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Pancholy S.B.,Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education | Bertrand O.F.,Quebec Heart Lung Institute | Patel T.,Seth Nhl Municipal Medical College
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2012

Systemic anticoagulation decreases the risk of radial artery occlusion (RAO) after transradial catheterization and standard occlusive hemostasis. We compared the efficacy and safety of provisional heparin use only when the technique of patent hemostasis was not achievable to standard a priori heparin administration after radial sheath introduction. Patients referred for coronary angiography were randomized in 2 groups. In the a priori group, 200 patients received intravenous heparin (50 IU/kg) immediately after sheath insertion. In the provisional group, 200 patients did not receive heparin during the procedure. After sheath removal, hemostasis was obtained using a TR band (Terumo corporation, Tokyo, Japan) with a plethysmography-guided patent hemostasis technique. In the provisional group, no heparin was given if radial artery patency could be obtained and maintained. If radial patency was not achieved, a bolus of heparin (50 IU/kg) was given. Radial artery patency was evaluated at 24 hours (early RAO) and 30 days after the procedure (late RAO) by plethysmography. Patent hemostasis was obtained in 67% in the a priori group and 74% in the provisional group (p = 0.10). Incidence of RAO remained similar in the 2 groups at the early (7.5% vs 7.0%, p = 0.84) and late (4.5% vs 5.0%, p = 0.83) evaluations. Women, patients with diabetes, patients having not received heparin, and patients without radial artery patency during hemostasis had more RAO. By multivariate analysis, patent radial artery during hemostasis (odds ratio [OR] 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.004 to 0.28, p = 0.002) and diabetes (OR 11, 95% CI 3 to 38,p <0.0001) were independent predictors of late RAO, whereas heparin was not (OR 0.45 95% CI 0.13 to 1.54, p = 0.20). In conclusion, our results suggest that maintenance of radial artery patency during hemostasis is the most important parameter to decrease the risk of RAO. In selected cases, provisional use of heparin appears feasible and safe when patent hemostasis is maintained. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Caputo R.P.,St. Josephs Hospital | Tremmel J.A.,Stanford University | Rao S.,Duke University | Gilchrist I.C.,Ms Hershey Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2011

In response to growing U.S. interest, the Society for Coronary Angiography and Interventions recently formed a Transradial Committee whose purpose is to examine the utility, utilization, and training considerations related to transradial access for percutaneous coronary and peripheral procedures. With international partnership, the committee has composed a comprehensive overview of this subject presented herewith. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Plante S.,Southlake Regional Health Center | Cantor W.J.,Southlake Regional Health Center | Goldman L.,Southlake Regional Health Center | Miner S.,Southlake Regional Health Center | And 4 more authors.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2010

Background: Anticoagulant therapy is required to prevent radial artery occlusion (RAO) after transradial catheterization. There is no data comparing bivalirudin to standard heparin. Methods: We studied 400 consecutive patients. In case of diagnostic angiography-only (n = 200), they received an intravenous bolus of heparin (70 U kg-1) immediately before sheath removal whereas in case of angiography followed by ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 200), they received bivalirudin (bolus 0.75 mg kg -1, followed by infusion at 1.75 mg/kg/h). RAO was assessed 4-8 weeks later using two-dimensional echography-doppler and reverse Allen's test with pulse oximetry. Results: At follow-up, 21 of the 400 (5.3%) patients were found to have RAO with no significant difference between the two groups (3.5% bivalirudin vs. 7.0% heparin, P = 0.18). Patients with RAO had a significantly lower weight compared to patients without RAO (78 ± 13 kg vs. 86 ± 18 kg, P = 0.011). By multivariate analysis, a weight <84 kg (OR: 2.78, 95% CI 1.08-8.00, P = 0.032) and a procedure duration ≤20 min (OR: 7.52, 95% CI 1.57-36.0, P = 0.011) remained strong independent predictors of RAO. All cases of radial occlusion were asymptomatic and without clinical sequelae. Conclusion: Delayed administration of bivalirudin or heparin for transradial catheterization provides similar efficacy in preventing RAO. Because of its low cost, a single bolus of heparin can be preferred in case of diagnostic angiography whereas bivalirudin can be contemplated in case of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Rao S.V.,The Duke Clinical Research Institute | Cohen M.G.,University of Miami | Kandzari D.E.,Scripps Research Institute | Bertrand O.F.,Quebec Heart Lung Institute | Gilchrist I.C.,Penn State Hershey Medical Center
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Periprocedural bleeding complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Although clinical trials have primarily assessed pharmacological strategies for reducing bleeding risk, there is a mounting body of evidence suggesting that adoption of a transradial rather than a transfemoral approach to PCI may permit greater reductions in bleeding risk than have been achieved with pharmacological strategies alone. However, despite a long history of use, a lack of widespread uptake by physicians coupled with the technological limitations of available devices has in the past confined transradial PCI to the status of a niche procedure, and many operators lack experience in this technique. In this review, we examine the history of the transradial approach to PCI and discuss some of the circumstances that have hitherto limited its appeal. We then review the current state of the peer-reviewed literature supporting its use and summarize the unresolved issues affecting broader application of this technique, including lack of operator familiarity and an insufficient evidence base for guiding practice. Finally, we describe potential directions for future investigation in the transradial realm. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Patel T.,Apex Heart Institute | Patel T.,Smt NHL Municipal Medical College | Shah S.,Apex Heart Institute | Shah S.,Smt NHL Municipal Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2014

Objective To examine the use and outcomes of balloon-assisted tracking (BAT) technique for dealing with complexities of arm and chest vasculature during transradial approach (TRA) at a single high volume radial center. Background TRA has been used for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) around the world. Different techniques have been described to address the anatomical issues and tortuosities for successful completion of coronary angiography and PCI. This study describes the use of BAT technique and associated outcomes during real world clinical practice. Methods Subjects comprised 63 patients, (out of total 8,245 patients between January 2011 and December 2012) in whom we encountered significantly complex anatomical course in radial, brachial, or subclavian region, leading to difficult advancement of a diagnostic or a guide catheter despite trying all standard maneuvers. In all of them BAT technique was used and they were retrospectively analyzed for the purpose of this study. Results About 63 (0.76%) of 8,245 patients met the study criteria. Twenty-five (39.7%) patients had very small RA. Twenty-two (34.9%) had severe RA tortuosity. Four (6.3%) had complex RA loops. Six (9.5%) had severe RA spasm and six (9.5%) had severe subclavian tortuosity and/or stenosis. We encountered technical failure in three (4.8%) patients (two had very small RA and one had 360 degree RA loop). Conclusion BAT technique was useful to address the anatomical issues and tortuosities of radial, brachial, and subclavian vasculature during TRA. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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