Time filter

Source Type

McCarthy J.S.,Queensland Institute for Medical Research | McCarthy J.S.,University of Queensland | Griffin P.M.,Queensland Institute for Medical Research | Griffin P.M.,Q Pharm Pty Ltd | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background. Major impediments to development of vaccines and drugs for Plasmodium vivax malaria are the inability to culture this species and the extreme difficulty in undertaking clinical research by experimental infection. Methods. A parasite bank was collected from a 49-year-old woman with P. vivax infection, characterized, and used in an experimental infection study. Results. The donor made a full recovery from malaria after collection of a parasite bank, which tested negative for agents screened for in blood donations. DNA sequence analysis of the isolate indicated that it was clonal. Two subjects inoculated with the isolate became polymerase chain reaction positive on days 8 and 9, with onset of symptoms and positive blood smears on day 14, when they were treated with artemether-lumefantrine, with rapid clinical and parasitologic response. Transcripts of the parasite gene pvs25 that is expressed in gametocytes, the life cycle stage infectious to mosquitoes, were first detected on days 11 and 12. Conclusions. This experimental system results in in vivo parasite growth, probably infectious to mosquitoes. It offers the opportunity to undertake studies previously impossible in P. vivax that will facilitate a better understanding of the pathology of vivax malaria and development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines. Trial Registration. ANZCTR: 12612001096842. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Kapur N.,Royal Childrens Hospital | Mackay I.M.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | Sloots T.P.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | Masters I.B.,Royal Childrens Hospital | Chang A.B.,Royal Childrens Hospital
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2014

Background: Respiratory viral infections precipitate exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease though similar data in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis are missing. Our study aimed to determine the point prevalence of viruses associated with exacerbations and evaluate clinical and investigational differences between virus-positive and -negative exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis. Methods: A cohort of 69 children (median age 7 years) with non-CF bronchiectasis was prospectively followed for 900 child-months. PCR for 16 respiratory viruses was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during 77 paediatric pulmonologist-defined exacerbations. Clinical data, systemic (C reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, procalcitonin, amyloid-A, fibrinogen) and lung function parameters were also collected. Findings: Respiratory viruses were detected during 37 (48%) exacerbations: human rhinovirus (HRV) in 20; an enterovirus or bocavirus in four each; adenoviruses, metapneumovirus, influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus 3 or 4 in two each; coronavirus or parainfluenza virus 1 and 2 in one each. Viral codetections occurred in 6 (8%) exacerbations. HRV-As (n=9) were more likely to be present than HRV-Cs (n=2). Children with virus-positive exacerbations were more likely to require hospitalisation (59% vs 32.5% (p=0.02)) and have fever (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 11.1), hypoxia (OR 25.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 322.6), chest signs (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.2) and raised CRP (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 13.1) when compared with virus-negative exacerbations. Interpretation: Respiratory viruses are commonly detected during pulmonary exacerbations of children with bronchiectasis. HRV-As were the most frequently detected viruses with viral codetection being rare. Time-sequenced cohort studies are needed to determine the role of viral-bacterial interactions in exacerbations of bronchiectasis.


Hui B.B.,University of New South Wales | Ryder N.,Sexual Health and Blood Borne Virus Unit | Su J.-Y.,Sexual Health and Blood Borne Virus Unit | Ward J.,South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Surveillance for gonorrhoea antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is compromised by a move away from culture-based testing in favour of more convenient nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) tests. We assessed the potential benefit of a molecular resistance test in terms of the timeliness of detection of gonorrhoea AMR. Methods and Findings An individual-based mathematical model was developed to describe the transmission of gonorrhoea in a remote Indigenous population in Australia.We estimated the impact of the molecular test on the time delay between first importation and the first confirmation that the prevalence of gonorrhoea AMR (resistance proportion) has breached the WHO-recommended 5%threshold (when a change in antibiotic should occur). In the remote setting evaluated in this study, the model predicts that when culture is the only available means of testing for AMR, the breach will only be detected when the actual prevalence of AMR in the population has already reached 8 - 18%, with an associated delay of ~43 - 69 months between first importation and detection. With the addition of a molecular resistance test, the number of samples for which AMR can be determined increases facilitating earlier detection at a lower resistance proportion. For the best case scenario, where AMR can be determined for all diagnostic samples, the alert would be triggered at least 8 months earlier than using culture alone and the resistance proportion will have only slightly exceeded the 5% notification threshold. Conclusions Molecular tests have the potential to provide more timely warning of the emergence of gonorrhoea AMR. This in turn will facilitate earlier treatment switching and more targeted treatment, which has the potential to reduce the population impact of gonorrhoea AMR. Copyright: © 2015 Hui et al.


O'Grady K.F.,Queensland University of Technology | Grimwood K.,Griffith University | Sloots T.P.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | Whiley D.M.,University of Queensland | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2016

Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged <15 years presenting to an emergency department with an ARI and where cough was a symptom. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 17 respiratory viruses and seven respiratory bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7 months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3 months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age <12 months = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 7.9; age 12 to <24 months = 6.0, 95% CI 3.7, 9.8; age 24 to <60 months = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), male gender (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0), child care attendance (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.8) and winter enrollment (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3, 3.0). Haemophilus influenzae dominated the virus-bacteria pairs. Virus-H. influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H. influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized. © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


PubMed | Charles Darwin University, University of Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, Lady Cilento Childrens Hospital and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged <15years presenting to an emergency department with an ARI and where cough was a symptom. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 17 respiratory viruses and seven respiratory bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age <12months=4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 7.9; age 12 to <24months=6.0, 95% CI 3.7, 9.8; age 24 to <60months=2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), male gender (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0), child care attendance (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.8) and winter enrollment (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3, 3.0). Haemophilus influenzae dominated the virus-bacteria pairs. Virus-H.influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H.influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized.


