials | Year: 2011

As coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a leading cause of death in the world, the development of anticoagulants to prevent CAD progressing to myocardial infarction and death is a high priority. A number of direct Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors are being developed for use in CAD. Despite being developed to the stage of Phase II clinical trials, DX- 9065a is no longer a priority with its developing company for further development, possibly because the Phase II trials did not show any major benefit of DX-9065a over heparin in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) or with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS). ZK-807834, otamixaban, apixaban, and rivaroxaban are all direct FXa inhibitors that have undergone preclinical and some clinical testing for use in CAD. In a large Phase II clinical trial of subjects with ACS, some doses of otamixaban had a better benefit/risk profile than the unfractionated heparin/eptifibatide combination. However, neither ZK-807834 nor otamixaban appear to be undergoing further clinical development at present. In ACS, placebo-controlled large Phase II clinical trials with apixaban and rivaroxaban have not shown clear cut benefits. Nevertheless, apixaban and rivaroxaban are presently in placebo-controlled Phase III clinical trials for ACS. Presently, there is no compelling evidence to support the use of direct FXa inhibitors in ACS. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Walsh K.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of child sexual abuse | Year: 2010

This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the initial item pool, (b) conducting a panel review, (c) refining the scale via an expert focus group, (d) building content validity through cognitive interviews, and (e) assessing internal consistency via field testing. The resulting 21-item scale displayed construct validity in preliminary testing. The scale may prove useful as a research tool, given the theoretical supposition that attitudes may be changed with time, context, experience, and education. Further investigation with a larger sample is warranted. Source


Streed E.W.,Griffith University | Norton B.G.,Griffith University | Jechow A.,Griffith University | Weinhold T.J.,Griffith University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Trapped ions are a leading system for realizing quantum information processing (QIP). Most of the technologies required for implementing large-scale trapped-ion QIP have been demonstrated, with one key exception: a massively parallel ion-photon interconnect. Arrays of microfabricated phase Fresnel lenses (PFL) are a promising interconnect solution that is readily integrated with ion trap arrays for large-scale QIP. Here we show the first imaging of trapped ions with a microfabricated in-vacuum PFL, demonstrating performance suitable for scalable QIP. A single ion fluorescence collection efficiency of 4.2±1.5% was observed. The depth of focus for the imaging system was 19.4±2.4μm and the field of view was 140±20μm. Our approach also provides an integrated solution for high-efficiency optical coupling in neutral atom and solid-state QIP architectures. © 2011 The American Physical Society. Source


Baker R.E.,University of Oxford | Simpson M.J.,Queensland University of Technology
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

On the microscale, migration, proliferation and death are crucial in the development, homeostasis and repair of an organism; on the macroscale, such effects are important in the sustainability of a population in its environment. Dependent on the relative rates of migration, proliferation and death, spatial heterogeneity may arise within an initially uniform field; this leads to the formation of spatial correlations and can have a negative impact upon population growth. Usually, such effects are neglected in modeling studies and simple phenomenological descriptions, such as the logistic model, are used to model population growth. In this work we outline some methods for analyzing exclusion processes which include agent proliferation, death and motility in two and three spatial dimensions with spatially homogeneous initial conditions. The mean-field description for these types of processes is of logistic form; we show that, under certain parameter conditions, such systems may display large deviations from the mean field, and suggest computationally tractable methods to correct the logistic-type description. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Raj I.S.,RMIT University | Bird S.R.,RMIT University | Shield A.J.,Queensland University of Technology
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2010

Aging in humans is associated with a loss in neuromuscular function and performance. This is related, in part, to the reduction in muscular strength and power caused by a loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) and changes in muscle architecture. Due to these changes, the force-velocity (f-v) relationship of human muscles alters with age. This change has functional implications such as slower walking speeds. Different methods to reverse these changes have been investigated, including traditional resistance training, power training and eccentric (or eccentrically-biased) resistance training. This review will summarise the changes of the f-v relationship with age, the functional implications of these changes and the various methods to reverse or at least partly ameliorate these changes. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Buchan J.,Queensland University of Technology
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a common and debilitating side effect of cancer treatment. This randomized trial compared the effect of progressive resistance- or aerobic-based exercise on breast cancer-related lymphedema extent and severity, as well as participants’ muscular strength and endurance, aerobic fitness, body composition, upper-body function and quality of life. METHODS: Women with a clinical diagnosis of stable unilateral, upper-limb lymphedema secondary to breast cancer were randomly allocated to a resistance- (n=21) or aerobic-based (n=20) exercise group (12-week intervention). Women were assessed pre-, post- and 12 weeks post-intervention, with generalised estimating equation models used to compare over time changes in each group’s lymphedema (two-tailed p<0.05). RESULTS: Lymphedema remained stable in both groups (as measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy and circumferences), with no significant differences between groups noted in lymphedema status. There was a significant (p<0.01) time by group effect for upper-body strength (assessed using 4-6 repetition maximum bench press), with the resistance-based exercise group increasing strength by 4.2 kg (3.2, 5.2) post-intervention compared to 1.2 kg (-0.1, 2.5) in the aerobic-based exercise group. Although not supported statistically, the aerobic-based exercise group reported a clinically relevant decline in number of symptoms post-intervention (-1.5 [-2.6, -0.3]), and women in both exercise groups experienced clinically meaningful improvements in lower-body endurance, aerobic fitness and quality of life by 12-week follow-up. DISCUSSION: Participating in resistance- or aerobic-based exercise did not change lymphedema status, but led to clinically relevant improvements in function and quality of life, with findings suggesting that neither mode is superior with respect to lymphoedema impact. As such, personal preferences, survivorship concerns and functional needs are important and relevant considerations when prescribing exercise mode to those with secondary lymphedema. © 2016 American College of Sports Medicine Source


Allan A.C.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE:: To characterize and compare the sleep-wake behavior of individuals following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with that of noninjured healthy controls. SETTING:: Community. PARTICIPANTS:: Fourteen participants with a recent mTBI (Mage = 28.07; SD = 10.45; n = 10 females) and 34 noninjured controls (Mage = 23.70; SD = 7.30; n = 31 females). DESIGN:: Cross-sectional. MAIN MEASURES:: Battery of subjective sleep measures and 14 days of sleep-wake monitoring via actigraphy (objective measurement) and concurrent daily sleep diary. RESULTS:: Participants who had sustained an mTBI self-reported significantly higher sleep-related impairment, poorer nightly sleep quality, and more frequently met criteria for clinical insomnia, compared with controls (d = 0.76-1.11, large effects). The only significant between-group difference on objective sleep metrics occurred on sleep timing. On average, people with a recent history of mTBI fell asleep and woke approximately 1 hour earlier than did the controls (d = 0.62-0.92, medium to large effects). CONCLUSION:: Participants with a history of mTBI had several subjective sleep complaints but relatively few objective sleep changes with the exception of earlier sleep timing. Future research is needed to understand the clinical significance of these findings and how these symptoms can be alleviated. Interventions addressing subjective sleep complaints (eg, cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia) should be tested in this population. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Masters K.-S.,Queensland University of Technology
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Base-promoted homolytic aromatic substitution (BHAS) has been applied as a means to effect multi-bond forming reactions. Using the dioxepine framework to illustrate the concept, BHAS was used to rapidly access regio-defined polycycles in merely 2 or 3 steps from iodophenol. Both liquid and solid arenes of an electronically-diverse nature were used as the coupling partner/solvent. DMSO additive was found to promote this multi-BHAS reaction. A pathway consistent with these observations is suggested, this hypothesis was exploited to further develop an iodo-selective BHAS reaction. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Blomberg S.P.,University of Queensland | Lefevre J.G.,University of Queensland | Wells J.A.,University of Queensland | Waterhouse M.,Queensland University of Technology
Systematic Biology | Year: 2012

