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Mae Rim, Thailand

Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | Srimuang K.-O.,University of Phayao
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2013

The systematically difficult genus Epipactis (Orchidaceae) is often subdivided into two sections: Epipactis and Arthrochilium. Until now, the latter has attracted much less taxonomic attention than the former, but here we reassess the alleged distinction of two rare and nationally endangered taxa from tropical Asia (E.flava, E.atromarginata), based on morphological examination of live plants in situ in northern Thailand and of herbarium specimens from the entire range of the complex (Thailand, Laos and Vietnam). As the variation in vegetative and floral dimensions, flower colour and labellum morphology broadly overlaps between the two taxa, we merge them under the oldest valid name at species level, E.flava. Geomorphological features of our three study sites in Thailand and high shared occurrence of previously confirmed rheophytes among the accompanying species indicate that E.flava is itself rheophytic (a very rare feature in the Orchidaceae). Possible adaptations of E.flava to its rheophytic lifestyle are discussed. Among these, the formation of pure stands through dense clonal growth involving a creeping rhizome places E.flava as a 'mat-rooted rheophytic landplant' (sensu van Steenis). Combining taxonomic, distributional and ecological data, we discuss the occurrence of this stream-inhabiting Epipactis in a conservation context.© 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 172, 358-370. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London.

Tangjitman K.,Chiang Mai University | Wongsawad C.,Chiang Mai University | Winijchaiyanan P.,Chiang Mai University | Sukkho T.,Chiang Mai University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. Aim of the study To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. Materials and methods We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. Results In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. Conclusions Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Tipparat P.,Regional Medical science Center 10 | Natakankitkul S.,Chiang Mai University | Chamnivikaipong P.,Institute of Survey and Report | Chutiwat S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis samples from landraces, three different trial fields and seized marijuana were collected. 100g of each sample was dried, ground and quantitatively analyzed for THC, CBD and CBN contents by GC-FID. The results showed that cannabis grown during March-June which had longer vegetative stages and longer photoperiod exposure, had higher cannabinoids contents than those grown in August. The male plants grown in trial fields had the range of THC contents from 0.722% to 0.848% d.w. and average THC/CBD ratio of 1.9. Cannabis in landraces at traditional harvest time of 75 days had a range of THC contents from 0.874% to 1.480% d.w. and an average THC/CBD ratio of 2.6. The THC contents and THC/CBD ratios of cannabis in second generation crops grown in the same growing season were found to be lower than those grown in the first generation, unless fairly high temperatures and a lesser amount of rainfall were present. The average THC content in seized fresh marijuana was 2.068% d.w. while THC/CBD ratios were between 12.6 and 84.09, which is 10-45 times greater than those of similar studied cannabis samples from the previous study. However, most Thai cannabis in landraces and in trial fields giving a low log 10 value of THC/CBD ratio at below 1 may be classified as intermediate type, whereas seized marijuana giving a higher log 10 value at above 1 could be classified as drug type. Therefore, the expanded information provided by the current study will assist in the development of criteria for regulation of hemp cultivation in Thailand. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Gale S.W.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Suddee S.,Forest Herbarium | Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2013

Summary: A new one-flowered species of Nervilia is described and illustrated from plants collected in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, eastern Thailand. The glabrous, angular leaf of Nervilia khaoyaica Suddee, Watthana & S. W. Gale affiliates it to the taxonomically difficult and widespread Nervilia adolphi-punctata species alliance of Section Linervia, but it is otherwise readily distinguished by its broad, oblong-obovate lip with a saccate base and obscure, rounded side lobes below the middle, and by the striking colouration of the disk. © 2013 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Panyaphu K.,Chiang Mai University | Van On T.,Hanoi University of Pharmacy | Sirisa-Ard P.,Chiang Mai University | Srisa-Nga P.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Aim of the study: To study the use of medicinal plants by the Mien in Nan Province and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women. Also, to survey the medicinal plant resources present there. Materials and methods: Free listing and interviews were used with four key informants (herbalists and collectors) to collect all qualitative and quantitative plant data. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on the knowledge, attitude and practices of fifty-eight non-specialist informants. Transect walks of forest plots were carried out with herbalists to get more information on the status of the medicinal plants with regard to their habitat. Results and conclusion: More than 168 species of medicinal plants were surveyed. These plants belonged to 80 families and 145 genera, of which 131 were wild plants and 37 species have been cultivated in home gardens. The interview data from four herbalists and fifty-eight non-specialist informants indicated that the majority of non-specialist informants who used medicinal plants were women and the most common usage categories were for birth related conditions (44 species, 26.2%). The most common method of preparation was decoction for both oral consumption and bathing uses (134 species, 79.8%). The most common species of medicinal plants were used in a postpartum herbal bath formulae and in food supplement formulas. These were Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis, Basella alba L., Ricinus communis L., Poikilospermum suaveolens (L.) Merr., Gouania leptostachya DC. Var. leptostachya, Schefflera sp. cf. Schefflera bengalensis Gamb., Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., Chromolaena odoratum (L.) King et Robin and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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