Qualyst Inc.

Durham, NC, United States

Qualyst Inc.

Durham, NC, United States

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Hartman J.C.,Gilead Sciences Inc. | Brouwer K.,Qualyst Inc | Mandagere A.,Gilead Sciences Inc. | Melvin L.,Gilead Sciences Inc. | Gorczynski R.,Gilead Sciences Inc.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

To evaluate potential mechanisms of clinical hepatotoxicity, 4 endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) were examined for substrate activity and inhibition of hepatic uptake and efflux transporters in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. The 4 transporters studied were sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP), organic anion transporter (OATP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). ERA transporter inhibition was examined using the substrates taurocholate (for NTCP and BSEP), [3H]estradiol-17β-D-glucuronide (for OATP), and [2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine]enkephalin (for MRP2). ERA substrate activity was evaluated using probe inhibitors ritonavir (OATP and BSEP), bromosulfalein (OATP), erythromycin (P-glycoprotein), probenecid (MRP2 and OATP), and cyclosporin (NTCP). ERAs were tested at 2, 20, and 100 μmol.L-1 for inhibition and at 2 μmol.L-1 as substrates. OATP, NTCP, or BSEP transport activity was not reduced by ambrisentan or darusentan. Bosentan and sitaxsentan attenuated NTCP transport at higher concentrations. Only sitaxsentan decreased OATP transport (52%), and only bosentan reduced BSEP transport (78%). MRP2 transport activity was unaltered. OATP inhibitors decreased influx of all ERAs. Darusentan influx was least affected (84%-100% of control), whereas bosentan was most affected (32%-58% of control). NTCP did not contribute to influx of ERAs. Only bosentan and darusentan were shown as substrates for both BSEP and P-glycoprotein efflux. All ERAs tested were substrates for at least one hepatic transporter. Bosentan and sitaxsentan, but not ambrisentan and darusentan, inhibited human hepatic transporters, which provides a potential mechanism for the increased hepatotoxicity observed for these agents in the clinical setting.


Perry C.H.,Qualyst Inc. | Smith W.R.,Qualyst Inc. | Claire R.L.S.,Qualyst Inc. | Brouwer K.R.,Qualyst Inc.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2011

Predictions of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of compounds in pharmaceutical development are essential aspects of the drug discovery process. B-CLEAR is an in vitro system that uses sandwich-cultured hepatocytes to evaluate and predict in vivo hepatobiliary disposition (hepatic uptake, biliary excretion, and biliary clearance), transporter-based hepatic drug-drug interactions, and potential drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Automation of predictive technologies is an advantageous and preferred format in drug discovery. In this study, manual and automated studies are investigated and equivalence is demonstrated. In addition, automated applications using model probe substrates and inhibitors to assess the cholestatic potential of drugs and evaluate hepatic drug transport are examined. The successful automation of this technology provides a more reproducible and less labor-intensive approach, reducing potential operator error in complex studies and facilitating technology transfer. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening. 2011;16:427-435) © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.


PubMed | Qualyst Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biomolecular screening | Year: 2011

Predictions of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of compounds in pharmaceutical development are essential aspects of the drug discovery process. B-CLEAR is an in vitro system that uses sandwich-cultured hepatocytes to evaluate and predict in vivo hepatobiliary disposition (hepatic uptake, biliary excretion, and biliary clearance), transporter-based hepatic drug-drug interactions, and potential drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Automation of predictive technologies is an advantageous and preferred format in drug discovery. In this study, manual and automated studies are investigated and equivalence is demonstrated. In addition, automated applications using model probe substrates and inhibitors to assess the cholestatic potential of drugs and evaluate hepatic drug transport are examined. The successful automation of this technology provides a more reproducible and less labor-intensive approach, reducing potential operator error in complex studies and facilitating technology transfer.


PubMed | Qualyst Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals | Year: 2010

Drug-induced cholestasis can result from the inhibition of biliary efflux of bile acids in the liver. Drugs may inhibit the hepatic uptake and/or the biliary efflux of bile acids resulting in an increase in serum concentrations. However, it is the intracellular concentration of bile acids that results in hepatotoxicity, and thus serum concentrations may not necessarily be an appropriate indicator of hepatotoxicity. In this study, sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes were used as an in vitro model to assess the cholestatic potential of drugs using deuterium-labeled sodium taurocholate (d(8)-TCA) as a probe for bile acid transport. Eight drugs were tested as putative inhibitors of d(8)-TCA uptake and efflux. The hepatobiliary disposition of d(8)-TCA in the absence and presence of drugs was measured by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the accumulation (hepatocytes and hepatocytes plus bile), biliary excretion index (BEI), and in vitro biliary clearance (Cl(biliary)) were reported. Compounds were classified based on inhibition of uptake, efflux, or a combination of both processes. Cyclosporine A and glyburide showed a decrease in total (hepatocytes plus bile) accumulation, an increase in intracellular (hepatocytes only) accumulation, and a decrease in BEI and Cl(biliary) of d(8)-TCA, suggesting that efflux was primarily affected. Erythromycin estolate, troglitazone, and bosentan resulted in a decrease in accumulation (total and intracellular), BEI, and Cl(biliary) of d(8)-TCA, suggesting that uptake was primarily affected. Determination of a compounds relative effect on bile acid uptake, efflux, and direct determination of alterations in intracellular amounts of bile acids may provide useful mechanistic information on compounds that cause increases in serum bile acids.

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