We prove that the slope parameter of the ordinary least squares regression of phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) conducted through the origin is identical to the slope parameter of the method of generalized least squares (GLSs) regression under a Brownian motion model of evolution. This equivalence has several implications: 1. Understanding the structure of the linear model for GLS regression provides insight into when and why phylogeny is important in comparative studies. 2. The limitations of the PIC regression analysis are the same as the limitations of the GLS model. In particular, phylogenetic covariance applies only to the response variable in the regression and the explanatory variable should be regarded as fixed. Calculation of PICs for explanatory variables should be treated as a mathematical idiosyncrasy of the PIC regression algorithm. 3. Since the GLS estimator is the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE), the slope parameter estimated using PICs is also BLUE. 4. If the slope is estimated using different branch lengths for the explanatory and response variables in the PIC algorithm, the estimator is no longer the BLUE, so this is not recommended. Finally, we discuss whether or not and how to accommodate phylogenetic covariance in regression analyses, particularly in relation to the problem of phylogenetic uncertainty. This discussion is from both frequentist and Bayesian perspectives. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Feduccia A.A.,Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center | Chatterjee S.,Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center | Bartlett S.E.,Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center | Bartlett S.E.,Queensland University of Technology
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Addictive drugs can activate systems involved in normal reward-related learning, creating long-lasting memories of the drug's reinforcing effects and the environmental cues surrounding the experience. These memories significantly contribute to the maintenance of compulsive drug use as well as cue-induced relapse which can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be a prominent molecular mechanism underlying drug-induced learning and memories. Ethanol and nicotine are both widely abused drugs that share a common molecular target in the brain, the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels that are vastly distributed throughout the brain and play a key role in synaptic neurotransmission. In this review, we will delineate the role of nAChRs in the development of ethanol and nicotine addiction. We will characterize both ethanol and nicotine's effects on nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in several key brain areas that are important for addiction. Finally, we will discuss some of the behavioral outcomes of drug-induced synaptic plasticity in animal models. An understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that occur following administration of ethanol and nicotine will lead to better therapeutic strategies. © 2012 Feduccia, Chatterjee and Bartlett. Source


Schmidt D.,Queensland University of Technology
Literary and Linguistic Computing | Year: 2010

Embedded generalized markup, as applied by digital humanists to the recording and studying of our textual cultural heritage, suffers from a number of serious technical drawbacks. As a result of its evolution from early printer control languages, generalized markup can only express a document's 'logical' structure via a repertoire of permissible printed format structures. In addition to the well-researched overlap problem, the embedding of markup codes into texts that never had them when written leads to a number of further difficulties: the inclusion of potentially obsolescent technical and subjective information into texts that are supposed to be archivable for the long term, the manual encoding of information that could be better computed automatically, and the obscuring of the text by highly complex technical data. Many of these problems can be alleviated by asserting a separation between the versions of which many cultural heritage texts are composed, and their content. In this way the complex interconnections between versions can be handled automatically, leaving only simple markup for individual versions to be handled by the user. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ALLC and ACH. All rights reserved. Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2011

Despite the present treatments for asthma (β2-adrenoceptor agonists, glucocorticoids, leukotriene receptor antagonists), many subjects with asthma have difficulty controlling it. Bitter taste receptors have recently been identified on human lung. The paper evaluated considers these receptors as a target for bronchodilation, by characterizing the effects of agonists in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells, isolated human bronchial smooth muscle and a mouse model of allergic asthma. The study confirmed that a bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) is a viable target for bronchodilation. Many diverse chemicals are known to stimulate the bitter taste receptors to produce the bitter taste, and many of these have more than one mechanism of action. Thus, it is not known whether any of these have clinical potential in asthma. It may be necessary to design and develop selective agonists for TAS2R, before the clinical potential of this target can be thoroughly investigated. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Greulich H.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Greulich H.,Harvard University | Greulich H.,Cambridge Broad Institute | Pollock P.M.,Queensland University of Technology
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011

Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play diverse roles in the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, angiogenesis and development. Activating the mutations of FGFRs in the germline has long been known to cause a variety of skeletal developmental disorders, but it is only recently that a similar spectrum of somatic FGFR mutations has been associated with human cancers. Many of these somatic mutations are gain-of-function and oncogenic and create dependencies in tumor cell lines harboring such mutations. A combination of knockdown studies and pharmaceutical inhibition in preclinical models has further substantiated genomically altered FGFR as a therapeutic target in cancer, and the oncology community is responding with clinical trials evaluating multikinase inhibitors with anti-FGFR activity and a new generation of specific pan-FGFR inhibitors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Zhao Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Ma W.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Li Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Ji H.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

The reaction pathways by which oxygen is incorporated into the substrate in the photocatalytic oxidation of terephthalic acid (TPTA) are vastly different on {001} and {101} facets of an anatase single crystal. This was established by controlling the percentage of {101} and {001} facets, isotopically tracing the origins of the hydroxy group, and studying dioxygen consumption and variance in the concentration of hydroxylation intermediate. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Lee S.S.-Y.,Queensland University of Technology
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of optical blur, auditory distractors, and age on eye movement patterns while performing a driving hazard perception test (HPT). METHODS: Twenty young (mean age 27.1 ± 4.6 years) and 20 older (73.3 ± 5.7 years) drivers with normal vision completed a HPT in a repeated-measures counterbalanced design while their eye movements were recorded. Testing was performed under two visual (best-corrected vision and with +2.00DS blur) and two distractor (with and without auditory distraction) conditions. Participants were required to respond to road hazards appearing in the HPT videos of real-world driving scenes and their hazard response times were recorded. RESULTS: Blur and distractors each significantly delayed hazard response time by 0.42 and 0.76 s, respectively (p < 0.05). A significant interaction between age and distractors indicated that older drivers were more affected by distractors than young drivers (response with distractors delayed by 0.96 and 0.60 s, respectively). There were no other two- or three-way interaction effects on response time. With blur, for example, both groups fixated significantly longer on hazards before responding compared to best-corrected vision. In the presence of distractors, both groups exhibited delayed first fixation on the hazards and spent less time fixating on the hazards. There were also significant differences in eye movement characteristics between groups, where older drivers exhibited smaller saccades, delayed first fixation on hazards, and shorter fixation duration on hazards compared to the young drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the findings of delayed hazard response times and alterations in eye movement patterns with blur and distractors provide further evidence that visual impairment and distractors are independently detrimental to driving safety given that delayed hazard response times are linked to increased crash risk. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry Source


Nha H.,Texas A&M University at Qatar | Milburn G.J.,Queensland University of Technology | Carmichael H.J.,University of Auckland
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

We investigate phase-insensitive linear amplification at the quantum limit for single-and two-mode states and show that there exists a broad class of non-Gaussian states whose nonclassicality survives even at an arbitrarily large gain. We identify the corresponding observable nonclassical effects and find that they include, remarkably, two-mode entanglement. The implications of our results for quantum cloning outside the Gaussian regime are also addressed. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Source


