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Mandema J.W.,Quantitative Solutions Inc. | Salinger D.H.,Amgen Inc. | Baumgartner S.W.,Amgen Inc. | Baumgartner S.W.,Arrdea Biosciences Inc. | Gibbs M.A.,Amgen Inc.
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

We present a dose-response meta-analysis to quantify relative efficacy of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is a strong rationale for this analysis because, although multiple biologics are available, information on head-to-head comparisons is limited. Data on the percentage of patients attaining American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20, 50, and 70 responses were extracted from 50 randomized controlled trials representing 21,500 patients, five mechanisms of action, and nine biologics. The analysis showed that all tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNFs) share the same dose-response relationship for ACR 20, 50, and 70, differing only in potency. Yet there are significant differences in efficacy among the anti-TNFs due to differences in the clinical dose ranges available. At the suggested starting dose, golimumab was the least efficacious, followed by infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, and certolizumab. Significant differences in the dose-response relationship were found between anti-TNFs and other biologics, resulting in differences in efficacy and differential impact of dose titration. © 2011 American Society for clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Source

Leil T.A.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Frost C.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Wang X.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Pfister M.,Bristol Myers Squibb | And 3 more authors.
CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-response analyses of apixaban were performed using data from phase I-III studies to predict bleeding risks for patients receiving apixaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. after total knee or hip replacement (TKR, THR) surgery (N = 5,510). Renal function, age, gender, and body weight impacted apixaban exposure. Bleeding risk increased as a function of exposure. Predicted bleeding frequencies for TKR and THR populations at risk for high apixaban exposure (female, age > 75 years, calculated creatinine clearance (cCrCL) < 30 ml/min, body weight < 50 kg) (6.85 and 10.3%, respectively) were comparable to the reference population (male/female, age 65-75 years, cCrCL ≥ 80 ml/min, body weight 65-85 kg) (6.18 and 9.32%, respectively). A 100% increase in apixaban exposure is expected to raise bleeding frequencies to 7.25% (TKR) and 10.9% (THR), whereas a 200% increase would raise them to 8.49 and 12.7%. Coexistence of combined patient risk factors or doubling of exposure is not likely to result in a substantial, clinically relevant increase in bleeding risk with 2.5 mg b.i.d. apixaban. © 2014 ASCPT All rights reserved. Source

Daddona P.E.,Zosano Pharma | Matriano J.A.,Zosano Pharma | Mandema J.,Quantitative Solutions Inc. | Maa Y.-F.,Zosano Pharma
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical PK/PD of PTH(1-34) delivered by a novel transdermal drug-coated microneedle patch system (ZP-PTH) for the treatment of osteoporosis. Methods: Phase 1 PK studies evaluated the effect of site of administration, patch wear time and dose in normal volunteers, ages 40-85 yrs. Phase 2 was conducted in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis to determine the patch dose response compared to placebo patch and FORTEO® injection. Results: Phase 1 ZP-PTH patch delivery demonstrated a rapid PTH plasma pulse profile with Tmax 3 times shorter and apparent T 1/2 2 times shorter than FORTEO®. In Phase 2, ZP-PTH 20, 30 and 40 μg doses showed a proportional increase in plasma PTH AUC. Inter-subject and intra-subject AUC variability was similar for all patch doses and comparable to injection. All patch doses produced a significant increase in spine bone mineral density. Unexpectedly, ZP-PTH also produced an early increase in hip bone mineral density, an effect not observed with the injection. Conclusions: These studies suggest that this novel ZP-PTH patch system can deliver a consistent and therapeutically relevant PTH PK profile. Based on encouraging Phase 2 safety and efficacy data, the program is advancing into a pivotal Phase 3 clinical study. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Mandema J.W.,Quantitative Solutions Inc. | Boyd R.A.,Pfizer | Dicarlo L.A.,Pfizer | Dicarlo L.A.,Proteus Biomedical, Inc.
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Information on the comparative effectiveness of drugs is crucial for drug development decisions, in addition to being needed by regulators, prescribers, and payers. We have carried out a dose-response meta-analysis of three end points each for efficacy and bleeding for various anticoagulants evaluated for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following orthopedic surgery to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of various classes of agents. Data obtained from 89 randomized controlled trials of 23 anticoagulants representing seven drug classes were analyzed. The analysis showed significant differences in the therapeutic index (TI), the ratio of the dose with an acceptable bleeding risk to the dose with a relevant risk reduction for VTE, across the drug classes but not for drugs within a class. The direct inhibitors of FXa, the activated form of factor Xalso known as prothrombinasewere found to have a significantly higher TI than that of any other class of anticoagulants, including enoxaparin, suggesting that this mechanism of action provides the best safety-to-efficacy margin. © 2011 American Society for clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Source

Veniant M.M.,Amgen Inc. | Komorowski R.,Amgen Inc. | Chen P.,Amgen Inc. | Stanislaus S.,Amgen Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone with short half-life, has consistently shown strong pharmacological efficacy. We first assessed the efficacy of murine recombinant FGF21 in C57BL6 lean mice for 5 wk. We then generated a long-acting FGF21 molecule by fusing a Fc to a variant of human recombinant FGF21 (hrFGF21) that contained two engineered mutations [L98R, P171G; Fc-FGF21(RG)] and tested it in C57BL6 diet-induced obese mice and obese rhesus monkeys. We compared its metabolic properties with those of the hrFGF21. Groups of diet-induced obese mice were treated for 36 d with different doses of hrFGF21 (01, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg twice daily) and with Fc-FGF21(RG) (2.3 mg/kg, every 5 d). Body weight, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were decreased after treatment with either compound. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was also improved. Obese rhesus monkeys were treated with hrFGF21 (once a day) and Fc-FGF21(RG) (once a week) in a dose-escalation fashion. Doses started at 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg and ended at 3 and 5 mg/kg for hrFGF21 and Fc-FGF21(RG), respectively. Doses were escalated every 2 wk, and animals were followed up for a washout period of 3 wk. Body weight, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and the GTT profile were decreased to a greater extent with Fc-FGF21(RG) than with hrFGF21. The PK-PD relationship of Fc-FGF21(RG) exposure and triglyceride reduction was also conducted with a maximum response model. In conclusion, in more than one species, Fc-FGF21(RG) chronically administered once a week showed similar or greater efficacy than hrFGF21 administered daily. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society. Source

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