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Irvine S.E.,Defence R and D Canada Suffield | Sooriyadevan P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

This manuscript discusses investigations into currents induced in linear conductors. The induced current is a useful indicator of the amount of scattering an electromagnetic field encounters in the presence of a linear conductor, and hence, the ease with which such a linear conductor could be sensed using electromagnetic radiation. The variation of induced current with several parameters is assessed using Method of Moment calculations. The final portion of the presentation will involve a comparison of the modeling results with acquired experimental data. Such comparisons are important for benchmarking theoretical models and will undoubtedly stimulate ongoing research. © 2013 SPIE.


Chishty W.A.,National Research Council Canada | Davison C.R.,National Research Council Canada | Bird J.,National Research Council Canada | Chan T.,Environment Canada | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2011

To address the global fuel challenges of energy security, economic sustainability and climate change the stakeholders of aviation industry are actively pursuing the development and qualification of alternative 'drop-in' fuels. New standards will be required to regulate the use of these new fuels, which requires not only fuel specification and rig/engine and flight testing but also an emission life cycle impact assessment of these fuels. This paper reports on emission data measured at various simulated altitudes and engine speeds from a jet engine operated on conventional and alternative aviation fuels. The work was conducted as part of on-going efforts by departments within the Government of Canada to systematically assess regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the use of alternative aviation fuels. The measurements were performed on an instrumented 1000 N-thrust turbojet engine using a baseline conventional Jet A-1 fuel and a semisynthetic (50/50) blend with Camelina based Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (JP8-HRJ8) fuel. Emission results reported here include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter measured at several simulated altitudes and power settings. In order to ensure that the assessments have a common baseline, relevant engine performance and operability data were also recorded. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.


Pucher G.,Royal Military College of Canada | Allan W.,Royal Military College of Canada | Laviolette M.,Royal Military College of Canada | Poitras P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2011

Differences in exhaust emissions, smoke production, exhaust pattern factor, deposit buildup, and fuel nozzle spray characteristics for various blends of conventional commercial jet fuel (Jet A-1) with synthetic and biodiesel formulations were investigated. Three synthetic fuel formulations and four fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were evaluated as such. The synthetic fuels were tested in both neat (100%) and 50% by volume blends with Jet A-1, while the FAME fuels were blended in 2% and 20% proportions. The combustion chamber sector rig, which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for emissions, deposits, and exhaust pattern factor evaluation. A combustion chamber exhaust plane traversing thermocouple rake was employed to generate two-dimensional temperature maps during operation. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle, and igniter plug, were analyzed for relative levels of deposit buildup. A phase Doppler anemometry system was employed to determine differences in droplet size distributions, while an optical spray pattern analyzer was used to compare the spray pattern for the various fuel blends as they emerged from the T-56 nozzle. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Sze K.Y.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility | Year: 2016

This is a computational electromagnetic study on excessive electric field levels in the vicinity of wearable radio transmitters worn by uniformed personnel. It involves the calculations of theoretical near-field levels at points confined within the zone in-between personnel individual. This analysis is performed using limited computational hardware resources, which is thus reflected in the modelling procedure used. © 2016 IEEE.


Pucher G.,Royal Military College of Canada | Allan W.,Royal Military College of Canada | Poitras P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2010

Differences in exhaust emissions, smoke production, exhaust pattern factor, deposit build-up and fuel nozzle spray characteristics for various blends of conventional commercial jet fuel (Jet A-1) with synthetic and biodiesel formulations were investigated. Three synthetic fuel formulations and four Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) were evaluated as such. The synthetic fuels were tested in both neat (100%) and 50% by volume blends with Jet A-1, while the FAME fuels were blended in 2% and 20% proportions. The Combustion Chamber Sector Rig (CCSR), which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for emissions, deposits and exhaust pattern factor evaluation. A combustion chamber exhaust plane traversing thermocouple rake was employed to generate two dimensional temperature maps during operation. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle and igniter plug were analyzed for relative levels of deposit build-up. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system was employed to determine differences in droplet size distributions while an optical spray pattern analyzer was used to compare the spray pattern for the various fuel blends as they emerged from the T-56 nozzle. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Pucher G.,Royal Military College of Canada | Allan W.,Royal Military College of Canada | Poitras P.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2012

The synthetic fuel industry is poised to experience large scale growth and profoundly affect current aviation fuel infrastructure. New candidate technologies, such as Camelina oil-derived synthetic fuel have been demonstrated to not only provide satisfactory quasi drop-in characteristics for conventional fuels, but in life cycle analysis studies have also been shown to potentially offer positive improvements relative to conventional feedstocks with respect to economic, environmental, and land use considerations. As part of a multi-year study at the Royal Military College of Canada to evaluate combustion related parameters of fuel additives and alternative fuels for gas turbine applications, a Camelina-derived synthetic fuel blend was assessed to determine potential combustion related benefits as compared to conventional and other synthetic blends. The Combustion Chamber Sector Rig (CCSR) which houses a Rolls Royce T- 56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for the evaluation of emissions and deposits. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle and igniter plug were analyzed for relative levels of deposit build-up. As with other Fischer Tropsch derived synthetic fuels, there were positive benefits found with Camelina blends in terms of emissions performance and deposit production tendencies. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.