Trembizki E.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | Trembizki E.,University of Queensland | Lahra M.,Prince of Wales Hospital | Stevens K.,University of Melbourne | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2013

The aims of this study were to (1) conduct a national survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae identification by National Neisseria Network (NNN) reference laboratories contributing data to the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme and (2) determine the prevalence in Australia of strains of N. gonorrhoeae lacking gene sequences commonly targeted by in-house PCR assays for confirmation of gonococcal nucleic acid amplification tests. Gonococcal clinical isolates referred to NNN laboratories for the first half of 2012 were screened using in-house real-time PCR assays targeting multicopy opa, porA pseudogene and cppB genes. There were 2455 clinical gonococcal isolates received in the study period; 98.6% (2420/2455) of isolates harboured all three gene targets, 0.12% (3/2455) were porA-negative, 0.04% (1/2455) opanegative and 1.14% (28/2455) cppB-negative by PCR. Notably, no isolates were simultaneously negative for two targets. However, three isolates failed to be amplified by all three PCR methods, one isolate of which was shown to be a commensal Neisseria strain by 16S rRNA sequencing. Using PCR as the reference standard the results showed that (1) identification of N. gonorrhoeae isolates by NNN laboratories was highly specific (99.96 %) and (2) strains of N. gonorrhoeae lacking gene sequences commonly targeted by in-house PCR assays are present but not widespread throughout Australia at this point in time. © 2014 SGM.


Whiley D.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | Whiley D.,University of Queensland | Whiley D.,Royal Childrens Hospital | Trembizki E.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | And 10 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) carrying the blaTEM-135 gene is of particular concern, as it is considered a stepping stone toward resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Here, we sought to characterize plasmid types and the occurrence of the blaTEM-135 gene for N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Australia. We found that blaTEM-135 was prevalent in Australian PPNG and was detected on all three major plasmid types. © 2014 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Lahra M.M.,Neisseria Reference Laboratory and Collaborating Center for WPR and SEAR | Lahra M.M.,University of New South Wales | Lo Y.-R.,WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific | Whiley D.M.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | Whiley D.M.,University of Queensland
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2013

Objective To outline the current situation of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the Western Pacific region and factors that impact on this. Background The Western Pacific region is densely populated with many living in poverty. There are high rates of infectious diseases, and a disproportionate burden of gonococcal disease. In many countries there is uncontrolled antimicrobial use: these are ideal conditions for the emergence of AMR. Methods Gonococcal AMR in this region has been monitored for more than 20 years. Clinical isolates, predominantly from unselected patients attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics, are tested against a panel of antibiotics. Quality assurance and control strategies are in place. Results There is widespread, high level resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC=0.06 mg/L) is reported in high levels from some countries in the region. Low numbers of isolates tested in some countries reflect capacity for testing, and are suboptimal for surveillance. Conclusion The raised MIC values to ceftriaxone, and the emergence and spread of ceftriaxone resistant strains regionally is alarming. Sustaining and enhancing surveillance is critical; however obtaining an adequate sample size is a long-standing issue. The implementation of molecular surveillance strategies could provide broader information on the spread and threat of AMR.


Whiley D.M.,Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory | Whiley D.M.,University of Queensland | Limnios A.,World Health Organization | Moon N.J.,Hunter Area Pathology Service | And 13 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2011

The gonococcal porA pseudogene is a popular target for in-house Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR methods. With this study we present two novel findings: the first case of an N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene PCR false-negative result caused by sequence variation, and in the same organism, the first description of a clinical N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis porA sequence.


PubMed | Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of medical microbiology | Year: 2013

The aims of this study were to (1) conduct a national survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae identification by National Neisseria Network (NNN) reference laboratories contributing data to the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme and (2) determine the prevalence in Australia of strains of N. gonorrhoeae lacking gene sequences commonly targeted by in-house PCR assays for confirmation of gonococcal nucleic acid amplification tests. Gonococcal clinical isolates referred to NNN laboratories for the first half of 2012 were screened using in-house real-time PCR assays targeting multicopy opa, porA pseudogene and cppB genes. There were 2455 clinical gonococcal isolates received in the study period; 98.6 % (2420/2455) of isolates harboured all three gene targets, 0.12 % (3/2455) were porA-negative, 0.04 % (1/2455) opa-negative and 1.14 % (28/2455) cppB-negative by PCR. Notably, no isolates were simultaneously negative for two targets. However, three isolates failed to be amplified by all three PCR methods, one isolate of which was shown to be a commensal Neisseria strain by 16S rRNA sequencing. Using PCR as the reference standard the results showed that (1) identification of N. gonorrhoeae isolates by NNN laboratories was highly specific (99.96 %) and (2) strains of N. gonorrhoeae lacking gene sequences commonly targeted by in-house PCR assays are present but not widespread throughout Australia at this point in time.

Loading Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory collaborators
Loading Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory collaborators