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Grigg N.L.,Queensland University of Technology | Wearing S.C.,Bond University | Wearing S.C.,Queensland Academy of Sport | Smeathers J.E.,Queensland University of Technology
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2012

PURPOSE: Eccentric exercise has become the treatment of choice for Achilles tendinopathy. However, little is known about the acute response of tendons to eccentric exercise or the mechanisms underlying its clinical benefit. This research evaluated the sonographic characteristics and acute anteroposterior (AP) strain response of control (healthy), asymptomatic, and symptomatic Achilles tendons to eccentric exercise. METHODS: Eleven male adults with unilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy and nine control male adults without tendinopathy participated in the research. Sagittal sonograms of the Achilles tendon were acquired immediately before and after completion of a common eccentric rehabilitation exercise protocol and again 24 h later. Tendon thickness, echogenicity, and AP strain were determined 40 mm proximal to the calcaneal insertion. RESULTS: Compared with the control tendon, both the asymptomatic and symptomatic tendons were thicker (P < 0.05) and hypoechoic (P < 0.05) at baseline. All tendons decreased in thickness immediately after eccentric exercise (P < 0.05). The symptomatic tendon was characterized by a significantly lower AP strain response to eccentric exercise compared with both the asymptomatic and control tendons (P < 0.05). AP strains did not differ in the control and asymptomatic tendons. For all tendons, preexercise thickness was restored 24 h after exercise completion. CONCLUSIONS: These observations support the concept that Achilles tendinopathy is a bilateral or systemic process and structural changes associated with symptomatic tendinopathy alter fluid movement within the tendon matrix. Altered fluid movement may disrupt remodeling and homeostatic processes and represents a plausible mechanism underlying the progression of tendinopathy. Source


Knez W.L.,Research and Education Center | Peake J.M.,Queensland Academy of Sport
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2010

Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Gabbett T.,University of Queensland | Wake M.,Queensland Academy of Sport | Abernethy B.,University of Hong Kong
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2011

We assessed the attentional demands of drawing and passing in rugby league players and investigated the effects of single-task and dual-task training on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of skill in these athletes. In Study 1, high-skilled and lesserskilled rugby league players performed a standardized 2-on-1 drill under single-task (primary skill in isolation) and dual-task (primary skill while performing a secondary verbal tone recognition task) conditions. No differences were detected in primary task performance between groups, although the performance of the high-skilled players was more resistant to skill decrement under dual-task conditions. In Study 2, high-performance rugby league players were randomly allocated to either a single-task or dual-task training group. Each group underwent 8 weeks of training between the pre- and post-test sessions. While the mean improvement for draw and pass proficiency under dual-task conditions in the dual-task training group was greater than in the single-task training group (10.0% vs. 2.3%), the differences, while providing a moderate effect size (d=0.57), were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the attentional demands of drawing and passing are reduced in high-skilled rugby league players compared with their lesser-skilled counterparts. In addition, compared with single-task training, dual-task training appears to improve the ability to perform dual-task draw and pass tasks (possibly through an improvement in timesharing skills). Further studies are required to verify the efficacy of dual-task training as a training stimulus. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Stanley J.,University of Queensland | D'Auria S.,Queensland Academy of Sport | Buchheit M.,Sport Science Unit
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2015

The authors examined whether changes in heart-rate (HR) variability (HRV) could consistently track adaptation to training and race performance during a 32-wk competitive season. An elite male long-course triathlete recorded resting HR (RHR) each morning, and vagal-related indices of HRV (natural logarithm of the square root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals [ln rMSSD] and the ratio of ln rMSSD to R-R interval length [ln rMSSD:RR]) were assessed. Daily training load was quantified using a power meter and wrist-top GPS device. Trends in HRV indices and training load were examined by calculating standardized differences (ES). The following trends in week-to-week changes were consistently observed: (1) When the triathlete was coping with a training block, RHR decreased (ES -0.38 [90% confidence limits -0.05;-0.72]) and ln rMSSD increased (+0.36 [0.71;0.00]). (2) When the triathlete was not coping, RHR increased (+0.65 [1.29;0.00]) and ln rMSSD decreased (-0.60 [0.00;-1.20]). (3) Optimal competition performance was associated with moderate decreases in ln rMSSD (-0.86 [-0.76;-0.95]) and ln rMSSD:RR (-0.90 [-0.60;-1.20]) in the week before competition. (4) Suboptimal competition performance was associated with small decreases in ln rMSSD (-0.25 [-0.76;-0.95]) and trivial changes in ln rMSSD:RR (-0.04 [0.50;-0.57]) in the week before competition. To conclude, in this triathlete, a decrease in RHR concurrent with increased ln rMSSD compared with the previous week consistently appears indicative of positive training adaptation during a training block. A simultaneous reduction in ln rMSSD and ln rMSSD:RR during the final week preceding competition appears consistently indicative of optimal performance. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Wearing S.C.,Bond University | Wearing S.C.,Queensland Academy of Sport | Reed L.F.,Queensland University of Technology | Urry S.R.,Queensland University of Technology
Gait and Posture | Year: 2013

Background: Commercially available instrumented treadmill systems that provide continuous measures of temporospatial gait parameters have recently become available for clinical gait analysis. This study evaluated the level of agreement between temporospatial gait parameters derived from a new instrumented treadmill, which incorporated a capacitance-based pressure array, with those measured by a conventional instrumented walkway (criterion standard). Methods: Temporospatial gait parameters were estimated from 39 healthy adults while walking over an instrumented walkway (GAITRite®) and instrumented treadmill system (Zebris) at matched speed. Differences in temporospatial parameters derived from the two systems were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA models. Pearson-product-moment correlations were used to investigate relationships between variables measured by each system. Agreement was assessed by calculating the bias and 95% limits of agreement. Results: All temporospatial parameters measured via the instrumented walkway were significantly different from those obtained from the instrumented treadmill ( P < .01). Temporospatial parameters derived from the two systems were highly correlated (r, 0.79-0.95). The 95% limits of agreement for temporal parameters were typically less than ±2% of gait cycle duration. However, 95% limits of agreement for spatial measures were as much as ±5. cm. Conclusions: Differences in temporospatial parameters between systems were small but statistically significant and of similar magnitude to changes reported between shod and unshod gait in healthy young adults. Temporospatial parameters derived from an instrumented treadmill, therefore, are not representative of those obtained from an instrumented walkway and should not be interpreted with reference to literature on overground walking. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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