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Jungmeier G.,Joanneum Research | Dunn J.B.,Argonne National Laboratory | Elgowainy A.,Argonne National Laboratory | Ozdemir E.D.,German Aerospace Center | And 3 more authors.
2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014 | Year: 2014

Electric vehicles have the potential to substitute for conventional vehicles and to contribute to the sustainable development of the transportation sector worldwide, e.g. reduction of greenhouse gas and particle emissions. There is an international consensus that the improvement of the sustainability of electric vehicles can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life of the vehicles. Based on LCA activities in the 17 member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) works in a Task on the LCA of electric vehicles. In this Task 19 'Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles - From raw material resources to waste management of vehicles with an electric drivetrain' the key issues of applying LCA to EVs&HEVs are identified and applied in various case studies. The following seven categories of key issues were identified, analysed and applied in 'best practice' applications: 1) General issues, 2) Life cycle modelling, 3) Vehicle cycle (production - use - end of life), 4) Fuel cycle (electricity production), 5) Inventory analyses, 6) Impact assessment and 7) Reference system. For these seven key issues the main relevant factors were identified, reviewed and verified in international 'best practice' applications. © 2013 IEEE. Source

James Stemp W.,Keene State College | Childs B.E.,Microsoft | Vionnet S.,Quantis
Scanning | Year: 2010

Based on the need to develop a method to reliably and objectively document and discriminate the use-wear on archaeological stone tools, Stemp et al. (2009) tested whether the surface roughness measured on experimentally worn stone tools used on different contact materials could be discriminated. Results of these initial experiments indicated that discrimination was possible and also determined the scales over which this discrimination occurred. In this article, we report the results of additional experiments using the same method on a second set of tools to test its reliability and reproducibility. In these experiments, four flint flakes were intensively used for 20 min on either conch shell or dry deer antler. The surface roughness or texture of the stone tools was measured by generating 2D profiles using a UBM laser profilometer. Relative lengths (RLs) calculated from the profiles were used directly as characterization parameters and subsequently compared statistically at each scale using the F-test to establish a level of confidence for the differentiation at each scale represented in the measured profiles. The mean square ratios of measurement data were used to determine whether the variation in roughness was statistically significant and to what level of confidence. The scales at which there was a high level of confidence were the ones at which the tools were differentiable. The results of these experiments confirm our previous findings that RLs, over certain scale ranges, can discriminate the stone tool surface wear profiles produced by the different contact materials. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Gronlund C.J.,University of Michigan | Humbert S.,Quantis | Shaked S.,University of California at Los Angeles | O'Neill M.S.,University of Michigan | Jolliet O.,University of Michigan
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2015

Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a major environmental contributor to human burden of disease and therefore an important component of life cycle impact assessments. An accurate PM2.5 characterization factor, i.e., the impact per kilogram of PM2.5 emitted, is critical to estimating “cradle-to-grave” human health impacts of products and processes. We developed and assessed new characterization factors (disability-adjusted life years (DALY)/kgPM2.5 emitted), or the products of dose-response factors (deaths/kgPM2.5 inhaled), severity factors (DALY/death), and intake fractions (kgPM2.5 inhaled/kgPM2.5 emitted). In contrast to previous health burden estimates, we calculated age-specific concentration- and dose-response factors using baseline data, from 63 US metropolitan areas, consistent with the US study population used to derive the relative risk. We also calculated severity factors using 2010 Global Burden of Disease data. Multiplying the revised PM2.5 dose responses, severity factors, and intake fractions yielded new PM2.5 characterization factors that are higher than previous factors for primary PM2.5 but lower for secondary PM2.5 due to NOx. Multiplying the concentration-response and severity factors by 2005 ambient PM2.5 concentrations yielded an annual US burden of 2,000,000 DALY, slightly lower than previous US estimates. The annual US health burden estimated from PM emissions and characterization factors was 2.2 times higher. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Girault G.,Rio Tinto Alcan | Petit S.,Rio Tinto Alcan | Rheault J.P.,Rio Tinto Alcan | Mercereau D.,ENEA | Verzat B.,Quantis
TMS Light Metals | Year: 2015

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is emerging as a standardized reference for assessing the comprehensive environmental impact from any product or process. This holistic approach considers all steps related to the product/process life, from cradle to grave. As an aluminum producer, Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) recently applied this method to assess its relative performance compared to the industry average, with a specific focus on its GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission intensity. As a smelting technology supplier, RTA is now deploying a simplified approach based on LCA principles to assess technology performance. Combined with specific accounting techniques, this should allow for more efficient designs, both from an environmental and financial perspective. This paper illustrates, through some examples on product and process assessments, how this philosophy can be used to design and operate sustainable technology solutions in a systematic way. Source

Humbert S.,University of California at Berkeley | Marshall J.D.,University of Minnesota | Shaked S.,University of Michigan | Spadaro J.V.,Environmental Research Consultant | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Particulate matter (PM) is a significant contributor to death and disease globally. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human exposure to PM into life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. We review literature-derived intake fraction values (the fraction of emissions that are inhaled), based on emission release height and "archetypal" environment (indoor versus outdoor; urban, rural, or remote locations). Recommended intake fraction values are provided for primary PM10-2.5 (coarse particles), primary PM 2.5 (fine particles), and secondary PM2.5 from SO 2, NOx, and NH3. Intake fraction values vary by orders of magnitude among conditions considered. For outdoor primary PM 2.5, representative intake fraction values (units: milligrams inhaled per kilogram emitted) for urban, rural, and remote areas, respectively, are 44, 3.8, and 0.1 for ground-level emissions, versus 26, 2.6, and 0.1 for an emission-weighted stack height. For outdoor secondary PM, source location and source characteristics typically have only a minor influence on the magnitude of the intake fraction (exception: intake fraction values can be an order of magnitude lower for remote-location emission than for other locations). Outdoor secondary PM2.5 intake fractions averaged over respective locations and stack heights are 0.89 (from SO2), 0.18 (NOx), and 1.7 (NH3). Estimated average intake fractions are greater for primary PM10-2.5 than for primary PM2.5 (21 versus 15), owing in part to differences in average emission height (lower, and therefore closer to people, for PM10-2.5 than PM2.5). For indoor emissions, typical intake fraction values are ∼1000-7000. This paper aims to provide as complete and consistent an archetype framework as possible, given current understanding of each pollutant. Values presented here facilitate incorporating regional impacts into LCIA for human health damage from PM. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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