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Taibu R.,Western Michigan University | Taibu R.,Queensborough Community College CUNY | Rudge D.,Western Michigan University | Schuster D.,Western Michigan University
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research | Year: 2015

The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties for learners, especially for accelerating objects where the scale reading is different from the gravitational force. But while the underlying physical constructs behind the two referents for the term weight (and their relation to each other) are well understood scientifically, it is unclear how the concept of weight should be introduced to students and how the language ambiguities should be dealt with. We investigated treatments of weight in a sample of twenty introductory college physics textbooks, analyzing and coding their content based on the definition adopted, how the distinct constructs were dealt with in various situations, terminologies used, and whether and how language issues were handled. Results indicate that language-related issues, such as different, inconsistent, or ambiguous uses of the terms weight, "apparent weight," and "weightlessness," were prevalent both across and within textbooks. The physics of the related constructs was not always clearly presented, particularly for accelerating bodies such as astronauts in spaceships, and the language issue was rarely addressed. Our analysis of both literature and textbooks leads us to an instructional position which focuses on the physics constructs before introducing the term weight, and which explicitly discusses the associated language issues. © 2015 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Source


Rose S.A.,Yeshiva University | Djukic A.,Yeshiva University | Jankowski J.J.,Yeshiva University | Jankowski J.J.,Queensborough Community College CUNY | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2016

Background We sought to examine fundamental aspects of attention in children with Rett syndrome, a severely disabling neurodevelopmental disorder caused by spontaneous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene. To gauge their attention, we used eye tracking, which bypasses the profound impairments in expressive language and hand use in Rett syndrome. We report two aspects of attention - shifting and sustaining - basic abilities known to drive cognitive growth. Methods Two groups were compared: those with Rett syndrome (N = 20; 3-15 years) and a typically developing comparison group (N = 14; 3-16 years), using a task in which an attractive central stimulus was followed, after a short gap, by a dynamic target presented to one side. Time to shift to the target location (reactive and anticipatory saccades) and time fixating the target were assessed. Results Children with Rett syndrome were consistently slower to shift (largely because of fewer anticipations); their reactive saccades were also slower than those of typically developing children, but not significantly so. The Rett syndrome group spent considerable time looking at the target (over 75% of available time), although significantly less so than the typically developing group. Conclusions These findings indicate that children with Rett syndrome could maintain attention on a stimulus and orient relatively quickly to the appearance of a target in the visual field. However, they had difficulty in anticipating predictable events, a difficulty in endogenous attention that is likely to have deleterious implications for executive functioning. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Kashyap H.K.,University of Iowa | Santos C.S.,Rutgers University | Murthy N.S.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Hettige J.J.,University of Iowa | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate structural differences and similarities in the condensed phase between pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (NTf2 -) anion where the cationic tail is linear, branched, or cyclic. This is important in light of the charge and polarity type alternations that have recently been shown to be present in the case of liquids with cations of moderately long linear tails. For this study, we have chosen to use the 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, Pyrr 1,n + with n = 5 or 7, as systems with linear tails, 1-(2-ethylhexyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium, Pyrr1,EtHx +, as a system with a branched tail, and 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium, Pyrr1,ChxMe +, as a system with a cyclic tail. We put these results into context by comparing these data with recently published results for the Pyrr1,n +/NTf2 - ionic liquids with n = 4, 6, 8, and 10.1,2 General methods for interpreting the structure function S(q) in terms of q-dependent natural partitionings are described. This allows for an in-depth analysis of the scattering data based on molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories that highlight the effect of modifying the cationic tail. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Hong R.,Queensborough Community College CUNY | Kang T.Y.,Queensborough Community College CUNY | Michels C.A.,Queens College, City University of New York | Gadura N.,Queensborough Community College CUNY
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Survival, TBARS levels, and DNA degradation were followed in cells exposed to copper alloy surfaces containing 60 to 99.90% copper or in medium containing CuSO 4. In all cases, TBARS levels increased with copper exposure levels. Cells exposed to the highest copper content alloys, C11000 and C24000, exhibited novel characteristics. TBARS increased immediately at a very rapid rate but peaked at about 30 min. This peak was associated with the period of most rapid killing, loss in membrane integrity, and DNA degradation. DNA degradation is not the primary cause of copper-mediated surface killing. Cells exposed to the 60% copper alloy for 60 min had fully intact genomic DNA but no viable cells. In a fabR mutant strain with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids, sensitivity to copper alloy surface-mediated killing increased, TBARS levels peaked earlier, and genomic DNA degradation occurred sooner than in the isogenic parental strain. Taken together, these results suggest that copper alloy surface-mediated killing of E. coli is triggered by nonenzymatic oxidative damage of membrane phospholipids that ultimately results in the loss of membrane integrity and cell death. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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