Quality Milk Management Services Ltd

Easton-in-Gordano, United Kingdom

Quality Milk Management Services Ltd

Easton-in-Gordano, United Kingdom
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Down P.M.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd | Breen J.E.,University of Nottingham | Breen J.E.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd | Green M.J.,University of Nottingham
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2017

The objective of this study was to use probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using an on-farm culture (OFC) approach to the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows and compare this to a ‘standard’ treatment approach. A specific aim was to identify the herd circumstances under which an OFC approach would be most likely to be cost-effective. A stochastic Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate 5000 cases of clinical mastitis at the cow level and to calculate the associated costs simultaneously when treated according to 2 different treatment protocols; i) a 'conventional' approach (3 tubes of intramammary antibiotic) and ii) an OFC programme, whereby cows are treated according to the results of OFC. Model parameters were taken from recent peer reviewed literature on the use of OFC prior to treatment of clinical mastitis. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationships between model input values and the estimated difference in cost between the standard and OFC treatment protocols. The simulation analyses revealed that both the difference in the bacteriological cure rate due to a delay in treatment when using OFC and the proportion of Gram-positive cases that occur on a dairy unit would have a fundamental impact on whether OFC would be cost-effective. The results of this study illustrated that an OFC approach for the treatment of clinical mastitis would probably not be cost-effective in many circumstances, in particular, not those in which Gram-positive pathogens were responsible for more than 20% of all clinical cases. The results highlight an ethical dilemma surrounding reduced use of antimicrobials for clinical mastitis since it may be associated with financial losses and poorer cow welfare in many instances. © 2017


Archer S.C.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd | Cooper S.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of Streptococcus uberis clinical mastitis at cow level could be predicted from the historical presence of specific strains of S. uberis on dairy farms. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify S. uberis isolates potentially capable of contagious transmission. Data were available from 10,652 cows from 52 English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14 month period, and 521 isolates of S. uberis from clinical mastitis cases were available for analysis. As well as the temporal herd history of clinical mastitis associated with particular S. uberis strains, other exposure variables included cow parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, and somatic cell count. Observations were structured longitudinally as repeated weekly measures through the study period for each cow. Data were analyzed in a Bayesian framework using multilevel logistic regression models. Similarity of mass spectral profiles between isolates of S. uberis from consecutive clinical cases of mastitis in herds was used to indicate potential for contagious phenotypic characteristics. Cross validation showed that new isolates with these characteristics could be identified with an accuracy of 90% based on bacterial protein mass spectral characteristics alone. The cow-level risk in any week of these S. uberis clinical mastitis cases increased with the presence of the same specific strains of S. uberis in other cows in the herd during the previous 2 weeks. The final statistical model indicated there would be a 2–3 fold increase in the risk of S. uberis clinical mastitis associated with particular strains if these occurred in the herd 1 and 2 weeks previously. The results suggest that specific strains of S. uberis may be involved with contagious transmission, and predictions based on their occurrence could be used as an early warning surveillance system to enhance the control of S. uberis mastitis. © 2017 The Authors


Huntley S.J.,University of Warwick | Cooper S.,University of Warwick | Bradley A.J.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd. | Bradley A.J.,University of Nottingham | Green L.E.,University of Warwick
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

A cohort study of 67 suckler ewes from 1 farm was carried out from January to May 2010 to investigate associations between udder conformation, udder half milk somatic cell count (SCC), and lamb weight. Ewes and lambs were observed at lambing. Ewe health and teat condition and lamb health and weight were recorded on 4 to 5 further occasions at 14-d intervals. At each observation, a milk sample was collected from each udder half for somatic cell counting. Two weeks after lambing, ewe udder conformation and teat placement were scored. Low lamb weight was associated with ewe SCC >400,000 cells/mL (-0.73kg), a new teat lesion 14 d previously (-0.91kg), suboptimal teat position (-1.38kg), rearing in a multiple litter (-1.45kg), presence of diarrhea at the examination (-1.19kg), and rearing by a 9-yr-old ewe compared with a 6-yr-old ewe (-2.36kg). High lamb weight was associated with increasing lamb age (0.21kg/d), increasing birth weight (1.65kg/kg at birth), and increasing number of days the ewe was given supplementary feed before lambing (0.06kg/d). High udder half SCC was associated with pendulous udders (9.6% increase in SCC/cm of drop) and greater total cross-sectional area of the teats (7.2% increase of SCC/cm2). Low SCC were associated with a heavier mean litter weight (6.7% decrease in SCC/kg). Linear, quadratic, and cubic terms for days in lactation were also significant. We conclude that poor udder and teat conformation are associated with high levels of intramammary infection, as indicated by increased SCC and that both physical attributes of the udder and SCC are linked to lamb growth, suggesting that selection of suckler ewes with better udder and teat conformation would reduce intramammary infection and increase lamb growth rate. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Swinkels J.M.,GD Animal Health Service | Lam T.J.G.M.,GD Animal Health Service | Lam T.J.G.M.,University Utrecht | Green M.J.,University of Nottingham | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

The effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis (CM) is classically evaluated using bacteriological cure, which provides a concise and objective way of assessing efficacy but does not reflect the situation in the field where persistence or recurrence of clinical signs lead to perceived treatment failure. If clinical signs persist or recur, intramammary (IMM) treatment is often extended or supplemented with parenteral therapy in the expectation of a more efficient elimination of clinical signs or a lower probability of recurrence.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy against clinical persistence or recurrence of three cefquinome treatment regimes, standard 1.5-day intramammary (SIMM), 5-day extended intramammary (EIMM) and combination of EIMM plus 5-day extended parenteral (ECOMBO) treatment. The study was conducted on three dairy farms with a high recurrence rate of environmental mastitis. Efficacy was evaluated using a multi-level model at the quarter and at the cow level, based on the persistence or recurrence of clinical signs at any time during a 105-day period following the end of the initial treatment, independent of pathogen.The most prevalent pathogens were E. coli (16.9%) and S. uberis (11.97%). EIMM and ECOMBO significantly decreased the persistence or recurrence of CM by 8% and 6% at the quarter level and by 9% and 8% at the cow level, respectively. ECOMBO may not reduce the persistence or recurrence of CM beyond EIMM. Whilst extended treatment regimens offered an improved outcome in this study, the producer and practitioner need to carefully consider such regimens from the perspective of prudent antibiotic use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Leach K.A.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd | Archer S.C.,University of Nottingham | Breen J.E.,University of Nottingham | Green M.J.,University of Nottingham | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Somerset House, University of Nottingham and Quality Milk Management Services Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) | Year: 2015

Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such recycling of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health.


Hudson C.D.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd | Breen J.E.,University of Nottingham | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) is a simulation-based technique for evaluating the relative importance of different inputs to a complex process model. It is commonly employed in decision analysis and for evaluation of the potential impact of uncertainty in research findings on clinical practice, but has a wide variety of other possible applications. In this example, it was used to evaluate the association between herd-level udder health and reproductive performance in dairy herds.Although several recent studies have found relatively large associations between mastitis and fertility at the level of individual inseminations or lactations, the current study demonstrated that herd-level intramammary infection status is highly unlikely to have a clinically significant impact on the overall reproductive performance of a dairy herd under typical conditions. For example, a large increase in incidence rate of clinical mastitis (from 92 to 131 cases per 100 cows per year) would be expected to increase a herd's modified FERTEX score (a cost-based measure of overall reproductive performance) by just 4.50. 1 per cow per year. The herd's background level of submission rate (proportion of eligible cows served every 21 days) and pregnancy risk (proportion of inseminations leading to a pregnancy) correlated strongly with overall reproductive performance and explained a large proportion of the between-herd variation in performance.PSA proved to be a highly useful technique to aid understanding of results from a complex statistical model, and has great potential for a wide variety of applications within the field of veterinary science. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Henderson A.C.,University of Nottingham | Hudson C.D.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

The dry period is very important for mammary gland health, with the aim not only to cure existing intramammary infections (IMI) but also to prevent new IMI. Although it is known that the dry period is an important time for optimizing udder health, the probability that individual cows will succumb to a new IMI or, if infected, will fail to cure an IMI is not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifetime cow data, available through routine on-farm milk recording, could be used to predict changes in IMI status across the dry period for individual cows that were (1) deemed high somatic cell count (SCC; >199,000 cells/mL) or (2) low SCC (<200,000 cells/mL) at the last test day before drying off. Milk recording data collected between September 1994 and July 2014 from 114 herds in the United Kingdom were used. Two 2-level random effects models were built and both cure and new IMI were used as outcome variables in separate models. Cows with a smaller proportion of test days with a high SCC in the lactation before drying off, a smaller proportion of test days recording a high SCC in the lactation before the current lactation, of lower parity, producing less milk before drying off, of lower days in milk at drying off, and of lower SCC just before drying off were more likely to cure across the dry period. Dry period length had no effect on the likelihood of cure. Individual cows with a smaller proportion of test days recording a high SCC in the lactation before the current, of lower parity, of lower milk production at drying off, and fewer days in milk at drying off were less likely to develop a new IMI. Dry period length was found to have no effect on the probability of new IMI. Model predictions showed that a high level of discrimination was possible between cows with a high and low risk of both cures and new infections across the dry period. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


Down P.M.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,University of Nottingham | Bradley A.J.,Quality Milk Management Services Ltd | Breen J.E.,University of Nottingham | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2016

Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period. Data were assimilated from 77 UK dairy farms that participated in a British national mastitis control programme during 2009–2012 in which the majority of intramammary infections were acquired during the dry period. The data consisted of clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell count (SCC) records, herd management practices and details of interventions that were implemented by the farmer as part of the control plan. The outcomes used to measure the effectiveness of the interventions were i) changes in the incidence rate of clinical mastitis during the first 30 days after calving and ii) the rate at which cows gained new infections during the dry period (measured by SCC changes across the dry period from <200,000 cells/ml to >200,000 cells/ml). A Bayesian one-step microsimulation model was constructed such that posterior predictions from the model incorporated uncertainty in all parameters. The incremental net benefit was calculated across 10,000 Markov chain Monte Carlo iterations, to estimate the cost-benefit (and associated uncertainty) of each mastitis intervention. Interventions identified as being cost-effective in most circumstances included selecting dry-cow therapy at the cow level, dry-cow rations formulated by a qualified nutritionist, use of individual calving pens, first milking cows within 24 h of calving and spreading bedding evenly in dry-cow yards. The results of this study highlighted the efficacy of specific mastitis interventions in UK conditions which, when incorporated into a costeffectiveness framework, can be used to optimize decision making in mastitis control. This intervention study provides an example of how an intuitive and clinically useful Bayesian approach can be used to form the basis of an on-farm decision support tool. © 2016


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 24.74K | Year: 2011

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

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