Pichancourt J.-B.,CSIRO | Firn J.,CSIRO | Firn J.,Queensland University of Technology | Chades I.,CSIRO | Martin T.G.,CSIRO
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Regrowing forests on cleared land is a key strategy to achieve both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation globally. Maximizing these co-benefits, however, remains theoretically and technically challenging because of the complex relationship between carbon sequestration and biodiversity in forests, the strong influence of climate variability and landscape position on forest development, the large number of restoration strategies possible, and long time-frames needed to declare success. Through the synthesis of three decades of knowledge on forest dynamics and plant functional traits combined with decision science, we demonstrate that we cannot always maximize carbon sequestration by simply increasing the functional trait diversity of trees planted. The relationships between plant functional diversity, carbon sequestration rates above ground and in the soil are dependent on climate and landscape positions. We show how to manage 'identities' and 'complementarities' between plant functional traits to achieve systematically maximal cobenefits in various climate and landscape contexts. We provide examples of optimal planting and thinning rules that satisfy this ecological strategy and guide the restoration of forests that are rich in both carbon and plant functional diversity. Our framework provides the first mechanistic approach for generating decision-makingrules that can be used to manage forests for multiple objectives, and supports joined carbon credit and biodiversity conservation initiatives, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation REDD+. The decision framework can also be linked to species distribution models and socio-economic models to find restoration solutions that maximize simultaneously biodiversity, carbon stocks, and other ecosystem services across landscapes. Our study provides the foundation for developing and testing cost-effective and adaptable forest management rules to achieve biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and other socio-economic co-benefits under global change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Wu P.,Central Queensland University | Xia B.,Queensland University of Technology | Zhao X.,Central Queensland University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Global climate change is one of the most significant environmental impacts at the moment. One central issue for the building and construction industry to address global climate change is the development of credible carbon labelling schemes for building materials. Various carbon labelling schemes have been developed for concrete due to its high contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, as most carbon labelling schemes adopt cradle-to-gate as system boundary, the credibility of the eco-label information may not be satisfactory because recent studies show that the use and end-of-life phases can have a significant impact on the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete in terms of carbonation, maintenance and rehabilitation, other indirect emissions, and recycling activities. A comprehensive review on the life cycle assessment of concrete is presented to holistically examine the importance of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG quantification of concrete. The recent published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products - requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication also mandates the use of cradle-to-grave to provide publicly available eco-label information when the use and end-of-life phases of concrete can be appropriately simulated. With the support of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and other simulation technologies, the contribution of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete should not be overlooked in future studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ferrari M.,University of LAquila | Muthalib M.,Queensland University of Technology | Quaresima V.,University of LAquila
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2011

This article provides a snapshot of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at the end of 2010 summarizing the recent literature, offering the present status and perspectives of the NIRS instrumentation and methods, describing the main NIRS studies on skeletal muscle physiology, posing open questions and outlining future directions. So far, different NIRS techniques (e.g. continuous-wave (CW) and spatially, time- and frequency-resolved spectroscopy) have been used for measuring muscle oxygenation during exercise. In the last four years, approximately 160 muscle NIRS articles have been published on different physiological aspects (primarily muscle oxygenation and haemodynamics) of several upper- and lower-limb muscle groups investigated by using mainly two-channel CW and spatially resolved spectroscopy commercial instruments. Unfortunately, in only 15 of these studies were the advantages of using multi-channel instruments exploited. There are still several open questions in the application of NIRS in muscle studies: (i) whether NIRS can be used in subjects with a large fat layer; (ii) the contribution of myoglobin desaturation to the NIRS signal during exercise; (iii) the effect of scattering changes during exercise; and (iv) the effect of changes in skin perfusion, particularly during prolonged exercise. Recommendations for instrumentation advancements and future muscle NIRS studies are provided. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society. Source


Zhou X.-Q.,University of Bristol | Kalasuwan P.,University of Bristol | Kalasuwan P.,Prince of Songkla University | Ralph T.C.,Queensland University of Technology | O'brien J.L.,University of Bristol
Nature Photonics | Year: 2013

A quantum algorithm solves computational tasks using fewer physical resources than the best-known classical algorithm. Of most interest are those for which an exponential reduction is achieved. The key example is the phase estimation algorithm, which provides the quantum speedup in Shor's factoring algorithm and quantum simulation algorithms. To date, fully quantum experiments of this type have demonstrated only the read-out stage of quantum algorithms, but not the steps in which input data is read in and processed to calculate the final quantum state. Indeed, knowing the answer beforehand was essential. We present a photonic demonstration of a full quantum algorithm - the iterative phase estimation algorithm (IPEA) - without knowing the answer in advance. This result suggests practical applications of the phase estimation algorithm, including quantum simulations and quantum metrology in the near term, and factoring in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Heard G.C.,St. Vincents Hospital | Sanderson P.M.,Queensland University of Technology | Thomas R.D.,St. Vincents Hospital
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Although anesthesiologists are leaders in patient safety, there has been little research on factors affecting their reporting of adverse events and errors. First, we explored the attitudinal/emotional factors influencing reporting of an unspecified adverse event caused by error. Second, we used a between-groups study design to ask whether there are different perceived barriers to reporting a case of anaphylaxis caused by an error compared with anaphylaxis not caused by error. Finally, we examined strategies that anesthesiologists believe would facilitate reporting. Where possible, we contrasted our results with published findings from other physician groups. METHODS: An anonymous, self-administered, mailed survey was conducted of 629 consultant anesthesiologists and 263 anesthesiology residents on the mailing list of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists in Victoria, Australia. Participants were randomized into "Error" versus "No Error" groups for the specified anaphylaxis adverse event section of the survey. Data were analyzed using nonparametric descriptive and inferential tests. RESULTS: There were 433 usable returned surveys, a usable response rate of 49%. First, there was only 1 of 13 statements on attitudinal/emotional factors that influenced reporting of an unspecified adverse event caused by error with which more anesthesiologists agreed/strongly agreed than disagreed/strongly disagreed: "Doctors who make errors are blamed by their colleagues." Second, when an error rather than no error had caused anaphylaxis, participants were more likely to agree/strongly agree that 6 statements about litigation, getting into trouble, disciplinary action, being blamed, unsupportive colleagues, and not wanting the case discussed in meetings, were perceived as reporting barriers. Finally, the most favored assistive strategies for reporting were generalized deidentified feedback about adverse event and error reports, role models such as senior colleagues who openly encourage reporting, and legislated protection of reports from legal discoverability. CONCLUSION: The majority of anesthesiologists in our study did not agree that the attitudinal/emotional barriers surveyed would influence reporting of an unspecified adverse event caused by error, with the exception of the barrier of being concerned about blame by colleagues. The probable influence of 6 perceived barriers to reporting a specified adverse event of anaphylaxis differed with the presence or absence of error. Anesthesiologists in our study supported assistive reporting strategies. There seem to be some differences between our results and previously published research for other physician groups. © 2012 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source


Kan H.,Fudan University | Chen R.,Fudan University | Tong S.,Queensland University of Technology
Environment International | Year: 2012

As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Peh S.Y.C.,Nanyang Technological University | Chow J.Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Davids K.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2011

Investigations into the relative effectiveness of either focusing on movement form (internal focus) or movement effects (external focus) have tended to dominate research on instructional constraints. However, rather than adopting a comparative approach to determine which focus of attention is more effective, analysis of the relative efficacy of each specific instruction focus during motor learning could be more relevant for both researchers and practitioners. Theoretical advances in the motor learning literature from a nonlinear dynamics perspective might explain the processes that underlie the effect of different attentional focus instructions. Referencing ideas and concepts from a current motor learning model, differential effects of either internal or external focus of instructions are examined. This paper also highlights some deficiencies in extant theory and research design on focus of attention which require further investigations. © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Source


Lovie-Kitchin J.,Queensland University of Technology
Clinical and Experimental Optometry | Year: 2011

The past 40years has seen a great expansion in low-vision research, which has changed low-vision teaching and our clinical management of people with low vision. Australian optometrists have contributed significantly to this research and the development of multidisciplinary low-vision services. This paper reviews the research that has shaped our clinical assessment and patient management for reading by adults with low vision. The major improvements in clinical assessment of low vision for reading were brought about by the improvements in distance and near visual acuity measurements during the 1970s and research during the 1980s and 1990s showing the factors affecting the reading rate. These changes, together with a different method for representing the magnification provided by optical and electronic systems, allows a scientific, logical and practical method for prescribing magnification. An illustration of the step-by-step approach for prescribing magnification for low-vision reading that is easy to apply in any clinical practice is included. © 2011 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia. Source


