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Belfast, United Kingdom

Queen's University Belfast is a public research university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The university's official title, per its charter, is The Queen's University of Belfast Wikipedia.

Masouros C.,Queens University of Belfast
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2011

A simple linear precoding technique is proposed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) broadcast systems using phase shift keying (PSK) modulation. The proposed technique is based on the fact that, on an instantaneous basis, the interference between spatial links in a MIMO system can be constructive and can contribute to the power of the useful signal to improve the performance of signal detection. In MIMO downlinks this co-channel interference (CCI) can be predicted and characterised prior to transmission. Contrary to common practice where knowledge of the interference is used to eliminate it, the main idea proposed here is to use this knowledge to influence the interference and benefit from it, thus gaining advantage from energy already existing in the communication system that is left unexploited otherwise. The proposed precoding aims at adaptively rotating, rather than zeroing, the correlation between the MIMO substreams depending on the transmitted data, so that the signal of interfering transmissions is aligned to the signal of interest at each receive antenna. By doing so, the CCI is always kept constructive and the received signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) delivered to the mobile units (MUs) is enhanced without the need to invest additional signal power per transmitted symbol at the MIMO base station (BS). It is shown by means of theoretical analysis and simulations that the proposed MIMO precoding technique offers significant performance and throughput gains compared to its conventional counterparts. © 1991-2012 IEEE. Source

Mills A.,Queens University of Belfast
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2012

The main features are described of the ISO published standard: 10678:2010, namely the 'Determination of photocatalytic activity of surfaces in an aqueous medium by degradation of methylene blue'. The main underlying assumptions of the standard are considered, namely: (i) dye purity, (ii) adsorption and pH, (iii) light source, (iv) stirring and diffusion, (v) reaction mechanism and (vi) kinetics. Possible sources of errors arising form these assumptions are identified and changes to the standard's protocol suggested. The major suggested changes are: (i) a source of MB+ of known and proven on site high purity (>90%) should be used to make up the standard test solution, which should have a referenced absorbance, 0.74, at 665nm; (ii) the conditioning solution should be the same concentration as the standard test solution, (iii) the initial pH of the reaction solution should lie in the range: 5.5-6.0; (iv) a BLB UVA light with a europium-doped strontium fluoroborate or borate phosphor should be used; (v) the reaction solution should be vigorously and continuously stirred if possible; (vi) the solution height should be the minimum recommended value of 2cm, and the photoreactor cylinder i.d., 4.7cm; (vii) after the 3h irradiation the reaction solution should be left stirring overnight to check that no dye photoreductive bleaching has occurred. Application of most of these suggestions should improve considerably the standard's reported current poor percentage errors for repeatability within a lab (9.2%) and reproducibility between labs (30.6%). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bevacizumab has been suggested to have similar effectiveness to ranibizumab for treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The Inhibition of VEGF in Age-related choroidal Neovascularisation (IVAN) trial was designed to compare these drugs and different regimens. Here, we report the findings at the prespecified 2-year timepoint. In a multicentre, 2×2 factorial, non-inferiority randomised trial, we enrolled adults aged at least 50 years with active, previously untreated neovascular age-related macular degeneration and a best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) of at least 25 letters from 23 hospitals in the UK. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (0·5 mg) or bevacizumab (1·25 mg) in continuous (every month) or discontinuous (as needed) regimens, with monthly review. Study participants and clinical assessors were masked to drug allocation. Allocation to continuous or discontinuous treatment was masked up to 3 months, at which point investigators and participants were unmasked. The primary outcome was BCVA at 2 years, with a prespecified non-inferiority limit of 3·5 letters. The primary safety outcome was arterial thrombotic event or hospital admission for heart failure. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN92166560. Between March 27, 2008, and Oct 15, 2010, 628 patients underwent randomisation. 18 were withdrawn; 610 received study drugs (314 ranibizumab; 296 bevacizumab) and were included in analyses. 525 participants reached the visit at 2 years: 134 ranibizumab in continuous regimen, 137 ranibizumab in discontinuous regimen, 127 bevacizumab in continuous regimen, and 127 bevacizumab in discontinuous regimen. For BCVA, bevacizumab was neither non-inferior nor inferior to ranibizumab (mean difference -1·37 letters, 95% CI -3·75 to 1·01; p=0·26). Discontinuous treatment was neither non-inferior nor inferior to continuous treatment (-1·63 letters, -4·01 to 0·75; p=0·18). Frequency of arterial thrombotic events or hospital admission for heart failure did not differ between groups given ranibizumab (20 [6%] of 314 participants) and bevacizumab (12 [4%] of 296; odds ratio [OR] 1·69, 95% CI 0·80-3·57; p=0·16), or those given continuous (12 [4%] of 308) and discontinuous treatment (20 [7%] of 302; 0·56, 0·27-1·19; p=0·13). Mortality was lower with continuous than discontinuous treatment (OR 0·47, 95% CI 0·22-1·03; p=0·05), but did not differ by drug group (0·96, 0·46-2·02; p=0·91). Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy. Reduction in the frequency of retreatment resulted in a small loss of efficacy irrespective of drug. Safety was worse when treatment was administered discontinuously. These findings highlight that the choice of anti-VEGF treatment strategy is less straightforward than previously thought. UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme. Copyright © 2013 Chakravarthy et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Paternostro M.,Queens University of Belfast
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Nonclassical states of a mechanical mode at nonzero temperature are achieved in a scheme that combines radiation-pressure coupling to a light field and photon subtraction. The scheme embodies an original and experimentally realistic way to obtain mesoscopic quantumness by putting together two mature technologies for quantum control. The protocol is quasi-insensitive to mechanical damping. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

Van Der Hart H.W.,Queens University of Belfast
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We introduce a time-dependent R-matrix theory generalized to describe double-ionization processes. The method is used to investigate two-photon double ionization of He by intense XUV laser radiation. We combine a detailed B-spline-based wave-function description in an extended inner region with a single-electron outer region containing channels representing both single ionization and double ionization. A comparison of wave-function densities for different box sizes demonstrates that the flow between the two regions is described with excellent accuracy. The obtained two-photon double-ionization cross sections are in excellent agreement with other cross sections available. Compared to calculations fully contained within a finite inner region, the present calculations can be propagated over the time it takes the slowest electron to reach the boundary. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source

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