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Ly T.T.,Princess Margaret Hospital for Children | Ly T.T.,University of Western Australia | Nicholas J.A.,Princess Margaret Hospital for Children | Nicholas J.A.,University of Western Australia | And 7 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2013

IMPORTANCE: Hypoglycemia is a critical obstacle to the care of patients with type 1 diabetes. Sensor-augmented insulin pump with automated low-glucose insulin suspension has the potential to reduce the incidence of major hypoglycemic events. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of severe and moderate hypoglycemia with sensor-augmented pump with low-glucose suspension compared with standard insulin pump therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized clinical trial involving 95 patients with type 1 diabetes, recruited from December 2009 to January 2012 in Australia. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to insulin pump only or automated insulin suspension for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the combined incidence of severe (hypoglycemic seizure or coma) and moderate hypoglycemia (an event requiring assistance for treatment). In a subgroup, counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia were assessed using the hypoglycemic clamp technique. RESULTS: Of the 95 patients randomized, 49 were assigned to the standard-pump (pump-only) therapy and 46 to the low-glucose suspension group. The mean (SD) age was 18.6 (11.8) years; duration of diabetes, 11.0 (8.9) years; and duration of pump therapy, 4.1 (3.4) years. The baseline rate of severe and moderate hypoglycemic events in the pump-only group was 20.7 vs 129.6 events per 100 patient months in the low-glucose suspension group. After 6 months of treatment, the event rates decreased from 28 to 16 in the pump-only group vs 175 to 35 in the low-glucose suspension group. The adjusted incidence rate per 100 patient-months was 34.2 (95% CI, 22.0-53.3) for the pump-only group vs 9.5 (95% CI, 5.2-17.4) for the low-glucose suspension group. The incidence rate ratio was 3.6 (95% CI, 1.7-7.5; P <.001). There was no change in glycated hemoglobin in either group: mean, 7.4 (95% CI, 7.2-7.6) to 7.4 (95% CI, 7.2-7.7) in the pump-only group vs mean, 7.6 (95%, CI, 7.4-7.9) to 7.5 (95% CI, 7.3-7.7) in the low-glucose suspension group. Counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia were not changed. There were no episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemia with ketosis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Sensor-augmented pump therapy with automated insulin suspension reduced the combined rate of severe and moderate hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12610000024044.


Abeysuriya S.D.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center
Communicable diseases intelligence | Year: 2010

A 4-year-old fully immunised male presented to a regional hospital in the West Kimberley with fever and lethargy. Blood cultures yielded serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis, resistant to benzylpenicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 1.0 mg/L). The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and made a complete recovery. Although invasive N. meningitidis isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility are not uncommon in Australia, this is the first report of a benzylpenicillin-resistant isolate (MIC > 0.5 mg/L) causing invasive disease. As benzylpenicillin is currently recommended as first line empiric and definitive therapy for invasive meningococcal disease, the emergence of penicillin-resistant N. meningitidis disease is of concern and emphasises the importance of ongoing surveillance for antimicrobial resistance.


Knight D.R.,University of Western Australia | Squire M.M.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and the cause of diarrhea and enteritis in neonatal pigs. Outside Australia, prevalence in piglets can be up to 73%, with a single PCR ribotype (RT), 078, predominating. We investigated the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile in Australian pig herds. Rectal swabs (n=229) were collected from piglets aged < 7 days from 21 farms across Australia. Selective culture for C. difficile was performed and isolates characterized by PCR for toxin genes and PCR ribotyping. C. difficile was isolated from 52% of samples by direct culture on chromogenic agar and 67% by enrichment culture (P=0.001). No association between C. difficile recovery or genotype and diarrheic status of either farm or piglets was found. The majority (87%; 130/154) of isolates were toxigenic. Typing revealed 23 different RTs, several of which are known to cause disease in humans, including RT014, which was isolated most commonly (23%; 36/154). RT078 was not detected. This study shows that colonization of Australian neonatal piglets with C. difficile is widespread in the herds sampled. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.


Foster N.F.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center
Pathology | Year: 2012

Aim: Culture remains important for the detection and typing of Clostridium difficile. Culture of C. difficile spores can be enhanced on media supplemented with a germinant. Despite this, unsupplemented media continues to be used in some laboratories. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the known germinant sodium taurocholate on recovery of C. difficile spores and to determine if the supplement impacts on the recovery of vegetative C. difficile. Methods: The recovery on cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA) with and without taurocholate, of spore, vegetative, and total cell fractions of broth cultures of eight C. difficile isolates was compared. Results: Taurocholate in CCFA did not inhibit growth of vegetative C. difficile and significantly increased recovery of spores (p=0.04). Conclusions: The routine incorporation of taurocholate in CCFA is recommended for improved sensitivity in C. difficile culture from specimens. © 2012 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.


