Queen Alexandra Hospital
Queen Alexandra Hospital
Cree I.A.,Queen Alexandra Hospital |
Glaysher S.,Queen Alexandra Hospital |
Harvey A.L.,University of Strathclyde
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2010
The discovery of anti-cancer drugs has become dependent on cell lines, which are used to screen potential compounds for activity as well as to explore cancer biology. Cell lines produce rapid results, but their relevance to patient outcomes is questionable as they undergo selection over many passages to a point where they are no longer representative of their originating tumour. This has led to the increasing use of primary cell cultures, primary tumour cell explants, early passage cell lines, and xenografts to improve the accuracy of results during drug development. Over the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in these methods and they are now firmly established, with a plethora of different techniques available. For instance, explant and three-dimensional models allow cell:cell interactions to be examined in live cells, and endpoints can include the measurement of gene expression and image analysis. In the future, anti-cancer drug development is likely to use a combination of molecular, cell line, primary or early passage cell culture, and xenograft methods for lead optimisation before clinical trials are contemplated. © 2010.
Prakash A.,University of Hull |
Babu K.S.,Queen Alexandra Hospital |
Morjaria J.B.,University of Hull
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2013
Anti-cholinergics have been considered the first-choice bronchodilator therapy in the routine management of stable COPD. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors are expressed on most cell types and mediate cellular signalling via the natural ligand, acetylcholine. Antagonising cholinergic receptors may not only result in bronchodilation, but also have associated localised activity. Until recently the licensed anti-cholinergics were limited to ipatropium bromide, oxitropium bromide and tiotropium bromide; the latter being the only once-daily anti-cholinergic. With the patents expired or due to expire shortly several companies have reinitiated efforts to develop safer, long-acting agents potentially improving concordance and pharmaceutical marketing opportunities. The present article reviews a number of novel anti-cholinergics that have been recently licensed and those undergoing development, some in innovative delivery devices. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Smith G.B.,Queen Alexandra Hospital
Resuscitation | Year: 2010
The 'chain of survival' has been a useful tool for improving the understanding of, and the quality of the response to, cardiac arrest for many years. In the 2005 European Resuscitation Council Guidelines the importance of recognising critical illness and preventing cardiac arrest was highlighted by their inclusion as the first link in a new four-ring 'chain of survival'. However, recognising critical illness and preventing cardiac arrest are complex tasks, each requiring the presence of several essential steps to ensure clinical success. This article proposes the adoption of an additional chain for in-hospital settings - a 'chain of prevention' - to assist hospitals in structuring their care processes to prevent and detect patient deterioration and cardiac arrest. The five rings of the chain represent 'staff education', 'monitoring', 'recognition', the 'call for help' and the 'response'. It is believed that a 'chain of prevention' has the potential to be understood well by hospital clinical staff of all grades, disciplines and specialties, patients, and their families and friends. The chain provides a structure for research to identify the importance of each of the various components of rapid response systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Lewis R.,Queen Alexandra Hospital
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is now recognized as a major public health issue. One consequence of this condition is disturbance of mineral and bone homeostasis. Bone disease (renal osteodystrophy) as a consequence of CKD has long been recognized. However, it is now appreciated that the mineral and bone disturbances of CKD (and perhaps treatment of them) lead to vascular calcification, which is a cause of significant morbidity. In recognition of the widespread nature of the condition, the term CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is now in general use to describe the biochemical, skeletal and vascular changes that occur in CKD. The pathogenesis of CKD-MBD is incompletely understood but has recently been redefined with the emergence of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) as a major influence on control of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. This review describes the classification of CKD and current understanding of the mechanisms underlying CKD-MBD (incorporating FGF-23). It describes and evaluates the means of identifying CKD-MBD in the clinical setting and the interventions available for treatment. It then reviews current clinical guidelines for the use of biochemical markers in clinical decision-making. In acknowledgement of the paucity of evidence upon which these guidelines are based, areas where clinical research might be directed in the future will be identified.
Grewal P.,Queen Alexandra Hospital
Hernia | Year: 2014
Introduction: The annual cost of employee absences from work to UK business is estimated to be £32 billion, with routine post-operative recovery time being the second commonest reason for employee absence. We surveyed what post-operative instructions are currently being given to patients by surgeons after inguinal hernia repair in England. Methods: Acute trusts were emailed in England asking for leaflets and patients information regarding inguinal hernia repair under the Freedom of Information Act (2000). Results: A total of 128 (89.5 %) trusts replied. Leaflets were returned by 93 (65 %) trusts. After inguinal hernia repair, the time to return to work varied widely according to office work (range 1-6 weeks) and manual labour work (range 2-12 weeks). The time advised to return to driving ranged from 24 h to 6 weeks. The time advised before allowing sexual activities ranged from 1 to 4 weeks and return to sports ranged from 2 to 12 weeks after hernia repair. Conclusion: Surgeons and trusts should be able to provide patients with printed consistent and accurate information regarding their post-operative recovery time, including return to driving and return to work. © 2013 Springer-Verlag France.
Rahimi S.,Queen Alexandra Hospital
Clinica Terapeutica | Year: 2013
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common skin cancer in Caucasians, most frequently occurring on sun-exposed areas of the body. Most SCCs are treated surgically, either by excision or Mohs micrographic surgery. Despite the large amount of English literature with regard to cutaneous SCC in many instances the surgical treatment is not appropriate resulting in recurrences and/ or metastasis. The following brief review highlights the histology, molecular biology and surgical treatment of skin SCC. © Società Editrice Universo.
