Toowong, Australia
Toowong, Australia

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Neldner V.J.,Queensland Herbarium
Ecological Management and Restoration | Year: 2017

The establishment success of woody plant species at 56 revegetation sites, four to 26 years old, across the Meandu open-cut coal mine in south-east Queensland was assessed. The revegetation process involved returning stockpiled topsoil, deep ripping and mechanical sowing of a mix of native seeds. Blakes Wattle (Acacia blakei) and less often Black Wattle (A. leiocalyx), both primarily derived from respread topsoil seed, dominate the vegetation canopy at 59% and 20% of revegetation sites, respectively. The additional sowing of seeds of many tree and shrub species within the sites has had limited success with most failing to persist or grow well. Revegetation management, for example selective thinning of acacias (Acacia spp.) saplings within the first 5 years is recommended to release the competition pressure on the poorly performing tree species. This will also allow opportunities for other less well represented shrub and herb species to persist. This study has shown that a range of tree and shrub species, including Eucalyptus spp., are performing poorly under the current revegetation regime, suggesting adjustments to revegetation species selection and/or methodologies are needed. The natural colonization of woody native species within the sites from nearby remnant vegetation is shown to be limited to only four species, and therefore is unlikely to significantly supplement the species diversity of the revegetation. © 2017 State of Queensland


Pole M.,Queensland Herbarium
Alcheringa | Year: 2010

This paper reports the discovery of three of the most iconic New Caledonian endemic genera, Amphorogyne, Paracryphia and Phelline, as dispersed leaf cuticle fossils in the early Miocene of New Zealand. New Caledonia's endemic angiosperm families have given it a reputation as one of the most interesting botanical regions in the world, but unfortunately it has no known pre-Pleistocene Cenozoic plant fossil record. A once more widespread distribution of its key plants in the context of a cooling and drying Neogene world suggests the current vegetation of New Caledonia is the result of contraction, or even a migration, from more southerly landmasses. Thus, New Zealand may have been a source of at least some of New Caledonia's plants. © 2010 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists.


Silcock J.L.,University of Queensland | Piddocke T.P.,Queensland Herbarium | Fensham R.J.,University of Queensland
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

The rapid spread of pastoralism across Australian and North American rangelands and the lack of reference sites mean that recurring arguments about the cause and magnitude of landscape change are frustrated by the rarity of records that predate the critical watershed of European settlement. The journals of European explorers from the 1840s are the first written descriptions of inland Australia. Prevailing paradigms based on a synthesis of published material relating to five key themes of environmental change are presented: vegetation structure, fire regimes, waterhole permanence, macropod abundance and medium-sized mammal assemblages. Six hypotheses relating to these themes were tested against the explorer record for inland eastern Australia. Nearly 4500 observations from fourteen journals spanning twelve expeditions between 1844 and 1919 were geo-referenced, using landscape features, distances, bearings and latitudes, combined with topographic maps and high-resolution satellite imagery. Careful evaluation of the record suggests little change in broad vegetation structure or waterhole permanence, running counter to prevailing paradigms. The sparse observations of fire suggest burning was infrequent and mostly restricted to creek-lines and higher-rainfall grasslands in the east and north of the study area and spinifex-dominated vegetation. Kangaroos were apparently uncommon in semi-arid areas where they are abundant today. The journals contain important observations of medium-sized mammals that are now extinct or rare. Our results highlight the importance of accurate geo-referencing compiled from entire journals of multiple explorers and contrasting the record with contemporary observation. Systematic evaluation of the explorer record for a region can provide ecological insights that are difficult to obtain by other means, and can be used to test prevailing assumptions common to arid systems that have been subject to abrupt management upheaval. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Pole M.,Queensland Herbarium
Palaeontologia Electronica | Year: 2014

Miocene New Zealand was a small, highly oceanic landmass which makes it ideal for recording terrestrial climate, free of the complications of a continental setting. Fortunately, it has a good Miocene fossil record, both marine and terrestrial. This paper reviews past conclusions about Miocene climate then attempts to derive some key climate indices for the period using a variety of plant fossil proxies. The paper looks at three slices of Miocene time-a broad early to earliest middle Miocene time, a restricted period in the middle Miocene, and broader middle-late Miocene. The results suggest early to earliest middle Miocene Mean Annual Temperatures (MATs) reached at least 17-18°C, thus, about 6-7°C warmer than today (coastal areas of southern New Zealand today have a MAT of about 11°C). At times Miocene MAT may have reached 19-20°C. These figures support the cooler estimates of New Zealand Miocene climate that have been made previously by using palebotanical proxies, rather than those based on marine invertebrates. Based on plant fossils there is no evidence that New Zealand ever reached truly 'tropical' (i.e., megathermal) conditions (> 24-25°C). The climate in the middle Miocene is confounded by signs of precipitation and temperature change, and the rarity of leaf fossils. However, the data suggest both cooling and drying from the early Miocene. The presence of crocodiles yet the disappearance of palms, suggests a MAT that was at the lower end of existence for both of these groups, perhaps about 14°C. By the late Miocene, there is evidence for significant cooling, both from leaf size and a drop in plant diversity, which resulted in vegetation dominated in many places by Nothofagus. © Palaeontological Association July 2014.


