Quebec Heart and Lung Institute

Québec, Canada

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute

Québec, Canada
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Mathieu P.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

ATP and other extracellular nucleotides have diverse and potent effects in different organs. Evidence indicates that extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides deliver crucial signals by acting upon a wide variety of purinergic receptors, which include 19 members separated in three families. Purinergic receptors encompass adenosine-sensitive receptors (P1) as well as the ATP and ADP-responsive receptors (P2). On the other side, P2 receptors are divided into ionotropic P2X receptors and G protein-coupled receptors P2Y. This system of purinergic signaling is made further complex by the fact that ectonucleotidases, membrane bound enzymes, participate in the metabolism of extracellular nucleotides, which are released by cells. Hence, ectonucleotidases are important modulators of purinergic receptor function. It should be pointed out that the ectonucleotidases includes enzymes with different substrate preferences and by their action generate different nucleotides and nucleosides as well as phosphate and pyrophosphate. A growing body of evidence points toward the fact that the expression pattern of different ectonucleotidases and purinergic receptors is implicated in several cardiovascular disorders. In this perspective, a short account is given on the role of ectonucleotidases into the pathobiology of some cardiovascular disorders and the need to develop a novel pharmacology based on those recent findings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Tremblay A.,Laval University | Tremblay A.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Panahi S.,Laval University
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2017

Yogurt is considered to be a nutrient-dense food that significantly contributes to the intake of several nutrients, including calcium and protein. As described in this paper, yogurt consumers have a higher nutrient intake than do nonconsumers. Yogurt consumers are also characterized by healthier dietary habits than nonconsumers, which partly explains their reduced incidence of overweight and obesity. Recent studies also suggest that yogurt consumers exhibit healthier nonnutritional behaviors, such as reduced smoking and greater participation in physical activity, than do nonconsumers. Furthermore, when greenhouse gas emissions are used as an additional criterion to categorize foods, yogurt appears to be an eco-friendly food. Compared with that of other foods, the carbon footprint of yogurt production is low to moderate and may be included as part of a healthy and sustainable diet. Based on these factors, yogurt consumption may be the signature of a healthy diet and lifestyle. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

De Blois J.,University of Québec | Simard S.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Atar D.,University of Oslo | Agewall S.,University of Oslo
Journal of Cardiac Failure | Year: 2010

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (HF) are common clinical conditions that share tobacco as a risk factor. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD on HF patients. Methods and Results: The Norwegian Heart Failure Registry was used. The study included 4132 HF patients (COPD, n = 699) from 22 hospitals (mean follow-up, 13.3 months). COPD patients were older, more often smokers and diabetics, less often on β-blockers and had a higher heart rate. They were more often in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV (COPD, 63%; no COPD, 51%), although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) distribution was similar. COPD independently predicted death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.188; 95% CI: 1.015 to 1.391; P = 0.03) along with age, creatinine, NYHA Class III/IV (HR, 1.464; 95% CI: 1.286 to 1.667) and diabetes. β-blockers at baseline were associated with improved survival in patients with LVEF ≤40% independently of COPD. Conclusion: COPD is associated with a poorer survival in HF patients. COPD patients are overrated in terms of NYHA class in comparison with patients with similar LVEF. Nonetheless, NYHA class remains the strongest predictor of death in these patients. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Myers J.,Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System | Myers J.,Stanford University | McAuley P.,Winston-Salem State University | Lavie C.J.,John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. © 2014.