Porter R.J.,Queen Alexandra Hospital |
Fogg C.,University of Portsmouth
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be highly effective in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but to date there have been no data from the United Kingdom. An electronic survey was developed at Portsmouth Hospitals' National Health Service (NHS) Trust and sent out to UK hospital specialists utilizing the contact databases of the British Infection Association and the Royal College of Gastroenterologists. A total of 162 responses were received, representing nearly one in every seven of the United Kingdom's infection specialists and a response from one in every two UK NHS acute trusts or boards. Ninety-six per cent believe that the evidence base supports the use of FMT, and 94% reported consulting on at least one patient a year in whom they would recommend FMT. However, only 22% reported FMT use in their institution in the last 10 years, and 6% reported performing more than ten FMTs in the last 10 years. Concerns with patient acceptance, donor selection, availability of screened faecal solution, feasibility of procedure and availability of local expertise were reported as inhibiting the use of FMT. More than 90% of respondents would like access to regional guidelines, prescreened faecal solution and expert advice to facilitate implementation, and more than two thirds of respondents would support a regional FMT referral centre. A large gap exists in the United Kingdom between physicians desire to use FMT and the ability and facilities to provide it as a therapy at the bedside. © 2015.
Senapati A.,Queen Alexandra Hospital
Digestive Diseases | Year: 2012
Diverticular disease affects up to 50% of people by the time they reach the age of 80. The major complications of diverticular disease (abscess, perforation, fistula, obstruction and bleeding) have their own management pathways, but the treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis is controversial. On initial presentation, diverticulitis is always treated conservatively. Whether this should be followed by resectional surgery has been the subject of speculation for many decades. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons recommended in 2000 that an elective resection should follow two attacks of acute diverticulitis. Much of the work underpinning their policy was based on seminal studies by Parks in the 1960s and 1970s who followed cohorts of patients with diverticular disease and examined their outcomes. However, many of these studies were based on inaccurate diagnostic data where the diagnosis was made primarily on clinical grounds. Investigations such as barium enema or colonoscopy are not reliable in confirming the presence of inflammation. Since CT scanning has become routine, the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis can now be made accurately. In recent years much work has been done, such as by Ambrosetti, who has produced evidence predicting the outcome of diverticulitis based on CT findings. More recent papers, in which the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis is likely to have been made more accurately, confirm that although recurrent attacks of diverticulitis are fairly common, there is a very low incidence of serious complications after long-term follow-up. It has also become apparent that the majority of patients who present with the major complications of diverticulitis, specifically abscess, perforation and fistula, do so as their first presentation of the disease, without previous episodes of diverticulitis. The corollary of this is that patients having had acute diverticulitis do not run the risk of developing life-threatening complications without elective surgery. The complications of left-sided colonic resection are not inconsiderable with anastomotic leaks, the formation of a stoma, either temporary or permanent, as well as mortality. When these data are put alongside the very low risk of serious harm to the patient after diverticulitis, the balance of opinion has now swung heavily in favour of a more conservative approach. In addition to this there are modern and innovative medical therapeutic approaches to the treatment of diverticulitis such as 5ASAs, poorly absorbed antibiotics and probiotics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Slessor D.,North Hampshire Hospital |
Hunter S.,Queen Alexandra Hospital
Annals of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2015
Study objective The role of emergency department (ED) thoracotomy after blunt trauma is controversial. The objective of this review is to determine whether patients treated with an ED thoracotomy after blunt trauma survive and whether survivors have a good neurologic outcome. Methods A structured search was performed with MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PubMed. Inclusion criteria were ED thoracotomy or out-of-hospital thoracotomy, cardiac arrest or periarrest, and blunt trauma. Outcomes assessed were mortality and neurologic result. The articles were appraised with the system designed by the Institute of Health Economics of Canada. A fixed-effects model was used to meta-analyze the data. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 statistic. Results Twenty-seven articles were included in the review. All were case series. Of 1,369 patients who underwent an ED thoracotomy, 21 (1.5%) survived with a good neurologic outcome. All 21 patients had vital signs present on scene or in the ED and a maximum duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of 11 to 15 minutes. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. If there were either vital signs or signs of life present in the ED, the probability of a poor outcome was 99.2% (95% confidence interval 96.4% to 99.7%). Conclusion There may be a role for ED thoracotomy after blunt trauma, but only in a limited group of patients. Good outcomes have been achieved for patients who had vital signs on admission and for patients who received an ED thoracotomy within 15 minutes of cardiac arrest. The proposed guideline should be used to determine which patients should be considered for an ED thoracotomy, according to level 4 evidence. © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians.
Grewal P.,Queen Alexandra Hospital |
Alagaratnam S.,Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
International Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013
Introduction: Patients can rapidly access the internet and more young people are using their mobile to access health-related information. The aim of this study is to assess the readability and quality of colorectal disease websites for colorectal cancer. Methods: We searched the Google, Yahoo and Bing for colorectal cancer. Readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade (FKG) and Gunning Fog Index (GFI). The LIDA tool and DISCERN instrument were used to measure the design and content of health information on the Internet. A sub-group analysis was performed on websites certified by HONcode and Information Standard against non-certified websites. Results: The mean FRES were 56.3, mean FKG of 6.9, mean GFI of 9.5, equivalent to TIME magazine. The mean LIDA Tool overall score was 85.6% and mean DISCERN instrument was 52.2 (95% CI 45-59.4). Conclusion: This study shows that colorectal cancer websites were readable but potentially unreliable. Government certified sites were superior to non-certified sites.Improvements are required to provide patients with reliable information to make informed decisions on medical treatments.We propose that national cancer services develop reliable and easily readable information regarding the diagnosis and investigation of colorectal cancer. The site should provide adequate information regarding the treatment options and importantly how each treatment option would affect the patient's quality of life. Clinicians can then provide these websites to the patients before and after their consultations to allow the patient to be fully informed. © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd.