Mae Sot, Thailand
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Nontachaiyapoom S.,Mae Fah Luang University | Sasirat S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | Manoch L.,Kasetsart University
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2010

Three orchid genera, Paphiopedilum, Cymbidium, and Dendrobium, are among the most heavily traded ornamental plants in Thailand. In this study, 27 isolates of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were isolated from root sections of mature orchids in the three orchid genera, collected from diverse horticultural settings in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces of Thailand. Fungal identification was done by the morphological characterization, the comparison of the internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences, and the phylogenetic analysis. Epulorhiza repens was found to be the most common species found in the roots of various species of all three orchid genera, whereas Epulorhiza calendulina-like isolates were strictly found in the roots of Paphiopedilum species. We have also isolated and described an anamorph of Tulasnella irregularis, four new anamorphic species in the genus Tulasnella, and a new anamorphic species in the family Tulasnellaceae. Our study provides information on diversity of root-associated fungi of the orchid genera and at the sampling sites that were rarely addressed in the previous studies. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Nontachaiyapoom S.,Mae Fah Luang University | Sasirat S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | Manoch L.,Kasetsart University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In vitro symbiotic seed germination is an important tool not only for the study of orchid-fungus specificity but also for the production of mycobiont-infected healthy seedlings that could be valuable for both horticultural and conservation purposes. The current study compared effectiveness of eight putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi obtained from mature orchids in the genera Paphiopedilum, Cymbidium and Dendrobium, in promoting in vitro seed germination and protocorm development of Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume and Dendrobium draconis Rchb. f., native Thai orchids. The developmental stages of seeds and protocorms cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, oat meal agar (OMA), or OMA inoculated with one of the eight fungal isolates were evaluated weekly. Two isolates of Epulorhiza repens (Bernard) Moore (=anamorphic species of Tulasnella calospora (Boud.) Juel), Da-KP-0-1 and Pv-PC-1-1, were found to be the most effective fungi in promoting protocorm development of G. speciosum. At week 13, protocorms co-cultured with either one of these two fungal isolates, on the average, were significantly more advanced than those sown on OMA. Protocorms co-cultured with isolate Pv-PC-1-1 were also significantly more advanced than those cultured on MS medium. For D. draconis seed germination, three fungal isolates of different anamorphic species of Tulasnella, C1-DT-TC-1, Pv-PC-1-1, and C3-DT-TC-2, were found to be the most effective fungi in promoting protocorm development. However, none of these fungal isolates outperformed MS medium. Additionally, the compatibility between the fungal isolates tested and the two orchid species was discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Pedersen H.ae.,Copenhagen University | Srimuang K.-O.,University of Phayao | Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | Watthana S.,Suranaree University of Technology
Annals of Botany | Year: 2016

Background and Aims A well-supported classification is crucial for conservation planning, but intricate species complexes constitute a serious challenge to the preparation of flora accounts. In preparation of the Flora of Thailand account on Geodorum (Orchidaceae), it was decided to use multivariate morphometric analysis and genetic fingerprinting to resolve the intricate G. pulchellum sensu Seidenfaden/G. siamense species complex, with the specific aim of testing the taxonomic soundness of the apparently rare and conservation-requiring G. pulchellum sensu Seidenfaden. Geodorum densiflorum, universally considered distinct from the above species complex, was included as reference. Methods Morphometric data and tissue samples for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis were collected from 17 Geodorum populations in northern and north-eastern Thailand. Principal components analysis was employed to summarize the patterns of phenetic variation. Hierarchical genetic differentiation between populations was explored using Bayesian inference followed by cluster analysis. Key Results The taxonomic distinction of G. densiflorum was generally supported. In contrast, G. siamense and G. pulchellum sensu Seidenfaden were poorly separated, especially according to the estimated patterns of inter-population genetic differentiation. Conclusions The G. pulchellum sensu Seidenfaden/G. siamense complex should be treated as one variable species (under the name G. siamense), meaning that G. pulchellum sensu Seidenfaden should not be given high independent conservation priority. This study demonstrates that flora accounts can benefit from prior employment of multivariate and Bayesian methods for exploring intricate species complexes, in turn leading to more solid decisions and priorities in a conservation context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.