Baker P.R.,Queensland University of Technology
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, The British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.ca; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were followed up. We contacted experts in the field from the National Obesity Observatory Oxford, Oxford University; Queensland Health, Queensland University of Technology, the University of Central Queensland; the University of Tennessee and Washington University; and handsearched six relevant journals. The searches were last updated to the end of November 2009 and were not restricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies (PCCS) were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Non-English language papers were reviewed with the assistance of an epidemiologist interpreter. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components and their intensity. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they were dichotomous (physically active, physically active during leisure time and sedentary or physically inactive) or continuous (leisure time physical activity, walking, energy expenditure). For dichotomous measures we calculated the unadjusted and adjusted risk difference, and the unadjusted and adjusted relative risk. Source


Atchison D.A.,Queensland University of Technology | Charman W.N.,University of Manchester
Journal of Vision | Year: 2010

Thomas Young (1773-1829) carried out major pioneering work in many different subjects. In 1800 he gave the Bakerian Lecture of the Royal Society on the topic of the "mechanism of the eye" : this was published in the following year (T. Young, 1801). Young used his own design of optometer to measure refraction and accommodation, and discovered his own astigmatism. He considered the different possible origins of accommodation and confirmed that it was due to change in shape of the lens rather than to change in shape of the cornea or an increase in axial length. However, the paper also dealt with many other aspects of visual and ophthalmic optics, such as biometric parameters, peripheral refraction, longitudinal chromatic aberration, depth-of-focus and instrument myopia. These aspects of the paper have previously received little attention. We now give detailed consideration to these and other less-familiar features of Young's work and conclude that his studies remain relevant to many of the topics which currently engage visual scientists. © ARVO. Source


Borghesani P.,Queensland University of Technology
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing | Year: 2015

Cyclostationary analysis has proven effective in identifying signal components for diagnostic purposes. A key descriptor in this framework is the cyclic power spectrum, traditionally estimated by the averaged cyclic periodogram and the smoothed cyclic periodogram. A lengthy debate about the best estimator finally found a solution in a cornerstone work by Antoni, who proposed a unified form for the two families, thus allowing a detailed statistical study of their properties. Since then, the focus of cyclostationary research has shifted towards algorithms, in terms of computational efficiency and simplicity of implementation. Traditional algorithms have proven computationally inefficient and the sophisticated "cyclostationary" definition of these estimators slowed their spread in the industry. The only attempt to increase the computational efficiency of cyclostationary estimators is represented by the cyclic modulation spectrum. This indicator exploits the relationship between cyclostationarity and envelope analysis. The link with envelope analysis allows a leap in computational efficiency and provides a "way in" for the understanding by industrial engineers. However, the new estimator lies outside the unified form described above and an unbiased version of the indicator has not been proposed. This paper will therefore extend the analysis of envelope-based estimators of the cyclic spectrum, proposing a new approach to include them in the unified form of cyclostationary estimators. This will enable the definition of a new envelope-based algorithm and the detailed analysis of the properties of the cyclic modulation spectrum. The computational efficiency of envelope-based algorithms will be also discussed quantitatively for the first time in comparison with the averaged cyclic periodogram. Finally, the algorithms will be validated with numerical and experimental examples. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Cuesta-Vargas A.,Queensland University of Technology
BMC musculoskeletal disorders | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was the development of a valid and reliable "Mechanical and Inflammatory Low Back Pain Index" (MIL) for assessment of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). This 7-item tool assists practitioners in determining whether symptoms are predominantly mechanical or inflammatory. Participants (n = 170, 96 females, age = 38 ± 14 years-old) with NSLP were referred to two Spanish physiotherapy clinics and completed the MIL and the following measures: the Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), SF-12 and "Backache Index" (BAI) physical assessment test. For test-retest reliability, 37 consecutive patients were assessed at baseline and three days later during a non-treatment period. Face and content validity, practical characteristics, factor analysis, internal consistency, discriminant validity and convergent validity were assessed from the full sample. A total of 27 potential items that had been identified for inclusion were subsequently reduced to 11 by an expert panel. Four items were then removed due to cross-loading under confirmatory factor analysis where a two-factor model yielded a good fit to the data (χ2 = 14.80, df = 13, p = 0.37, CFI = 0.98, and RMSEA = 0.029). The internal consistency was moderate (α = 0.68 for MLBP; 0.72 for ILBP), test-retest reliability high (ICC = 0.91; 95%CI = 0.88-0.93) and discriminant validity good for either MLBP (AUC = 0.74) and ILBP (AUC = 0.92). Convergent validity was demonstrated through similar but weak correlations between the ILBP and both the RMQ and BAI (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and the MLBP and BAI (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). The MIL is a valid and reliable clinical tool for patients with NSLBP that discriminates between mechanical and inflammatory LBP. Source


Aalst W.V.D.,TU Eindhoven | Aalst W.V.D.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing | Year: 2013

Web services are an emerging technology to implement and integrate business processes within and across enterprises. Service orientation can be used to decompose complex systems into loosely coupled software components that may run remotely. However, the distributed nature of services complicates the design and analysis of service-oriented systems that support end-to-end business processes. Fortunately, services leave trails in so-called event logs and recent breakthroughs in process mining research make it possible to discover, analyze, and improve business processes based on such logs. Recently, the task force on process mining released the process mining manifesto. This manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active participation from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing significance of process mining as a bridge between data mining and business process modeling. In this paper, we focus on the opportunities and challenges for service mining, i.e., applying process mining techniques to services. We discuss the guiding principles and challenges listed in the process mining manifesto and also highlight challenges specific for service-orientated systems. © 2008-2012 IEEE. Source


Chan L.,Flinders University | Magarey A.M.,Flinders University | Daniels L.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2011

To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N = 740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Chi S.,Queensland University of Technology | Caldas C.H.,University of Texas at Austin
Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2011

Abstract: Visual recording devices such as video cameras, CCTVs, or webcams have been broadly used to facilitate work progress or safety monitoring on construction sites. Without human intervention, however, both real-time reasoning about captured scenes and interpretation of recorded images are challenging tasks. This article presents an exploratory method for automated object identification using standard video cameras on construction sites. The proposed method supports real-time detection and classification of mobile heavy equipment and workers. The background subtraction algorithm extracts motion pixels from an image sequence, the pixels are then grouped into regions to represent moving objects, and finally the regions are identified as a certain object using classifiers. For evaluating the method, the formulated computer-aided process was implemented on actual construction sites, and promising results were obtained. This article is expected to contribute to future applications of automated monitoring systems of work zone safety or productivity. © 2010Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. Source


Griffith M.,Linkoping University | Harkin D.G.,Queensland University of Technology
Current Opinion in Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial corneas are being developed to meet a shortage of donor corneas and to address cases in which allografting is contraindicated. A range of artificial corneas has been developed. Here we review several newer designs and especially those inspired by naturally occurring biomaterials found with the human body and elsewhere. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trends in the development of artificial corneas indicate a move towards the use of materials derived from native sources including decellularized corneal tissue and tissue substitutes synthesized by corneal cells in vitro when grown either on their own or in conjunction with novel protein-based scaffolds. Biologically inspired materials are also being considered for implantation on their own with the view to promoting endogenous corneal tissue. SUMMARY: More recent attempts at making artificial corneas have taken a more nature-based or nature-inspired approach. Several will in the near future be likely to be available clinically. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health. Source


McGee A.J.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry | Year: 2011

In this paper I discuss a recent exchange of articles between Hugh McLachlan and John Coggon on the relationship between omissions, causation, and moral responsibility. My aim is to contribute to their debate by isolating a presupposition I believe they both share and by questioning that presupposition. The presupposition is that, at any given moment, there are countless things that I am omitting to do. This leads both McLachlan and Coggon to give a distorted account of the relationship between causation and moral or (as the case may be) legal responsibility and, in the case of Coggon, to claim that the law's conception of causation is a fiction based on policy. Once it is seen that this presupposition is faulty, we can attain a more accurate view of the logical relationship between causation and moral responsibility in the case of omissions. This is important because it will enable us, in turn, to understand why the law continues to regard omissions as different, both logically and morally, from acts, and why the law seeks to track that logical and moral difference in the legal distinction it draws between withholding life-sustaining measures and euthanasia. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Sikorska J.Z.,CASWA Pty. Ltd. | Sikorska J.Z.,University of Western Australia | Hodkiewicz M.,University of Western Australia | Ma L.,Queensland University of Technology
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing | Year: 2011

Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Liu X.,Queensland University of Technology | Du H.,National University of Singapore | Zhang M.-H.,National University of Singapore
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2015

There has been an increasing focus on the development of test methods to evaluate the durability performance of concrete. This paper contributes to this focus by presenting a study that evaluates the effect of water accessible porosity and oven-dry unit weight on the resistance of both normal and light-weight concrete to chloride-ion penetration. Based on the experimental results and regression analyses, empirical models are established to correlate the total charge passed and the chloride migration coefficient with the basic properties of concrete such as water accessible porosity, oven dry unit weight, and compressive strength. These equations can be broadly applied to both normal and lightweight aggregate concretes. The model was also validated by an independent set of experimental results from two different concrete mixtures. The model provides a very good estimate on the concrete's durability performance in respect to the resistance to chloride ion penetration. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Sarris J.,University of Queensland | Kavanagh D.J.,Queensland University of Technology | Byrne G.,University of Queensland
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2010

Adjuvant use of nutritional and herbal medicines has potential to increase the efficacy of synthetic pharmaceuticals, and perhaps also decrease their side-effects by allowing lower doses to be prescribed. We evaluated current evidence for adjuvant use of nutritional and herbal medicines with antidepressants, mood stabilizers and benzodiazepines; and explored novel future areas of research. The paper also critiques current evidence for co-administration of St. John's wort with synthetic antidepressants. We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Cochrane database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Chinese Science Citation Database. Search results were supplemented by a review of reference lists and a forward search using the Web of Science. Where possible we calculated effect sizes. Encouraging evidence exists for the use of omega-3 fatty acids, SAMe, folic acid and l-tryptophan adjuvantly with antidepressants to enhance response and improve efficacy. Various nutrients also have emerging evidence as effective adjuncts with antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. While some evidence supports nutritional adjuvancy with various psychopharmacotherapies, adjuvant use of herbal therapies has not been sufficiently studied to warrant standard clinical application. This remains a promising area of research via robust, safety-conscious studies. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


O'Mullane A.P.,Queensland University of Technology
Nanoscale | Year: 2014

Electrocatalytic processes will undoubtedly be at the heart of energising future transportation and technology with the added importance of being able to create the necessary fuels required to do so in an environmentally friendly and cost effective manner. For this to be successful two almost mutually exclusive surface properties need to be reconciled, namely producing highly active/reactive surface sites that exhibit long term stability. This article reviews the various approaches which have been undertaken to study the elusive nature of these active sites on metal surfaces which are considered as adatoms or clusters of adatoms with low coordination number. This includes the pioneering studies at extended well defined stepped single crystal surfaces using cyclic voltammetry up to the highly sophisticated in situ electrochemical imaging techniques used to study chemically synthesised nanomaterials. By combining the information attained from single crystal surfaces, individual nanoparticles of defined size and shape, density functional theory calculations and new concepts such as mesoporous multimetallic thin films and single atom electrocatalysts new insights into the design and fabrication of materials with highly active but stable active sites can be achieved. The area of electrocatalysis is therefore not only a fascinating and exciting field in terms of realistic technological and economical benefits but also from the fundamental understanding that can be acquired by studying such an array of interesting materials. © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Bueno-Orovio A.,University of Oxford | Kay D.,University of Oxford | Burrage K.,University of Oxford | Burrage K.,Queensland University of Technology
BIT Numerical Mathematics | Year: 2014

Fractional differential equations are becoming increasingly used as a powerful modelling approach for understanding the many aspects of nonlocality and spatial heterogeneity. However, the numerical approximation of these models is demanding and imposes a number of computational constraints. In this paper, we introduce Fourier spectral methods as an attractive and easy-to-code alternative for the integration of fractional-in-space reaction-diffusion equations described by the fractional Laplacian in bounded rectangular domains of (Formula presented.). The main advantages of the proposed schemes is that they yield a fully diagonal representation of the fractional operator, with increased accuracy and efficiency when compared to low-order counterparts, and a completely straightforward extension to two and three spatial dimensions. Our approach is illustrated by solving several problems of practical interest, including the fractional Allen-Cahn, FitzHugh-Nagumo and Gray-Scott models, together with an analysis of the properties of these systems in terms of the fractional power of the underlying Laplacian operator. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Peng C.,Nanjing Normal University | Tian Y.-C.,Queensland University of Technology | Yue D.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans | Year: 2011

This correspondence paper addresses the problem of output feedback stabilization of control systems in networked environments with quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The problem is investigated in discrete-time state space using Lyapunov's stability theory and the linear inequality matrix technique. A new discrete-time modeling approach is developed to describe a networked control system (NCS) with parameter uncertainties and nonideal network QoS. It integrates a network-induced delay, packet dropout, and other network behaviors into a unified framework. With this modeling, an improved stability condition, which is dependent on the lower and upper bounds of the equivalent network-induced delay, is established for the NCS with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties. It is further extended for the output feedback stabilization of the NCS with nonideal QoS. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the main results of the theoretical development. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Chang S.W.,Auburn University | Clement T.P.,Auburn University | Simpson M.J.,Queensland University of Technology | Lee K.-K.,Seoul National University
Advances in Water Resources | Year: 2011

Climate change effects are expected to substantially raise the average sea level. It is widely assumed that this raise will have a severe adverse impact on saltwater intrusion processes in coastal aquifers. In this study we hypothesize that a natural mechanism, identified here as the " lifting process," has the potential to mitigate, or in some cases completely reverse, the adverse intrusion effects induced by sea-level rise. A detailed numerical study using the MODFLOW-family computer code SEAWAT was completed to test this hypothesis and to understand the effects of this lifting process in both confined and unconfined systems. Our conceptual simulation results show that if the ambient recharge remains constant, the sea-level rise will have no long-term impact (i.e., it will not affect the steady-state salt wedge) on confined aquifers. Our transient confined-flow simulations show a self-reversal mechanism where the wedge which will initially intrude into the formation due to the sea-level rise would be naturally driven back to the original position. In unconfined systems, the lifting process would have a lesser influence due to changes in the value of effective transmissivity. A detailed sensitivity analysis was also completed to understand the sensitivity of this self-reversal effect to various aquifer parameters. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Deane F.,Queensland University of Technology
Environmental and Planning Law Journal | Year: 2011

The terms of reference for the newly established Multi-Party Climate Change Committee. Although the Committee is charged with considering climate change mitigation measures in general, specifically the Committee must consider an appropriate mechanism for the establishment of a carbon price. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the mechanisms to be considered by the Climate Change Committee, including the use of emissions trading and carbon levies in other jurisdictions. This article argues that for any effective investigation of a carbon price for Australia to occur, a thorough knowledge of other jurisdictions' methods for carbon pricing is essential. Source


Srinivasan M.V.,University of Queensland | Srinivasan M.V.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology | Year: 2014

Honeybees navigate to a food source using a sky-based compass to determine their travel direction, and an odometer to register how far they have travelled. The past 20 years have seen a renewed interest in understanding the nature of the odometer. Early work, pioneered by von Frisch and colleagues, hypothesized that travel distance is measured in terms of the energy that is consumed during the journey. More recent studies suggest that visual cues play a role as well. Specifically, bees appear to gauge travel distance by sensing the extent to which the image of the environment moves in the eye during the journey from the hive to the food source. Most of the evidence indicates that travel distance is measured during the outbound journey. Accumulation of odometric errors is restricted by resetting the odometer every time a prominent landmark is passed. When making detours around large obstacles, the odometer registers the total distance of the path that is flown to the destination, and not the "bee-line" distance. Finally, recent studies are revealing that bees can perform odometry in three dimensions. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Chang C.-W.,University of Queensland | Miguez Counago R.L.,University of Queensland | Williams S.J.,University of Queensland | Boden M.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

