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Pucher G.,Royal Military College of Canada | Allan W.,Royal Military College of Canada | Poitras P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2012

The synthetic fuel industry is poised to experience large scale growth and profoundly affect current aviation fuel infrastructure. New candidate technologies, such as Camelina oil-derived synthetic fuel have been demonstrated to not only provide satisfactory quasi drop-in characteristics for conventional fuels, but in life cycle analysis studies have also been shown to potentially offer positive improvements relative to conventional feedstocks with respect to economic, environmental, and land use considerations. As part of a multi-year study at the Royal Military College of Canada to evaluate combustion related parameters of fuel additives and alternative fuels for gas turbine applications, a Camelina-derived synthetic fuel blend was assessed to determine potential combustion related benefits as compared to conventional and other synthetic blends. The Combustion Chamber Sector Rig (CCSR) which houses a Rolls Royce T- 56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for the evaluation of emissions and deposits. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle and igniter plug were analyzed for relative levels of deposit build-up. As with other Fischer Tropsch derived synthetic fuels, there were positive benefits found with Camelina blends in terms of emissions performance and deposit production tendencies. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.


Pucher G.,Royal Military College of Canada | Allan W.,Royal Military College of Canada | Laviolette M.,Royal Military College of Canada | Poitras P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2011

Differences in exhaust emissions, smoke production, exhaust pattern factor, deposit buildup, and fuel nozzle spray characteristics for various blends of conventional commercial jet fuel (Jet A-1) with synthetic and biodiesel formulations were investigated. Three synthetic fuel formulations and four fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were evaluated as such. The synthetic fuels were tested in both neat (100%) and 50% by volume blends with Jet A-1, while the FAME fuels were blended in 2% and 20% proportions. The combustion chamber sector rig, which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for emissions, deposits, and exhaust pattern factor evaluation. A combustion chamber exhaust plane traversing thermocouple rake was employed to generate two-dimensional temperature maps during operation. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle, and igniter plug, were analyzed for relative levels of deposit buildup. A phase Doppler anemometry system was employed to determine differences in droplet size distributions, while an optical spray pattern analyzer was used to compare the spray pattern for the various fuel blends as they emerged from the T-56 nozzle. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Irvine S.E.,Defence R and D Canada Suffield | Sooriyadevan P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

This manuscript discusses investigations into currents induced in linear conductors. The induced current is a useful indicator of the amount of scattering an electromagnetic field encounters in the presence of a linear conductor, and hence, the ease with which such a linear conductor could be sensed using electromagnetic radiation. The variation of induced current with several parameters is assessed using Method of Moment calculations. The final portion of the presentation will involve a comparison of the modeling results with acquired experimental data. Such comparisons are important for benchmarking theoretical models and will undoubtedly stimulate ongoing research. © 2013 SPIE.


Pucher G.,Royal Military College of Canada | Allan W.,Royal Military College of Canada | Poitras P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2010

Differences in exhaust emissions, smoke production, exhaust pattern factor, deposit build-up and fuel nozzle spray characteristics for various blends of conventional commercial jet fuel (Jet A-1) with synthetic and biodiesel formulations were investigated. Three synthetic fuel formulations and four Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) were evaluated as such. The synthetic fuels were tested in both neat (100%) and 50% by volume blends with Jet A-1, while the FAME fuels were blended in 2% and 20% proportions. The Combustion Chamber Sector Rig (CCSR), which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for emissions, deposits and exhaust pattern factor evaluation. A combustion chamber exhaust plane traversing thermocouple rake was employed to generate two dimensional temperature maps during operation. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle and igniter plug were analyzed for relative levels of deposit build-up. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system was employed to determine differences in droplet size distributions while an optical spray pattern analyzer was used to compare the spray pattern for the various fuel blends as they emerged from the T-56 nozzle. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Pazur R.J.,Freudenberg Nok General Partnership FNGP | Pazur R.J.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment | Lee D.,Freudenberg Nok General Partnership FNGP | Walker F.J.,Freudenberg Nok General Partnership FNGP | Kasai M.,Freudenberg Forschungsdienste Kg
Rubber Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2012

A series of compounds based on peroxide-cured EPDM were prepared with varying amounts of paraffinic plasticizer and carbon black. Modeling of the NMR relaxation signal was successfully carried out by either a biexponential or triexponential fitting procedure. It was found the degree of plasticization correlated directly with the average molar mass between chain entanglements (M e) calculated from the short decay constant T 21. Values of M e correlated to the dynamic properties (storage modulus and tan δ) in the unvulcanized state, thus providing a measure of processability. An increase in carbon black concentration brought about a decrease in M e because of increased interactions between the filler and the polymer chain. A new parameter M chain-filler is introduced to estimate the average molar mass between polymer chains and fillers. Compared with the chain entanglement density, the overall magnitude of this interaction appears to be weak in the mobile zone of the compound matrix. As in the case of plasticization, a relatively good correlation is obtained betweenMe and the dynamical properties in the unvulcanized state. Compression-set resistance is shown to directly follow the average molar mass between cross-links (M c) before and after aging. The carbon black study results can be understood within the context of a morphological model containing different zones of chain mobility-a thin shell of immobilized chains, an intermediate zone of limited mobility, and a dominant mobile phase consisting mainly of entangled and cross-linked polymer chains.

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