Tipparat P.,Regional Medical science Center 10 | Natakankitkul S.,Chiang Mai University | Chamnivikaipong P.,Institute of Survey and Report | Chutiwat S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis samples from landraces, three different trial fields and seized marijuana were collected. 100g of each sample was dried, ground and quantitatively analyzed for THC, CBD and CBN contents by GC-FID. The results showed that cannabis grown during March-June which had longer vegetative stages and longer photoperiod exposure, had higher cannabinoids contents than those grown in August. The male plants grown in trial fields had the range of THC contents from 0.722% to 0.848% d.w. and average THC/CBD ratio of 1.9. Cannabis in landraces at traditional harvest time of 75 days had a range of THC contents from 0.874% to 1.480% d.w. and an average THC/CBD ratio of 2.6. The THC contents and THC/CBD ratios of cannabis in second generation crops grown in the same growing season were found to be lower than those grown in the first generation, unless fairly high temperatures and a lesser amount of rainfall were present. The average THC content in seized fresh marijuana was 2.068% d.w. while THC/CBD ratios were between 12.6 and 84.09, which is 10-45 times greater than those of similar studied cannabis samples from the previous study. However, most Thai cannabis in landraces and in trial fields giving a low log 10 value of THC/CBD ratio at below 1 may be classified as intermediate type, whereas seized marijuana giving a higher log 10 value at above 1 could be classified as drug type. Therefore, the expanded information provided by the current study will assist in the development of criteria for regulation of hemp cultivation in Thailand. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Gale S.W.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Suddee S.,Forest Herbarium | Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2013

Summary: A new one-flowered species of Nervilia is described and illustrated from plants collected in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, eastern Thailand. The glabrous, angular leaf of Nervilia khaoyaica Suddee, Watthana & S. W. Gale affiliates it to the taxonomically difficult and widespread Nervilia adolphi-punctata species alliance of Section Linervia, but it is otherwise readily distinguished by its broad, oblong-obovate lip with a saccate base and obscure, rounded side lobes below the middle, and by the striking colouration of the disk. © 2013 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | Kocyan A.,University of Potsdam | Kocyan A.,ETH Zurich | Srimuang K.-o.,University of Phayao
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2013

A population of Luisia curtisii (Orchidaceae: Aeridinae) in northern Thailand was studied with regard to pollination biology. Although a high level of self-compatibility was demonstrated experimentally, the very low natural fruit set (1. 4-1. 9 %) clearly indicated that the species depends on external agents for pollination. Our observations suggest that L. curtisii is pollinated by beetles, as Lema unicolor (Chrysomelidae) and Clinteria ducalis (Scarabaeidae) were the only flower visitors observed to carry pollinaria of this species. The hypothesis of specialised cantharophily is further supported by 2-methylbutyric acid and caproic acid being striking components of the floral scent. Judging from the lack of nectar and the behaviour of visiting beetles, the pollination system seems to rely on food or brood site deception. Retention of the anther on the pollinarium for some time after pollinarium removal probably reduces the frequency of insect-mediated autogamy and geitonogamy in Luisia curtisii-a possibility that was supported by comparative data on (1) the anther retention time and inflorescence visitation time of Lema unicolor and (2) stigma and anther length in the orchid. Existing reports of specialised beetle pollination in orchids are reviewed, and we conclude that there is accumulating evidence that specialised cantharophily is more common in the Orchidaceae than previously assumed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Chutima R.,Chiang Mai University | Dell B.,Murdoch University | Vessabutr S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | Bussaban B.,Chiang Mai University | Lumyong S.,Chiang Mai University
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2011