In the classical nucleocytoplasmic import pathway, nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in cargo proteins are recognized by the import receptor importin-α. Importin-a has two separate NLS binding sites (the major and the minor site), both of which recognize positively charged amino acid clusters in NLSs. Little is known about the molecular basis of the unique features of the classical nuclear import pathway in plants. We determined the crystal structure of rice (Oryza sativa) importin-α1a at 2-Å resolution. The structure reveals that the autoinhibitory mechanism mediated by the importin-b binding domain of importin-α operates in plants, with NLS-mimicking sequences binding to both minor and major NLS binding sites. Consistent with yeast and mammalian proteins, rice importin-α binds the prototypical NLS from simian virus 40 large T-antigen preferentially at the major NLS binding site. We show that two NLSs, previously described as plant specific, bind to and are functional with plant, mammalian, and yeast importin-α proteins but interact with rice importin-α more strongly. The crystal structures of their complexes with rice importin-α show that they bind to the minor NLS binding site. By contrast, the crystal structures of their complexes with mouse (Mus musculus) importin-α show preferential binding to the major NLS binding site. Our results reveal the molecular basis of a number of features of the classical nuclear transport pathway specific to plants. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source


Too E.G.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2012

Infrastructure organizations are operating in an increasingly challenging business environment as a result of globalization, privatization and deregulation. In an external business environment that is constantly changing, extant literature on strategic management advocates the need to focus on factors internal to the organization such as resources and capabilities to sustain their performance. Specifically, they need to develop dynamic capabilities in order to survive and prosper under conditions of change. The aim of this paper is to explore the dynamic capabilities needed in the management of transport infrastructure assets using a multiple case study research strategy. This paper produced a number of findings. First, the empirical evidence showed that the core infrastructure asset management processes are capacity management, options evaluation, procurement & delivery, maintenance management, and asset information management. Second, the study identified five dynamic capabilities namely stakeholder connectivity, crossfunctional, relational, technology absorptive and integrated information capability as central to executing the strategic infrastructure asset management processes well. These findings culminate in the development of a capability model to improve the performance of infrastructure assets in an increasingly dynamic business environment. Source


Pounds P.E.I.,Yale University | Pounds P.E.I.,Queensland University of Technology | Bersak D.R.,Yale University | Dollar A.M.,Yale University
Autonomous Robots | Year: 2012

The application of rotorcraft to autonomous load carrying and transport is a new frontier for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This task requires that hovering vehicles remain stable and balanced in flight as payload mass is added to the vehicle. If payload is not loaded centered or the vehicle properly trimmed for offset loads, the robot will experience bias forces that must be rejected. In this paper, we explore the effect of dynamic load disturbances introduced by instantaneously increased payload mass and how those affect helicopters and quadrotors under Proportional-Integral-Derivative flight control. We determine stability bounds within which the changing mass-inertia parameters of the system due to the acquired object will not destabilize these aircraft with this standard flight controller. Additionally, we demonstrate experimentally the stability behavior of a helicopter undergoing a range of instantaneous step payload changes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Davids K.,Queensland University of Technology | Glazier P.,Sheffield Hallam University
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2010

Inherent indeterminacy of neurobiological systems has been revealed by research on coordination of multiarticular actions. We consider three important issues that these investigations raise for biomechanical measurement and performance modeling. These issues highlight the role of dynamic systems theory as a platform for integration of motor control and biomechanics in exercise and sports science. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source


Recker J.,Queensland University of Technology
Information Systems | Year: 2012

Increasingly, studies are reported that examine how conceptual modeling is conducted in practice. Yet, typically the studies to date have examined in isolation how modeling grammars can be, or are, used to develop models of information systems or organizational processes, without considering that such modeling is typically done by means of a modeling tool that extends the modeling functionality offered by a grammar through complementary features. This paper extends the literature by examining how the use of seven different features of modeling tools affects usage beliefs users develop when using modeling grammars for process modeling. We show that five distinct tool features positively affect usefulness, ease of use and satisfaction beliefs of users. We offer a number of interpretations about the findings. We also describe how the results inform decisions of relevance to developers of modeling tools as well as managers in charge for making modeling-related investment decisions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Boyen X.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Cryptology | Year: 2015

We generalize the ring signature primitive into the more general notion of mesh signature. Ring signatures are anonymous signatures made by someone who wishes to hide in the anonymity of a larger crowd. All that the signer needs to assemble such a virtual crowd is her own private key and the public keys of the other members. The crowd composition is all that the verifier will be able to see. In a sense, a ring signature expresses an anonymous endorsement of a message by a disjunction of signers. Mesh signatures generalize this notion by allowing the combination of “atomic” (i.e., regular) signatures, by one or multiple signers from an arbitrary larger crowd, into virtually any monotone “endorsement formula” with much more expressive power than a simple disjunction. The verifier sees only that the endorsement is valid for the stated formula, not how the formula is satisfied. As a special case, mesh signatures extend the ring signature functionality to certificate chains. This is useful when the anonymity-seeking signer wishes to hide in a crowd comprising uncooperative people who do not even have a published signature verification key on record. We give an efficient linear-size construction based on bilinear maps in the common random string model. Our mesh signatures achieve everlasting perfect anonymity—an imperative for the archetypical whistle-blowing use case of ring signatures—and, as a special case, yield the first unconditionally anonymous ring signatures without random oracles or trusted setup authorities. Non-repudiation is achieved from a mild extension of the SDH assumption, named Poly-SDH, which we introduce and justify meticulously. © 2015 International Association for Cryptologic Research Source


Fusseis F.,University of Edinburgh | Xiao X.,Argonne National Laboratory | Schrank C.,Queensland University of Technology | De Carlo F.,Argonne National Laboratory
Journal of Structural Geology | Year: 2014

This contribution outlines Synchrotron-based X-ray micro-tomography and its potential use in structural geology and rock mechanics. The paper complements several recent reviews of X-ray microtomography. We summarize the general approach to data acquisition, post-processing as well as analysis and thereby aim to provide an entry point for the interested reader. The paper includes tables listing relevant beamlines, a list of all available imaging techniques, and available free and commercial software packages for data visualization and quantification. We highlight potential applications in a review of relevant literature including time-resolved experiments and digital rock physics. The paper concludes with a report on ongoing developments and upgrades at synchrotron facilities to frame the future possibilities for imaging sub-second processes in centimetre-sized samples. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gallage C.P.K.,Queensland University of Technology | Uchimura T.,University of Tokyo
Soils and Foundations | Year: 2010

The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) of soil plays the key roll in unsaturated soil mechanics which is a relatively new field of study having wide applications particularly in Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering. To encourage the geotechnical engineers to apply unsaturated soil mechanics theories in routine practice, numerical methods, based on the SWCC and saturated soil properties, have been developed to predict unsaturated permeability function and unsaturated shear strength properties which are expensive and time consuming to measure in laboratories. Further, several methods have been proposed to predict the SWCC in order to avoid difficulties in measuring the SWCC in laboratories. It is time consuming and it may require special techniques or apparatus to measure the SWCC in laboratories. However, it is important to have laboratory measured data of SWCCs to enhance and verify the proposed numerical methods. Hence, employing a Tempe pressure cell apparatus, the present study aims to investigate the effects of dry density and grain-size distribution on the SWCCs of sandy soils. Drying and wetting SWCCs were obtained for four sandy soils with different dry densities. The test data were best-fitted using the Fredlund and Xing (1994) equation and found that the fitting parameter, a, increases linearly with increasing the air-entry value of the SWCC and the fitting parameter, m, decreases with increasing the residual suction of the SWCC. The results revealed that soils with a low density have lower air-entry value and residual suction than soils with a high dry density. Further, the maximum slope of drying SWCC and hysteresis of drying and wetting SWCCs decrease with increasing density of soil. The air-entry value, residual suction, and hysteresis (the difference between the drying and wetting SWCCs) tends to decrease when the effective D10 of the soil increases. A soil with uniform grain-size distribution (the steeper slope in grain-size distribution) has a less hysteresis and a greater slope of drying SWCC than those of a non-uniform soil. Source