Knight D.R.,University of Western Australia | Squire M.M.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Shaw R.J.,University of Liverpool | Dhanda J.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2011

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a serious condition following treatment for head and neck cancer with serious associated morbidity and mortality. While the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in treating established osteoradionecrosis has been standard practice in many units for years, the evidence base for this remains remarkably weak. The published evidence has been made even more controversial by trial protocols that do not use HBO as it is generally advocated. This review describes the classification, incidence, and treatment of ORN, and explores the available published evidence with particular emphasis on randomised trials of treatment with HBO. © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.


Knight D.R.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,University of Western Australia | Riley T.V.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Recently, Clostridium difficile has been isolated from a wide variety of animals, particularly production animals, mainly cattle and pigs. Concurrently, the incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) in humans has increased in the community, with some suggestions that food-borne transmission of C. difficile is occurring. Interestingly, sheep and lambs appear not to have been investigated for carriage/ colonization with C. difficile. The aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of carriage of C. difficile in sheep and lambs in Australia by culturing fecal samples. A total of 371 sheep and lamb fecal samples were received in seven batches from three different geographic areas in eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The overall rate of detection in sheep and lambs was low (4.0%); however, carriage/colonization in lambs (6.5%) was statistically significantly higher than that in sheep (0.6%) (P=0.005). Seven distinct PCR ribotype patterns were observed, three of which were known international ribotypes (UK 056 [n=1],UK101 [n=6], and UK137 [n=2]), while the remainder were unable to be matched with our available reference library. This low rate of carriage/colonization in Australian ovines suggests they are unlikely to be a major source/reservoir of human infections. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Lo W.B.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center | Ellis H.,GuyS
Neurosurgery | Year: 2010

The circle of Willis is one of the most famous eponymous structures in human anatomy. There is no doubt Thomas Willis at Oxford accurately demonstrated the anastomotic arterial supply at the base of the brain. However, this eponymous name does not reveal the history of the discovery of the ramification, nor does it give credit to the anatomists and artists who have contributed to the understanding of this clinically important structure. This article first traces the story of the discovery of the circle of Willis. Willis's contribution and innovative approaches are then discussed. Finally, despite Willis's not being the first to describe the circle, we explain why he still deserves to retain the eponymous title. The earlier description of the vasculature at the base of the brain was fixated on a nonexistent structure, at least not in humans, named the rete mirabile. The more scientific study of the blood supply to the brain took place during the Renaissance period, which culminated in the work of Thomas Willis in the 17th century. Copyright © 2010 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.


Hammer K.A.,University of Western Australia | Carson C.F.,University of Western Australia | Rileya T.V.,University of Western Australia | Rileya T.V.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

This study examined the effect of subinhibitory Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil on the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Frequencies of single-step antibiotic-resistant mutants were determined by inoculating bacteria cultured with or without subinhibitory tea tree oil onto agar containing 2 to 8 times the MIC of each antibiotic and with or without tea tree oil. Whereas most differences in resistance frequencies were relatively minor, the combination of kanamycin and tea tree oil yielded approximately 10-fold fewer resistant E. coli mutants than kanamycin alone. The development of multistep antibiotic resistance in the presence of tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol was examined by culturing S. aureus and E. coli isolates daily with antibiotic alone, antibiotic with tea tree oil, and antibiotic with terpinen-4-ol for 6 days. Median MICs for each antibiotic alone increased 4- to 16-fold by day 6. Subinhibitory tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol did not greatly alter results, with day 6 median MICs being either the same as or one concentration different from those for antibiotic alone. For tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol alone, day 6 median MICs had increased 4-fold for S. aureus (n = 18) and 2-fold for E. coli (n = 18) from baseline values. Lastly, few significant changes in antimicrobial susceptibility were seen for S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates that had been serially subcultured 14 to 22 times with subinhibitory terpinen-4-ol. Overall, these data indicate that tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol have little impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Knight D.R.,University of Western Australia | Elliott B.,Queen Elizabeth Medical Center | Chang B.J.,University of Western Australia | Perkins T.T.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2015

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antimicrobial and health care-associated diarrhea in humans, presenting a significant burden to global health care systems. In the last 2 decades, PCR- and sequence-based techniques, particularly whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have significantly furthered our knowledge of the genetic diversity, evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenicity of this once enigmatic pathogen. C. difficile is taxonomically distinct from many other well-known clostridia, with a diverse population structure comprising hundreds of strain types spread across at least 6 phylogenetic clades. The C. difficile species is defined by a large diverse pangenome with extreme levels of evolutionary plasticity that has been shaped over long time periods by gene flux and recombination, often between divergent lineages. These evolutionary events are in response to environmental and anthropogenic activities and have led to the rapid emergence and worldwide dissemination of virulent clonal lineages. Moreover, genome analysis of large clinically relevant data sets has improved our understanding of CDI outbreaks, transmission, and recurrence. The epidemiology of CDI has changed dramatically over the last 15 years, and CDI may have a foodborne or zoonotic etiology. The WGS era promises to continue to redefine our view of this significant pathogen. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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