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Mathieu P.,Quebec Heart and Lung InstituteQC | Mathieu P.,Institute Of Cardiologie Et Of Pneumologie Of Quebec | Mathieu P.,Laval University | Bouchareb R.,Quebec Heart and Lung InstituteQC | Boulanger M.-C.,Quebec Heart and Lung InstituteQC
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2015

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder. CAVD is a chronic process characterized by a pathologic mineralization of valve leaflets. Ectopic mineralization of the aortic valve involves complex relationships with immunity. Studies have highlighted that both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in the development of CAVD. In this regard, accumulating evidence indicates that fibrocalcific remodelling of the aortic valve is associated with activation of the NF-κB pathway. The expression of TNF-α and IL-6 is increased in human mineralized aortic valves and promotes an osteogenic program as well as the mineralization of valve interstitial cells (VICs), the main cellular component of the aortic valve. Different factors, including oxidized lipid species, activate the innate immune response through the Toll-like receptors. Moreover, VICs express 5-lipoxygenase and therefore produce leukotrienes, which may amplify the inflammatory response in the aortic valve. More recently, studies have emphasized that an adaptive immune response is triggered during CAVD. Herein, we are reviewing the link between the immune response and the development of CAVD and we have tried, whenever possible, to keep a translational approach. © 2015 Patrick Mathieu et al. Source


Guenard F.,Laval University | Guenard F.,Chu Of Quebec Research Centerqc | Lamontagne M.,Quebec Heart and Lung InstituteQC | Bosse Y.,Quebec Heart and Lung InstituteQC | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Maternal obesity and excess gestational weight gain with compromised metabolic fitness predispose offspring to lifelong obesity and its comorbidities. We demonstrated that compared to offspring born before maternal gastrointestinal bypass surgery (BMS) those born after (AMS) were less obese, with less cardiometabolic risk reflected in the expression and methylation of diabetes, immune and inflammatory pathway genes. Here we examine relationships between gestational obesity and offspring gene variations on expression levels. Methods: Whole-genome genotyping and gene expression analyses in blood of 22 BMS and 23 AMS offspring from 19 mothers were conducted using Illumina HumanOmni-5-Quad and HumanHT-12v4 Expression BeadChips, respectively. Using PLINK we analyzed interactions between offspring gene variations and maternal surgical status on offspring gene expression levels. Altered biological functions and pathways were identified and visualized using DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: Significant interactions (p ≤ 1.22×10-12) were found for 525 among the 16,060 expressed transcripts: 1.9% of tested SNPs were involved. Gene function and pathway analysis demonstrated enrichment of transcription and of cellular metabolism functions and overrepresentation of cellular stress and signaling, immune response, inflammation, growth, proliferation and development pathways. Conclusion: We suggest that impaired maternal gestational metabolic fitness interacts with offspring gene variations modulating gene expression levels, providing potential mechanisms explaining improved cardiometabolic risk profiles of AMS offspring related to ameliorated maternal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.Copyright: © 2015 Guénard et al. Source


Anand S.S.,McMaster University | Anand S.S.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Anand S.S.,Population Health Research Institute | Tu J.V.,University of Toronto | And 27 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2016

Background: The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Methods/Design: Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity), cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. Discussion: CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Laforest S.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Laforest S.,Laval University | Laforest S.,Quebec Heart and Lung InstituteQC | Labrecque J.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences | Year: 2015

Obesity is a heterogeneous disease and is associated with comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Several studies have examined the role of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of obesity, highlighting the contrasting properties and impact of distinct fat compartments, sometimes with contradictory results. Dysfunctional adipose tissue involves enlargement, or hypertrophy, of pre-existing fat cells, which is thought to confer increases in cardiometabolic risk, independent of the level of obesity per se. In this article, we critically analyze available literature that examined the ability of adipocyte cell size to predict metabolic disease and adipose tissue dysfunction in humans. Many studies demonstrate that increased fat cell size is a significant predictor of altered blood lipid profiles and glucose-insulin homeostasis independent of adiposity indices. The contribution of visceral adiposity to these associations appears to be of particular importance. However, available studies are not unanimous and many fat depot-specific aspects of the relationship between increased fat cell size and cardiometabolic risk or parameters of adipose tissue dysfunction are still unresolved. Methodological factors such as the approach used to express the data may represent significant confounders in these studies. Additional studies should consider the fact that the relationship between fat cell size and common adiposity indices is non-linear, particularly when reaching the obese range. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that fat cell size is a significant predictor of the cardiometabolic alterations related to obesity. We propose that adipocyte hypertrophy, especially in the visceral fat compartment, may represent a strong marker of limited hyperplasic capacity in subcutaneous adipose tissues, which in turn is associated with the presence of numerous cardiometabolic alterations. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

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