Urena M.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Rodes-Cabau J.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Freixa X.,Montreal Heart Institute | Saw J.,Vancouver General Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the results associated with left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug (ACP) (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, Minnesota) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation therapy. Background Few data exist on the late outcomes after LAAC in patients with absolute contraindications to warfarin. Methods A total of 52 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation underwent LAAC with the ACP device in 7 Canadian centers. Most patients received short-term (1 to 3 months) dual-antiplatelet therapy after the procedure and single-antiplatelet therapy thereafter. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 74% of patients at the 6-month follow-up. No patient was lost to follow-up (≥12 months in all patients). Results The mean age and median (interquartile range) CHADS2 score were 74 ± 8 years and 3 (2 to 4), respectively. The procedure was successful in 98.1% of the patients, and the main complications were device embolization (1.9%) and pericardial effusion (1.9%), with no cases of periprocedural stroke. At a mean follow-up of 20 ± 5 months, the rates of death, stroke, systemic embolism, pericardial effusion, and major bleeding were 5.8%, 1.9%, 0%, 1.9%, and 1.9%, respectively. The presence of mild peridevice leak was observed in 16.2% of patients at the 6-month follow-up as evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. There were no cases of device thrombosis. Conclusions In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at high risk of cardioembolic events and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation, LAAC using the ACP device followed by dual-/single-antiplatelet therapy was associated with a low rate of embolic and bleeding events after a mean follow-up of 20 months. No cases of severe residual leak or device thrombosis were observed at the 6-month follow-up. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Lancellotti P.,University of Liège | Magne J.,University of Liège | Donal E.,804 University Hospital Pontchaillou | Davin L.,University of Liège | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study examined the clinical course of patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) according to the new proposed aortic valve stenosis grading classification. The management of patients with asymptomatic severe AS remains controversial. Moreover, under the same denomination of severe AS, several entities might be identified according to transvalvular flow rates and pressure gradients, resulting in 4 flow-gradient patterns. Transthoracic echocardiography and measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide level from venous blood sample were performed in 150 consecutive patients with asymptomatic severe AS and normal exercise test. Patients were classified in 4 groups, depending on left ventricular flow state (normal flow [NF] vs. low flow [LF]: 35 ml/m 2) and pressure gradient levels (low gradient [LG] vs. high gradient [HG]: 40 mm Hg). Patients with NF/LG had significantly lower B-type natriuretic peptide than those with LF/HG and LF/LG. The mean follow-up was 27 ± 12 months. At 2 years, cardiac event-free survival was 83 ± 6%, 44 ± 6%, 30 ± 12%, and 27 ± 13% in NF/LG, NF/HG, LF/HG, and LF/LG groups, respectively (p < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis, LF/LG (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.04 to 14.3, p = 0.045) and LF/HG (HR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.02 to 5.55, p = 0.001) were identified as strong independent determinants of poor prognosis as compared with NF/HG. By limiting the multivariable analysis to patients with LF, LF/LG was an independent predictor of markedly reduced cardiac event-free survival when compared with LF/HG (HR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.03 to 28.6, p = 0.046). The use of the new proposed AS grading classification integrating valve area and flow-gradient patterns allows a better characterization of the clinical outcome of patients with asymptomatic severe AS. © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Mongeon F.-P.,Montreal Heart Institute | Belisle P.,McGill University | Joseph L.,McGill University | Eisenberg M.J.,Jewish General Hospital | Rinfret S.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute
Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2010

Background-In available trials and meta-analyses, adjunctive thrombectomy in acute myocardial infarction (MI) improves markers of myocardial reperfusion but has limited effects on clinical outcomes. Thrombectomy devices simply aspirate thrombus or mechanically fragment it before aspiration. Simple aspiration thrombectomy may offer a distinct advantage. Methods and Results-We identified 21 eligible trials (16 that used a simple aspiration thrombectomy device) involving 4299 patients with ST-segment elevation MI randomized to reperfusion therapy by primary percutaneous coronary intervention with or without thrombectomy. By using Bayesian meta-analysis methods, we found that thrombectomy yielded substantially less no-reflow (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.18 to 0.69), more ST-segment resolution ≥50% (OR, 2.22; 95% CrI, 1.60 to 3.23), and more thrombolysis in myocardial infarction/myocardial perfusion grade 3 (OR, 2.50; 95% CrI, 1.48 to 4.41). There was no evidence for a decrease in death (OR, 0.94; 95% CrI, 0.47 to 1.80), death, recurrent MI, or stroke (OR, 1.07; 95% CrI, 0.63 to 1.92) with thrombectomy. Restriction of the analysis to trials that used simple aspiration thrombectomy devices did not yield substantially different results, except for a positive effect on postprocedure thrombolysis in myocardial infarction grade 3 flow (OR, 1.49; 95% CrI, 1.14 to 1.99). Conclusions-In this Bayesian meta-analysis, adjunctive thrombectomy improves early markers of reperfusion but does not substantially effect 30-day post-MI mortality, reinfarction, and stroke. The use of aspiration thrombectomy devices is not associated with a reduction in post-MI clinical outcomes. Thrombectomy is one of the rare effective preventive measures against no-reflow. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

