Wyness L.,Queen Margaret University
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2015
Red meat has been an important part of the human diet throughout human evolution. When included as part of a healthy, varied diet, red meat provides a rich source of high biological value protein and essential nutrients, some of which are more bioavailable than in alternative food sources. Particular nutrients in red meat have been identified as being in short supply in the diets of some groups of the population. The present paper discusses the role of red meat in the diets of young infants, adolescents, women of childbearing age and older adults and highlights key nutrients red meat can provide for these groups. The role of red meat in relation to satiety and weight control is discussed as the inclusion of lean red meat in a healthy, varied diet may help weight loss as part of an energy-reduced diet. A summary of the UK advice on the amount of red meat that can be consumed as part of a healthy, varied diet is also provided. Copyright © The Author 2015 Source
Cometto G.,World Health Organization |
Witter S.,Queen Margaret University
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013
Human resources for health (HRH) will have to be strengthened if universal health coverage (UHC) is to be achieved. Existing health workforce benchmarks focus exclusively on the density of physicians, nurses and midwives and were developed with the objective of attaining relatively high coverage of skilled birth attendance and other essential health services of relevance to the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the attainment of UHC will depend not only on the availability of adequate numbers of health workers, but also on the distribution, quality and performance of the available health workforce. In addition, as noncommunicable diseases grow in relative importance, the inputs required from health workers are changing. New, broader health-workforce benchmarks - and a corresponding monitoring framework - therefore need to be developed and included in the agenda for UHC to catalyse attention and investment in this critical area of health systems. The new benchmarks need to reflect the more diverse composition of the health workforce and the participation of community health workers and mid-level health workers, and they must capture the multifaceted nature and complexities of HRH development, including equity in accessibility, sex composition and quality. Source
Buchan J.,Queen Margaret University
Human Resources for Health | Year: 2010
This paper examines the issue of workforce stability and turnover in the context of policy attempts to improve retention of health workers. The paper argues that there are significant benefits to supporting policy makers and managers to develop a broader perspective of workforce stability and methods of monitoring it. The objective of the paper is to contribute to developing a better understanding of workforce stability as a major aspect of the overall policy goal of improved retention of health workers. The paper examines some of the limited research on the complex interaction between staff turnover and organisational performance or quality of care in the health sector, provides details and examples of the measurement of staff turnover and stability, and illustrates an approach to costing staff turnover. The paper concludes by advocating that these types of assessment can be valuable to managers and policy makers as they examine which policies may be effective in improving stability and retention, by reducing turnover. They can also be used as part of advocacy for the use of new retention measures. The very action of setting up a local working group to assess the costs of turnover can in itself give managers and staff a greater insight into the negative impacts of turnover, and can encourage them to work together to identify and implement stability measures. © 2010 Buchan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 197.10K | Year: 2016
The speech sounds L and R are often grouped together as a class (called liquid consonants), because they are similar in a number of ways. For example, although they function as consonants in speech, they have a vowel-like phonetic quality. The are also among the most complex speech sounds to produce (and may be late acquired by children or hard for adult learners to master). They vary widely in different accents of the same language. Finally, their production can involve the tongue forming multiple constrictions in the vocal tract and they sometimes involve specific movements of the lips as well. Although speakers are not always aware of it, the L sounds at the beginning and end of a word like level do not sound exactly the same. Likewise the R sounds at the beginning and end of a word like roar (for those so-called rhotic speakers who pronounce an R at the end of roar at all!) do not sound exactly the same. Behind the difference in sound quality is complex variation in (i) the way the articulatory organs synchronise their movements (ii) the strength of the production of the speech sound and (iii) the shape of the tongue when the speech sound is produced. When an L or R at the beginning of a word is pronounced, the speech organ movements involved tend to be more tightly synchronised than for an L or R at the end of a word. Also, L and r at the beginning of words are produced with more effort than they are at the ends of words. Finally, the tongue shapes involved in the production of L and R at the beginning and ends of words can be radically different from one another. These remarkable differences are very hard to measure, but research over many decades has addressed and raised a number of theoretical questions. Variation in these three parameters can cause very noticeable changes in the way L and R sound, explaining why, at the end of words, they seem less like consonants and more like vowels, e.g. making foal and foe sound very similar. The consonant might even disappear altogether, as occurred 200 years ago to R at the end of the words in the RP accent of English. Thus, subtle variation in speech production can result in big changes in the long term. However, not all accents of English show the same patterns, or change at the same rate. While American and Irish English mostly have strong R sounds at the end of words, word-final R is starting to sound very weak and even be lost in some Scottish accents. This project will use a vocal-tract imaging technique, ultrasound tongue imaging (UTI), to directly study the way the tongue moves inside the mouth when it is producing L and R, informing theories of speech articulation. The movement of the lips will also be recorded, as they play an important part in the production of English L and R too. We will record differences in the timing of movements of different parts of the tongue and the lips, how extreme the movements are and how different the shape the tongue is when it is producing L and R in different positions within the word. We will also look at what happens to L and R across longer domains too, as it has been shown that the greatest changes in the way these sounds are produced are found when L and R occur at the beginning and end of speech utterances longer than single words. We will study how changes in the movements of the vocal organs correlate with changes in the acoustic speech signal and we will identify which kinds of variation in vocal organ movement are most likely to make L and R sound weak, vowel-like or missing. Our research will focus on three key varieties of a single language in which R is pronounced at the beginnings and ends of words, i.e. Scottish, Irish and American English. We will thus be able to address regional and historical variation within an otherwise well-understood language using novel methods to address theoretical questions relevant to all languages.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IEF | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IEF | Award Amount: 221.61K | Year: 2014
The aims of the project are to analyze: 1) the extent and nature of external sandhi and of glottalization of word-initial vowels in English-accented German as compared to native English productions, in relationship to prosodic boundaries and adjacent segments, 2) the influence of external sandhi and of glottalization on word recognition by English and German listeners, 3) the influence of external sandhi and of glottalization on the perception of phrase boundaries by English and German listeners. External sandhi consists in the modification of sounds at word boundaries in connected speech, and it is reported in English and German. Glottalization ceases or modifies phonation by compressing the vocal folds. In German, an abrupt glottalized onset to phonation is frequent in front of word-initial vowels. In English this is less frequent and more likely to occur at phrase boundaries. The interplay between external-sandhi and glottalization is not clear: glottalizations are supposed to take place in absence of external sandhi, but articulatory gestures related to both phenomena can co-occur. I will build on my previous work on glottalizations, which showed the extent to which word boundary glottalization is transferred in language learning and actively used in perception. External sandhi, which is more common in English, can be blocked by glottalization: so English-accented German will be compared to English. Acoustic analysis will be accompanied by articulatory analysis in order to detect a possible co-occurrence of both phenomena. Perception experiments with manipulated speech will be carried out with native English and German listeners, to test the influence of glottalization and of external sandhi on word recognition and on the perception of phrase boundaries. This is the first extensive investigation of the interplay between external sandhi and glottalization in relationship with prosodic boundaries by means of articulatory, acoustic and perceptual analysis.