Murphy G.D.,Queensland University of Technology
Reliability Engineering and System Safety | Year: 2010

For some time there has been a growing awareness of organizational culture and its impact on the functioning of engineering and maintenance departments. Those wishing to implement contemporary maintenance regimes (e.g. condition based maintenance) are often encouraged to develop "appropriate cultures" to support a new method's introduction. Unfortunately these same publications often fail to specifically articulate the cultural values required to support those efforts. In the broader literature, only a limited number of case examples document the cultural values held by engineering asset intensive firms and how they contribute to their success (or failure). Consequently a gap exists in our knowledge of what engineering cultures currently might look like, or what might constitute a best practice engineering asset culture. The findings of a pilot study investigating the perceived ideal characteristics of engineering asset cultures are reported. Engineering managers, consultants and academics (n=47), were surveyed as to what they saw were essential attributes of both engineering cultures and engineering asset personnel. Valued cultural elements included those orientated around continuous improvement, safety and quality. Valued individual attributes included openness to change, interpersonal skills and conscientiousness. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the development of a best practice cultural framework for practitioners and engineering managers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kidman G.,Queensland University of Technology
International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education | Year: 2012

This paper explores the occurrence of geographical inquiry in the Australian curriculum since Geography became a high school subject in 1911. In this historical overview, I reflect upon my own experiences of undertaking geographical inquiry during the 1970s and 1980s. Primary school geographical inquiry experiences can be virtually non-existent despite being advocated in syllabus documents. High school geographical inquiry experiences do exist in some classrooms, but that geographic drive is also necessary to complete a meaningful inquiry experience. Although geographical inquiry is heavily advocated in Australia's new Australian Curriculum: Geography, more work is needed in this area relating to teacher professional learning. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Doggrell S.A.,Queensland University of Technology
Complementary Therapies in Medicine | Year: 2011

Recommendations about the use of plant stanol/sterol esters have not been updated since 2001. There have been many developments in medicines for lipid-lowering since 2001. In this review, the use of margarines containing stanol or sterol esters, to lower LDL cholesterol is considered in the 2011 setting. Firstly, there is a brief overview of the effects of the stanols/sterols on LDL cholesterol, which shows that these agents have a modest ability to lower LDL cholesterol, and are not effective in all conditions. Secondly, the relevance of the stanols/sterols in 2010/1 is questioned, given they have not been shown to reduce clinical endpoints, and have no effects on HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. Finally, there is a section comparing the stanols/sterols with the present day prescription lipid lowering medicines. Prescription drugs (statins, ezetimibe, and niacin) have a much greater ability to lower LDL cholesterol than the stanol/sterol esters, and also increase levels of HDL cholesterol and decrease levels of triglycerides. The statins and niacin have been shown to reduce cardiovascular clinical endpoints. Except in borderline normo/hypercholesterolemia, prescription drugs should be preferred to stanol/sterol esters for lowering LDL cholesterol in 2011. © 2011. Source


Abbosh A.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2013

A quasi-Yagi antenna that has an ultra-wideband performance is presented. To enable that performance, the antenna utilizes a dual-resonant driver and a balun formed using a stepped-impedance coupled structure. The driver is designed to be dual-resonant by loading it with an inductor in the form of short section of narrow microstrip line at a certain position. The balun includes a T-junction of microstrip lines and two pairs of stepped-impedance coupled lines. The simulated and measured performance of the integrated antenna indicate less than -10 reflection coefficient, 3.6-4.5 dBi gain, 13-17 dB front-to-back ratio, less than cross-polarization and more than 90% efficiency across more than 75% fractional bandwidth centered at 7.5 GHz. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Etehadtavakol M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Chandran V.,Queensland University of Technology | Ng E.Y.K.,Nanyang Technological University | Kafieh R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2013

Highly sensitive infrared (IR) cameras provide high-resolution diagnostic images of the temperature and vascular changes of breasts. These images can be processed to emphasize hot spots that exhibit early and subtle changes owing to pathology. The resulting images show clusters that appear random in shape and spatial distribution but carry class dependent information in shape and texture. Automated pattern recognition techniques are challenged because of changes in location, size and orientation of these clusters. Higher order spectral invariant features provide robustness to such transformations and are suited for texture and shape dependent information extraction from noisy images. In this work, the effectiveness of bispectral invariant features in diagnostic classification of breast thermal images into malignant, benign and normal classes is evaluated and a phase-only variant of these features is proposed. High resolution IR images of breasts, captured with measuring accuracy of ±0.4% (full scale) and temperature resolution of 0.1 C black body, depicting malignant, benign and normal pathologies are used in this study. Breast images are registered using their lower boundaries, automatically extracted using landmark points whose locations are learned during training. Boundaries are extracted using Canny edge detection and elimination of inner edges. Breast images are then segmented using fuzzy c-means clustering and the hottest regions are selected for feature extraction. Bispectral invariant features are extracted from Radon projections of these images. An Adaboost classifier is used to select and fuse the best features during training and then classify unseen test images into malignant, benign and normal classes. A data set comprising 9 malignant, 12 benign and 11 normal cases is used for evaluation of performance. Malignant cases are detected with 95% accuracy. A variant of the features using the normalized bispectrum, which discards all magnitude information, is shown to perform better for classification between benign and normal cases, with 83% accuracy compared to 66% for the original. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Abbosh A.,Queensland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2013

A closed-form method that accurately calculates the effective permittivity as seen by printed center-fed dipoles is presented. That accurate prediction enables the correct choice of the required dimensions of the dipole for a certain resonant frequency. For quasi Yagi-Uda antennas that usually have the driven element as a center-fed dipole, this means an accurate prediction of the required length of the driver, and subsequently all the other dimensions of the antenna without the need for extensive simulations and optimizations. The results obtained by full-wave electromagnetic simulations and measurements, over a wide range of design parameters, prove the validity of the derived method, which is based on the conformal mapping. The proposed method gives the correct estimation of the lengths of the dipoles with less than 10% error compared with the optimized design values. The conventional method results in estimations with as much as a 50% error. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source


McGee T.R.,Queensland University of Technology
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2010

In the extant literature, adult-onset offending has usually been identified using official sources. It is possible, however, that many of the individuals identified would have had unofficial histories of prior offending. To investigate this issue, the men from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) were examined. The CSDD is a prospective longitudinal study of men from inner-city London, followed from age 8 to age 48. Onset of offending was identified using official records and then the self-reported offending of the adult-onset offender group (with a first conviction at age 21 or later) was compared to others. All the adult-onset offenders self-reported some previous offending in childhood and adolescence but most of this offending was not sufficiently frequent or serious to lead to a conviction in practice. About one-third of adult-onset offenders were considered to be self-reported delinquents who were realistically in danger of being convicted because of the frequency of their offending. For some, the adjudication by the criminal justice system was simply the first time that their ongoing pattern of offending had been detected. Their lack of detection was because the types of offences they were committing had lower detection rates. Source


Lin X.,Nanchang University | Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

A new modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 7-[(2,4-dihydroxy-5-carboxybenzene)azo]-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (DHCBAQS) at a graphene-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The construction process was performed stepwise and at each step the electrochemical characteristics were investigated particularly with respect to the oxidation of the three noxious analytes, 2-nitroaniline (2-NA), 3-nitroaniline (3-NA), 4-nitroaniline (4-NA); the electrode treated with the fluorescence reagent DHCBAQS performed best. At this electrode, the differential pulse voltammetry peak currents of the three isomers increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 0.05-0.60μgmL-1, respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were all about 0.022μgmL-1. Furthermore, satisfactory results were obtained when this electrode was applied for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of the nitroaniline isomer mixtures by Principal component regression (PCR) and Partial least squares (PLS) as calibration methods (relative prediction error (PRET) - 9.04% and 9.23%) and average recoveries (101.0% and 101.7%), respectively. The above novel poly-DHCBAQS/graphene-nafion/GCE was successfully employed for the simultaneous analysis of the three noxious nitroaniline isomers in water and sewage samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Brown R.,Queensland University of Technology | Chanson H.,University of Queensland
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