White P.J.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | White P.J.,Duke University | Marette A.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Marette A.,Laval University
Immunology and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

In its most reduced form, metabolic inflammation can be best described as a maladaptive process that involves an integrated innate and acquired immune response to nutrient surplus. Although originally these events were thought to be restricted to the expanding adipose depots of obese individuals, there are increasing reports that other metabolic centers such as the gut, liver, skeletal muscle and hypothalamus are also foci for metabolic inflammation. This review presents an overview of the major events and players identified thus far as central components of metabolic inflammation, and will examine recent findings concerning a novel class of omega-3-derived bioactive lipids that suggest that altered resolution processes may also contribute to metabolic inflammation. © 2014 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. All rights reserved.

Magne J.,University of Liège | Mahjoub H.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Pibarot P.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Pirlet C.,University of Liège | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2012

AimThe exercise Doppler echocardiographic stress test can be of interest in the management of asymptomatic patients with primary mitral regurgitation (MR). The resting brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is a good surrogate marker of the consequences of MR and is a powerful predictor of outcome. The incremental prognostic value of BNP response during exercise is unknown. We aimed to identify the determinants of exercise BNP level and to evaluate its prognostic value in asymptomatic patients with primary MR.Methods and resultsComprehensive resting and exercise transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed in 113 consecutive asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe degenerative MR and preserved left ventricular (LV) function. Blood samples were collected both at rest and during exercise. The BNP level significantly increased from rest to exercise (P < 0.0001). The independent determinants of exercise BNP were resting E/Ea ratio (P 0.043), indexed left atrial volume (P 0.022), and exercise LV global longitudinal strain (P 0.001). There was a significant graded relationship between increasing BNP level at exercise (according to tertiles) and increased incidence of cardiac events (death, heart failure, mitral valve surgery driven by symptoms, or LV dilatation/dysfunction onset) (1 year, 11 ± 5 vs. 14 ± 6 vs. 43.5 ± 9; 2 years, 21 ± 7 vs. 40 ± 8 vs. 67 ± 9; in tertiles 1, 2 and 3, respectively). On multivariable analysis, after adjustment for demographic and echocardiographic data and for resting BNP level, exercise BNP remained significantly associated with increased risk of cardiac events during the follow-up (hazard ratio 2.8 and 3.4, P 0.041 and 0.023, for tertiles 2 and 3, as compared with tertile 1).ConclusionsIn asymptomatic patients with primary MR, exercise BNP level provides incremental prognostic value beyond what is achieved by demographic and echocardiographic data and resting BNP level. Patients with elevated exercise BNP should be considered at high risk of reduced cardiac event-free survival. © 2012 The Author.

Dumesnil J.G.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | Pibarot P.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute
Current Cardiology Reports | Year: 2011

Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is present when the effective orifice area of the inserted prosthetic valve is too small in relation to body size. Its main hemodynamic consequence is to generate higher than expected gradients through normally functioning prosthetic valves. The purpose of this review is to present an update on the present state of knowledge with regard to diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of PPM. PPM is a frequent occurrence (20% to 70% of aortic valve replacements) that has been shown to be associated with worse hemodynamics, less regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, more cardiac events, and lower survival. Moreover, as opposed to most other risk factors, PPM can largely be prevented by using a prospective strategy at the time of operation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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