Queensland University of Technology

www.qut.edu.au
Brisbane, Australia

Queensland University of Technology is a research university in Brisbane, Australia. QUT is located on three campuses in the Brisbane area: Gardens Point, Kelvin Grove, and Caboolture. The university has approximately 35,000 undergraduate students and 5,000 post graduate students, of which 6,000 are international students. It has over 4 000 staff members, and an annual budget of more than AU$750 million.QUT ranks within the top 10 Australian Universities and the upper 3 per cent world-wide. QUT has been ranked as Australia's best university under 50 years of age by the Times Higher Education Top 100, and ranks 26th globally in that category. The university in its current form was founded 1989, when the then Queensland Institute of Technology merged with the Brisbane College of Advanced Education. Wikipedia.

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Al Maniri A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Plankermann K.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al Hinai M.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al Adawi S.,University of Regensburg | And 2 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

Background There is a well developed literature on research investigating the relationship between various driving behaviors and road crash involvement. However, this research has predominantly been conducted in developed economies dominated by western types of cultural environments. To date no research has been published that has empirically investigated this relationship within the context of the emerging economies such as Oman. Objective The present study aims to investigate driving behavior as indexed in the driving behavior questionnaire (DBQ) among a group of Omani university students and staff. Methods A convenience non-probability self-selection sampling approach was utilized with Omani university students and staff. Results A total of 1003 Omani students (n = 632) and staff (n = 371) participated in the survey. Factor analysis of the BDQ revealed four main factors that were errors, speeding violation, lapses and aggressive violation. In the multivariate logistic backward regression analysis, the following factors were identified as significant predictors of being involved in causing at least one crash: driving experience, history of offenses and two DBQ components, i.e., errors and aggressive violation. Conclusion This study indicates that errors and aggressive violation of the traffic regulations as well as history of having traffic offenses are major risk factors for road traffic crashes among the sample. While previous international research has demonstrated that speeding is a primary cause of crashing, in the current context, the results indicate that an array of factors is associated with crashes. Further research using more rigorous methodology is warranted to inform the development of road safety countermeasures in Oman that improves overall Traffic Safety Culture. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): factor analysis statistical, automobile driving, regression analysis, factorial analysis, car driving, multivariate analysis.


Gunawardena J.,Toowoomba Regional Council | Gunawardena J.,Queensland University of Technology | Ziyath A.M.,Queensland University of Technology | Ziyath A.M.,University of Peradeniya | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The study investigated the influence of traffic and land use parameters on metal build-up on urban road surfaces. Mathematical relationships were developed to predict metals originating from fuel combustion and vehicle wear. The analysis undertaken found that nickel and chromium originate from exhaust emissions, lead, copper and zinc from vehicle wear, cadmium from both exhaust and wear and manganese from geogenic sources. Land use does not demonstrate a clear pattern in relation to the metal build-up process, though its inherent characteristics such as traffic activities exert influence. The equation derived for fuel related metal load has high cross-validated coefficient of determination (Q2) and low Standard Error of Cross-Validation (SECV) values which indicates that the model is reliable, while the equation derived for wear-related metal load has low Q2 and high SECV values suggesting its use only in preliminary investigations. Relative Prediction Error values for both equations are considered to be well within the error limits for a complex system such as an urban road surface. These equations will be beneficial for developing reliable stormwater treatment strategies in urban areas which specifically focus on mitigation of metal pollution. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Keywords (matching the query): automobiles, mathematical analysis.


PubMed | Queensland University of Technology and University of Peradeniya
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The study investigated the influence of traffic and land use parameters on metal build-up on urban road surfaces. Mathematical relationships were developed to predict metals originating from fuel combustion and vehicle wear. The analysis undertaken found that nickel and chromium originate from exhaust emissions, lead, copper and zinc from vehicle wear, cadmium from both exhaust and wear and manganese from geogenic sources. Land use does not demonstrate a clear pattern in relation to the metal build-up process, though its inherent characteristics such as traffic activities exert influence. The equation derived for fuel related metal load has high cross-validated coefficient of determination (Q(2)) and low Standard Error of Cross-Validation (SECV) values which indicates that the model is reliable, while the equation derived for wear-related metal load has low Q(2) and high SECV values suggesting its use only in preliminary investigations. Relative Prediction Error values for both equations are considered to be well within the error limits for a complex system such as an urban road surface. These equations will be beneficial for developing reliable stormwater treatment strategies in urban areas which specifically focus on mitigation of metal pollution.