Three new species of Pluchea Cass, are described; P. longiseta A.R.Bean from northern Western Australia, P. mesoles A.R.Bean from the Northern Territory, and P. alata A.R.Bean from central Queensland. All species are illustrated and distribution maps are provided. A revised key to the Australian of Pluchea species is provided.


Bean A.R.,Queensland Herbarium
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

The taxonomy of Solanum echinatum and its allies is revised. Seven species are enumerated, all endemic to tropical Australia, including four new species: S. fecundum sp. nov., S. lapidosum sp. nov., S. medicagineum sp. nov., and S. rhaphiotes sp. nov. Solanum longissimum is reduced to synonymy, and S. wilkinsii is reinstated. Illustrations are provided for all species. The distributions of all species are mapped, and an identification key is included. © 2012 Magnolia Press.


Holland A.E.,Queensland Herbarium
Telopea | Year: 2015

Goodenia effusa is described as new. It is an annual herb from north Queensland with morphological affinity to G. virgata, G. armitiana and G. triodiophila. A diagnostic table of morphological differences is provided, along with illustrations and a distribution map of this new species. © 2015 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust.


Three features of leaf physiognomy: craspedodromous venation, compound teeth and a lobed leaf outline, figure prominently in the Late Cretaceous vegetation of southern New Zealand. These make it distinctly different from typical extant, predominantly evergreen forests and some deciduous vegetation. The physiognomy of the Late Cretaceous vegetation at the assemblage level shows more similarity with predominantly deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere, in terms of the proportions of these characters in the flora. At the taxon level, combinations of characters found in fossils are very similar to and in some cases restricted to, widespread extant Northern Hemisphere deciduous taxa, but also to rarer components of evergreen forests. It may not be possible to categorically determine whether any one fossil was deciduous. The distinctly different assemblage-level foliar physiognomy implies a distinctly different "lifestyle" for the New Zealand forests that bordered Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous. It is highly likely that this physiognomy reflects an important deciduous component. This is unexpected as for at least part of this time New Zealand was apparently below (north of) the Polar Circle with a temperate and everwet climate. © 2014 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Arthragrostis brassiana B.K.Simon, Digitaria basaltica B.K.Simon, Digitaria cowiei B.K.Simon, Digitaria dolleryi B.K.Simon, Digitaria sharpeana B.K.Simon, Digitaria veldkampiana B.K.Simon, Entolasia minutifolia B.K.Simon, Isachne sharpii B.K.Simon, Paspalidium johnsonii B.K.Simon and Pseudoraphis jagonis B.K.Simon are diagnosed as new species. Pseudoraphis minuta var. laevis B.K.Simon and Arthragroslis brassiana var. minutiflora B.K.Simon are diagnosed as new varieties. New combinations and changes of status are provided for Cenchrus brevisetosus (B.K.Simon) B.K.Simon, Oplismenus mollis (Domin) Clifford & Evans ex B.K.Simon, Setaria pumila subsp. subtesselata (Buse) B.K.Simon, Urochloa occidentalis (C.A.Gardner & C.E.Hubb.) B.K.Simon, Urochloa occidentalis var. ciliata (C.A.Gardner & C.E.Hubb.) B.K.Simon and Urochloa gilesii var. nothochthona (Domin) B.K.Simon. All Pennisetum species have recently been placed in synonymy with Cenchrus and the name changes that apply to taxa occurring in Australia are listed. Cenchrus spinifex Cav. is the correct name for what has been called C. incertus M.A.Curtis. Two more species of Cyrtococcum, C. patens (L.) A.Camus and C. accrescens (Trin.) Stapf are reported as occurring in Australia. Two species of Digitaria Hall., D. diminuta Hughes and D. fumida S.T.Blake, are removed from the synonymy of D. breviglumis (Domin) Henrard; the latter species has been recircumscribed to include a species previously known under the phrase name Digitaria sp. (Mt Mulligan J.R.Clarkson 5821). Keys and descriptions are given to the species D. breviglumis, D. diminuta, D. fumida and D. orbata Hughes. Isachne minutula (Gaudich.) Kunth is the correct name of a species previously referred to in Australia as I. pulchella auct. non Roth. The genus Plagiosetum Benth. is resurrected from synonymy with Paractaenum P.Beauv. Brachiaria occidentalis var. ciliaris C.A.Gardner & C.E.Hubb., Oplismenus undulatifolius var. molle Domin and Pseudoraphis minuta (Mez) Pilger are lectotypified.


Vorontsova M.S.,Herbarium | Simon B.K.,Queensland Herbarium
Taxon | Year: 2012

The ongoing realignment of angiosperm classification to create monophyletic groups is associated with the publication of numerous new combinations to transfer species between genera. How many species names will change in total? We use Poaceae as a model group to estimate the total number of name changes. We compare the species names accepted by the traditional classification system in GrassBase with the species names accepted by the recent research results compiled in GrassWorld. We estimate that 10%-20% of Poaceae species will have moved to a different genus by the time the realignment is complete. This is the first published estimate for a number of name changes associated with classification realignment to monophyletic groups.

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