During a major flood event, the inundation of urban environments leads to some complicated flow motion most often associated with significant sediment fluxes. In the present study, a series of field measurements were conducted in an inundated section of the City of Brisbane (Australia) about the peak of a major flood in January 2011. Some experiments were performed to use ADV backscatter amplitude as a surrogate estimate of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) during the flood event. The flood water deposit samples were predominantly silty material with a median particle size about 25 m and they exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior under rheological testing. In the inundated urban environment during the flood, estimates of suspended sediment concentration presented a general trend with increasing SSC for decreasing water depth. The suspended sediment flux data showed some substantial sediment flux amplitudes consistent with the murky appearance of floodwaters. Altogether the results highlighted the large suspended sediment loads and fluctuations in the inundated urban setting associated possibly with a non-Newtonian behavior. During the receding flood, some unusual long-period oscillations were observed (periods about 18 min), although the cause of these oscillations remains unknown. The field deployment was conducted in challenging conditions highlighting a number of practical issues during a natural disaster. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. Source


Stow J.L.,University of Queensland | Murray R.Z.,Queensland University of Technology
Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews | Year: 2013

The secretion of cytokines by immune cells plays a significant role in determining the course of an inflammatory response. The levels and timing of each cytokine released are critical for mounting an effective but confined response, whereas excessive or dysregulated inflammation contributes to many diseases. Cytokines are both culprits and targets for effective treatments in some diseases. The multiple points and mechanisms that have evolved for cellular control of cytokine secretion highlight the potency of these mediators and the fine tuning required to manage inflammation. Cytokine production in cells is regulated by cell signaling, and at mRNA and protein synthesis levels. Thereafter, the intracellular transport pathways and molecular trafficking machinery have intricate and essential roles in dictating the release and activity of cytokines. The trafficking machinery and secretory (exocytic) pathways are complex and highly regulated in many cells, involving specialized membranes, molecules and organelles that enable these cells to deliver cytokines to often-distinct areas of the cell surface, in a timely manner. This review provides an overview of secretory pathways - both conventional and unconventional - and key families of trafficking machinery. The prevailing knowledge about the trafficking and secretion of a number of individual cytokines is also summarized. In conclusion, we present emerging concepts about the functional plasticity of secretory pathways and their modulation for controlling cytokines and inflammation. © 2013. Source


Srinivasan M.V.,Queensland University of Technology
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2011

Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food source, and orchestrate flawless landings. It also outlines the ways in which these insights are now being used to develop novel, biologically inspired strategies for the guidance of autonomous, airborne vehicles. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Zhang Q.,Nanchang University | Ni Y.,Nanchang University | Kokot S.,Queensland University of Technology
Talanta | Year: 2012

An analytical method was researched for the simultaneous determination of reactants and products during the binding of important small molecules such as levodopa (LD) with biopolymers such as bovine serum albumin (BSA). Voltammetry and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to obtain the analytical profiles from different reactant mixtures as a function of concentration. This enabled the extraction of the equilibrium constants (K SV) which are reported for the first time. Voltammetric results supported the formation of the LD-BSA complex but not that with dopamine. Further information of the LD-BSA system was unattainable because the measured composite profiles could not be extracted. New information was obtained when the extended data matrix was resolved by the MCR-ALS method. The previously unavailable extracted voltammogram profile of LD-BSA complex indicated that the complex was electroactive; this was unexpected if the LD-BSA system was in its folded state, and hence, it was suggested that the protein must be unfolded. The observation that the drug:BSA stoichiometry was 3:1, i.e. (levodopa) 3-BSA, supported this suggestion; these results were obtained from the MCR-ALS extracted concentration profiles for the three reaction components. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Many processes during embryonic development involve transport and reaction of molecules, or transport and proliferation of cells, within growing tissues. Mathematical models of such processes usually take the form of a reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) on a growing domain. Previous analyses of such models have mainly involved solving the PDEs numerically. Here, we present a framework for calculating the exact solution of a linear reaction-diffusion PDE on a growing domain. We derive an exact solution for a general class of one-dimensional linear reaction-diffusion process on 0 Source


Walters R.,Queensland University of Technology | Westerhuis D.S.,Environmental Arts and Research
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2013

Environmental issues continue to capture international headlines and remain the subject of intense intellectual, political and public debate. As a result, environmental law is widely recognised as the fastest growing area of international jurisprudence. This, combined with the rapid expansion of environmental agreements and policies, has created a burgeoning landscape of administrative, regulatory and judicial regimes. Emerging from these developments are increases in environmental offences, and more recently environmental crimes. The judicial processing of environmental or 'green' crimes is rapidly developing across many jurisdictions. Since 1979, Australia has played a lead role in criminal justice processing of environment offences through the New South Wales Land and Environment Court (NSW LEC). This article draws on case data, observations and interviews with court personnel, to examine the ways in which environmental justice is now administered through the existing court structures, and how it has changed since the Court's inception. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Hoang V.-N.,Queensland University of Technology | Coelli T.,University of Queensland
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2011

This article proposes to use nutrient-orientated environmental efficiency (EE) measures to construct a nutrient total factor productivity index (NTFP). Since nutrient-orientated EE measures are consistent with the materials balance principle, NTFP index is superior to other existing TFP indexes. An empirical study on the environmental performance of an agricultural sector in 30 OECD countries from 1990 to 2003 yielded several important findings. First, these countries should be able to produce current outputs with at least 50% less aggregate eutrophying power, implying that they should have been able to substantially reduce the potential for eutrophication. Second, traditional TFP has grown by 1.6% per annum due to technical progress; however, there are lags in the responses of several countries to this technical progress. Third, environmental TFP has grown at a slower rate than traditional TFP growth due to reductions in nutrient-orientated allocative efficiency. Finally, changes in input combinations could have significantly improved environmental efficiency and productivity. These findings favor policy interventions and faster technological transfer to improve environmental performance. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Algergawy A.,University of Leipzig | Nayak R.,Queensland University of Technology | Saake G.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Information Sciences | Year: 2010

Schema matching plays a central role in a myriad of XML-based applications. There has been a growing need for developing high-performance matching systems in order to identify and discover semantic correspondences across XML data. XML schema matching methods face several challenges in the form of definition, adoption, utilization, and combination of element similarity measures. In this paper, we classify, review, and experimentally compare major methods of element similarity measures and their combinations. We aim at presenting a unified view which is useful when developing a new element similarity measure, when implementing an XML schema matching component, when using an XML schema matching system, and when comparing XML schema matching systems. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Lee B.L.,Queensland University of Technology | Worthington A.C.,Griffith University
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2014

Between 2001 and 2005, the US airline industry faced financial turmoil while the European airline industry entered a period of substantive deregulation. Consequently, this opened up opportunities for low-cost carriers to become more competitive in the market. To assess airline performance and identify the sources of efficiency in the immediate aftermath of these events, we employ a bootstrap data envelopment analysis truncated regression approach. The results suggest that at the time the mainstream airlines needed to significantly reorganize and rescale their operations to remain competitive. In the second-stage analysis, the results indicate that private ownership, status as a low-cost carrier, and improvements in weight load contributed to better organizational efficiency. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lee S.-W.,Seoul National University | Jeong H.,Seoul National University | Jeong H.,Queensland University of Technology
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We propose a scheme to realize deterministic quantum teleportation using linear optics and hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform teleportation and universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic manner using all-optical hybrid entanglement as off-line resources. Our analysis shows that our approach outperforms previous ones when considering both the resource requirements and fault-tolerance limits. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source