Watling C.N.,Queensland University of Technology | Palk G.R.,Queensland University of Technology | Freeman J.E.,Queensland University of Technology | Davey J.D.,Queensland University of Technology
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2010

In December 2007, random roadside drug testing commenced in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, the aim of this study was to explore the preliminary impact of Queensland's drug driving legislation and enforcement techniques by applying Stafford and Warr's [Stafford, M.C., Warr, M., 1993. A reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 123-135] reconceptualization of deterrence theory. Completing a comprehensive drug driving questionnaire were 899 members of the public, university students, and individuals referred to a drug diversion program. Of note was that approximately a fifth of participants reported drug driving in the past six months. Additionally, the analysis indicated that punishment avoidance and vicarious punishment avoidance were predictors of the propensity to drug drive in the future. In contrast, there were indications that knowing of others apprehended for drug driving was not a sufficient deterrent. Sustained testing and publicity of the legislation and countermeasure appears needed to increase the deterrent impact for drug driving. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): car driving, automobile driving.


Rowden P.,Queensland University of Technology | Matthews G.,University of Cincinnati | Watson B.,Queensland University of Technology | Biggs H.,Queensland University of Technology
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2011

Previous research has shown the association between stress and crash involvement. The impact of stress on road safety may also be mediated by behaviours including cognitive lapses, errors, and intentional traffic violations. This study aimed to provide a further understanding of the impact that stress from different sources may have upon driving behaviour and road safety. It is asserted that both stress extraneous to the driving environment and stress directly elicited by driving must be considered part of a dynamic system that may have a negative impact on driving behaviours. Two hundred and forty-seven public sector employees from Queensland, Australia, completed self-report measures examining demographics, subjective work-related stress, daily hassles, and aspects of general mental health. Additionally, the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Stress Inventory (DSI) were administered. All participants drove for work purposes regularly, however the study did not specifically focus on full-time professional drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis of the predictor variables revealed three factors: DSI negative affect; DSI risk taking; and extraneous influences (daily hassles, work-related stress, and general mental health). Moderate intercorrelations were found between each of these factors confirming the 'spillover' effect. That is, driver stress is reciprocally related to stress in other domains including work and domestic life. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that the DSI negative affect factor influenced both lapses and errors, whereas the DSI risk-taking factor was the strongest influence on violations. The SEMs also confirmed that daily hassles extraneous to the driving environment may influence DBQ lapses and violations independently. Accordingly, interventions may be developed to increase driver awareness of the dangers of excessive emotional responses to both driving events and daily hassles (e.g. driving fast to 'blow off steam' after an argument). They may also train more effective strategies for self-regulation of emotion and coping when encountering stressful situations on the road. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Keywords (matching the query): car driving, automobile drivers, automobile driving, multivariate analysis.


Palk G.,Queensland University of Technology | Freeman J.,Queensland University of Technology | Kee A.G.,Queensland University of Technology | Steinhardt D.,Queensland University of Technology | Davey J.,Queensland University of Technology
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2011

Background: Young motorists engaging in anti-social and often dangerous driving manoeuvres (which is often referred to as "hooning" within Australia) is an increasing road safety problem. While anecdotal evidence suggests that such behaviour is positively linked with crash involvement, researchers have yet to examine whether younger drivers who deliberately break road rules and drive in an erratic manner (usually with peers) are in fact over represented in crash statistics. This paper outlines research that aimed to identify the characteristics of individuals most likely to engaging in hooning behaviours, as well as examine the frequency of such driving behaviours and if such activity is linked with self-reported crash involvement. Methods: A total of 717 young drivers in Queensland voluntarily completed a questionnaire to investigate their driving behaviour and crash history. Results: Quantitative analysis of the data revealed that almost half the sample reported engaging in some form of "hooning" behaviour at least once in their lifetime, although only 4% indicated heavy participation in the behaviour e.g., >50 times. Street racing was the most common activity reported by participants followed by "drifting" and then "burnouts". Logistic regression analysis indicated that being younger and a male was predictive of reporting such anti-social driving behaviours, and importantly, a trend was identified between such behaviour and self-reported crash involvement. Conclusions: This research provides preliminary evidence that younger male drivers are more likely to engage in dangerous driving behaviours, which ultimately may prove to increase their overall risk of becoming involved in a crash. This paper will further outline the study findings in regards to current enforcement efforts to deter such driving activity as well as provide direction for future research efforts in this area. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): automobile drivers, regression analysis, quantitative analysis, logistic regression analysis.


Anstey K.J.,Australian National University | Horswill M.S.,University of Queensland | Wood J.M.,Queensland University of Technology | Hatherly C.,Australian National University
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2012

Objective: The current study evaluated part of the Multifactorial Model of Driving Safety to elucidate the relative importance of cognitive function and a limited range of standard measures of visual function in relation to the Capacity to Drive Safely. Capacity to Drive Safely was operationalized using three validated screening measures for older drivers. These included an adaptation of the well validated Useful Field of View (UFOV) and two newer measures, namely a Hazard Perception Test (HPT), and a Hazard Change Detection Task (HCDT). Method: Community dwelling drivers (n = 297) aged 65-96 were assessed using a battery of measures of cognitive and visual function. Results: Factor analysis of these predictor variables yielded factors including Executive/Speed, Vision (measured by visual acuity and contrast sensitivity), Spatial, Visual Closure, and Working Memory. Cognitive and Vision factors explained 83-95% of age-related variance in the Capacity to Drive Safely. Spatial and Working Memory were associated with UFOV, HPT and HCDT, Executive/Speed was associated with UFOV and HCDT and Vision was associated with HPT. Conclusion: The Capacity to Drive Safely declines with chronological age, and this decline is associated with age-related declines in several higher order cognitive abilities involving manipulation and storage of visuospatial information under speeded conditions. There are also age-independent effects of cognitive function and vision that determine driving safety. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): car driving, factor analysis, automobile driving.