Eight endophytic fungi were isolated from roots of the threatened terrestrial orchid, Pecteilis susannae (L.) Rafin. Phylogenetic analysis based on an alignment of internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear rDNA indicated that seven isolates belonged to the genus Epulorhiza and one to Fusarium. All fungal isolates were cultured with orchid seeds collected from three field sites near Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Seed germination and protocorm development were evaluated up to 70 days after sowing. Percent symbiotic seed germination was highest (86.2%) when seeds were cultured with Epulorhiza (CMU-Aug 013). The protocorm development was the most advanced up to stage 2, continued embryo enlargement, or rupture of the testa, and the highest percentage was 17.8% when seeds were cultured with Epulorhiza (CMU-Aug 007). Without fungi, seed germination and protocorm development were 62.1% and 11.1%, respectively. The dependency of P. susannae on fungal symbionts for early seedling development is yet to be determined. Optimizing seed germination and seedling fitness will assist the conservation of this threatened orchid in Thailand. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Kidyoo M.,Chulalongkorn University | Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

A new species of Hoya R. Br., Hoya lithophytica Kidyoo, has been discovered in western Thailand. Here we provide a detailed description and illustrations of this newly revealed species. It was found only on the cliff faces of limestone mountains. The new species is closely related to H. wightii Hook. f. subsp. palniensis K. T. Matthew. However, Hoya lithophytica has lateral nerves at right angles to the midrib and obovate coronal scales, but H. wightii Hook. f. subsp. palniensis has lateral nerves at acute angles to the midrib and elliptic coronal scales. © 2012 The Authors. Nordic Journal of Botany.


Watthana S.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | Srimuang K.-O.,University of Phayao
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2013

The systematically difficult genus Epipactis (Orchidaceae) is often subdivided into two sections: Epipactis and Arthrochilium. Until now, the latter has attracted much less taxonomic attention than the former, but here we reassess the alleged distinction of two rare and nationally endangered taxa from tropical Asia (E.flava, E.atromarginata), based on morphological examination of live plants in situ in northern Thailand and of herbarium specimens from the entire range of the complex (Thailand, Laos and Vietnam). As the variation in vegetative and floral dimensions, flower colour and labellum morphology broadly overlaps between the two taxa, we merge them under the oldest valid name at species level, E.flava. Geomorphological features of our three study sites in Thailand and high shared occurrence of previously confirmed rheophytes among the accompanying species indicate that E.flava is itself rheophytic (a very rare feature in the Orchidaceae). Possible adaptations of E.flava to its rheophytic lifestyle are discussed. Among these, the formation of pure stands through dense clonal growth involving a creeping rhizome places E.flava as a 'mat-rooted rheophytic landplant' (sensu van Steenis). Combining taxonomic, distributional and ecological data, we discuss the occurrence of this stream-inhabiting Epipactis in a conservation context.© 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 172, 358-370. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London.


Panyaphu K.,Chiang Mai University | Van On T.,Hanoi University of Pharmacy | Sirisa-Ard P.,Chiang Mai University | Srisa-Nga P.,Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Aim of the study: To study the use of medicinal plants by the Mien in Nan Province and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women. Also, to survey the medicinal plant resources present there. Materials and methods: Free listing and interviews were used with four key informants (herbalists and collectors) to collect all qualitative and quantitative plant data. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on the knowledge, attitude and practices of fifty-eight non-specialist informants. Transect walks of forest plots were carried out with herbalists to get more information on the status of the medicinal plants with regard to their habitat. Results and conclusion: More than 168 species of medicinal plants were surveyed. These plants belonged to 80 families and 145 genera, of which 131 were wild plants and 37 species have been cultivated in home gardens. The interview data from four herbalists and fifty-eight non-specialist informants indicated that the majority of non-specialist informants who used medicinal plants were women and the most common usage categories were for birth related conditions (44 species, 26.2%). The most common method of preparation was decoction for both oral consumption and bathing uses (134 species, 79.8%). The most common species of medicinal plants were used in a postpartum herbal bath formulae and in food supplement formulas. These were Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis, Basella alba L., Ricinus communis L., Poikilospermum suaveolens (L.) Merr., Gouania leptostachya DC. Var. leptostachya, Schefflera sp. cf. Schefflera bengalensis Gamb., Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., Chromolaena odoratum (L.) King et Robin and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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