Lacherez P.,Queensland University of Technology | Turner L.,Queensland University of Technology | Lester R.,Queensland University of Technology | Burns Z.,Queensland University of Technology | Wood J.M.,Queensland University of Technology
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics | Year: 2014

Purpose: Age-related changes in motion sensitivity have been found to relate to reductions in various indices of driving performance and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the basis of this relationship in terms of determining which aspects of motion perception are most relevant to driving. Methods: Participants included 61 regular drivers (age range 22-87 years). Visual performance was measured binocularly. Measures included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and motion sensitivity assessed using four different approaches: (1) threshold minimum drift rate for a drifting Gabor patch, (2) Dmin from a random dot display, (3) threshold coherence from a random dot display, and (4) threshold drift rate for a second-order (contrast modulated) sinusoidal grating. Participants then completed the Hazard Perception Test (HPT) in which they were required to identify moving hazards in videos of real driving scenes, and also a Direction of Heading task (DOH) in which they identified deviations from normal lane keeping in brief videos of driving filmed from the interior of a vehicle. Results: In bivariate correlation analyses, all motion sensitivity measures significantly declined with age. Motion coherence thresholds, and minimum drift rate threshold for the first-order stimulus (Gabor patch) both significantly predicted HPT performance even after controlling for age, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that individual differences in DOH accuracy partly explained these relationships, where those individuals with poorer motion sensitivity on the coherence and Gabor tests showed decreased ability to perceive deviations in motion in the driving videos, which related in turn to their ability to detect the moving hazards. Conclusions: The ability to detect subtle movements in the driving environment (as determined by the DOH task) may be an important contributor to effective hazard perception, and is associated with age, and an individuals' performance on tests of motion sensitivity. The locus of the processing deficits appears to lie in first-order, rather than second-order motion pathways. © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

Document Keywords (matching the query): car driving, automobile driving.


PubMed | Queensland University of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953) | Year: 2012

Young novice drivers are significantly more likely to be killed or injured in car crashes than older, experienced drivers. Graduated driver licensing (GDL), which allows the novice to gain driving experience under less-risky circumstances, has resulted in reduced crash incidence; however, the drivers psychological traits are ignored. This paper explores the relationships between gender, age, anxiety, depression, sensitivity to reward and punishment, sensation-seeking propensity, and risky driving. Participants were 761 young drivers aged 17-24 (M=19.00, SD=1.56) with a Provisional (intermediate) drivers licence who completed an online survey comprising socio-demographic questions, the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale, Kesslers Psychological Distress Scale, the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, and the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale. Path analysis revealed depression, reward sensitivity, and sensation-seeking propensity predicted the self-reported risky behaviour of the young novice drivers. Gender was a moderator; and the anxiety level of female drivers also influenced their risky driving. Interventions do not directly consider the role of rewards and sensation seeking, or the young persons mental health. An approach that does take these variables into account may contribute to improved road safety outcomes for both young and older road users.


PubMed | Empirica and Queensland University of Technology
Type: | Journal: Journal of safety research | Year: 2015

The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is the most commonly used self-report tool in traffic safety research and applied settings. It has been claimed that the violation factor of this instrument predicts accident involvement, which was supported by a previous meta-analysis. However, that analysis did not test for methodological effects, or include unpublished results.The present study re-analysed studies on prediction of accident involvement from DBQ factors, including lapses, and many unpublished effects. Tests of various types of dissemination bias and common method variance were undertaken.Outlier analysis showed that some effects were probably not reliable data, but excluding them did not change the results. For correlations between violations and crashes, tendencies for published effects to be larger than unpublished ones and for effects to decrease over time were observed, but were not significant. Also, using the mean of accidents as proxy for effect indicated that studies where effects for violations are not reported have smaller effect sizes. These differences indicate dissemination bias. Studies using self-reported accidents as dependent variables had much larger effects than those using recorded accident data. Also, zero-order correlations were larger than partial correlations controlled for exposure. Similarly, violations/accidents effects were strong only when there was also a strong correlation between accidents and exposure. Overall, the true effect is probably very close to zero (r<.07) for violations versus traffic accident involvement, depending upon which tendencies are controlled for.Methodological factors and dissemination bias have inflated the published effect sizes of the DBQ. Strong evidence of various artefactual effects is apparent.A greater level of care should be taken if the DBQ continues to be used in traffic safety research. Also, validation of self-reports should be more comprehensive in the future, taking into account the possibility of common method variance.

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