Pazur R.J.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment | Cormier J.G.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment | Korhan-Taymaz K.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
Rubber Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2014

The level of thermo-oxidative degradation in a series of unstabilized and unfilled nitrile rubbers (NBR) varying in acrylonitrile (ACN) content (18-43.5 wt%) was investigated on heat-aged samples (40-120 °C) by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A similar degradation profile evolution was observed regardless of ACN content with the generation of hydroxyl-, carbonyl-, and ester-based products with a concomitant loss of the 1,4-trans, 1,4-cis, and 1,2-vinyl butadienes. The magnitude of IR active group absorption loss is greatest in the lowest ACN NBR concentration and steadily lessens toward higher ACN levels (1,4-cis > 1,2-vinyl > 1,4-trans > > butadiene methylenes). The 18% ACN NBR possesses two distinct kinetically different degradation regimes (80-120 and 40-80 8C). Activation energies by carbonyl growth and 1,4-trans loss increase from 71 to 87 kJ mol-1 and from 71 to 79 kJ mol-1 respectively, for decreasing ACN (43.5-18%) content. The rate of consumption of the 1,4-trans butadiene group is mainly affected by thermo-oxidative carbonyl-based and addition-cross-linking reactions, the latter being lower in activation energy for low to mid ACN NBRs. The high oxidation rate behavior of the lowest acrylonitrile rubber is attributed to its higher oxygen permeability rates. Cross-linking due to addition-type reactions is favored for higher 1,4 unsaturation levels.


Sze K.Y.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment | Kashyap S.,Defence R and D Canada Ottawa
IEEE International Conference on Communications | Year: 2012

In this investigation, the monostatic inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) characteristics of electrically large zigzag-grooved structures were numerically analyzed for the far-field at X-band frequencies. The zigzag-grooved structures were all assumed to have perfect electric conductor (PEC) properties. Their ISAR data were post-processed from their monostatic radar cross section (RCS) data generated from physical optics and ray-tracing numerical computations. Scattering centers from the ISAR data were characterized using hot-spot analysis diagrams, devised solely for this purpose. © 2012 IEEE.


Sze K.Y.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment | Keller M.G.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment
2010 14th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics and the American Electromagnetics Conference, ANTEM/AMEREM 2010 | Year: 2010

When using computational electromagnetics (CEM) for performance analysis of radar and high-gain microwave antennas, the necessary detailed specifications and computer-aided design (CAD) drawings of these systems are seldom readily available from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). A reasonable estimate of the electromagnetic (EM) field levels radiated by these types of antennas may be computed using a simple 2D aperture model. This technique, known as the Aperture Field Method, assumes that an EM field distribution is produced on an aperture immediately in front of the radiating area of the antenna [1]. Such was the approach employed in this paper to characterize the electric field (E-field) intensity of a deployable air surveillance radar (ASR) at near-ground locations that were directly illuminated by the cosecant-squared fan beam of the radar. Of concern in this study was that the radar might cause EM interference (EMI) issues at near-ground locations within a few kilometer radius from the radar, due to its high radiated power. Hence, this study served as part of a comprehensive Radio Frequency (RF) Safety and EMI assessment of the ASR, based on guidelines for compatibility and safety standards (e.g. MIL-STD, STANAG, AECTP, Health Canada Safety Code 6, and IEC). © 2010 IEEE.


Sze K.Y.,Quality Engineering Test Establishment | Kashyap S.,Defence R and D Canada Ottawa
2010 14th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics and the American Electromagnetics Conference, ANTEM/AMEREM 2010 | Year: 2010

The monostatic radar cross section (RCS) hot-spot characteristics of electrically large grooved structures were analyzed. The structures' monostatic RCS and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image properties [1] at X-band were characterized for the far-field. These structures were assumed to have perfect electric conductor (PEC) properties. It is anticipated that the study of these simple structures, from a 2D analysis approach [2], could yield good insights into the RCS and ISAR characteristics of electrically large and complex tubular structures (e.g. intake cavities of jet engines) [3] at microwave frequencies. In the modelling, computer aided design (CAD) models of these structures were created and meshed. They were then utilized as inputs into an RCS computer code called RAPPORT [4]. Since this code was implemented using the ray-tracing technique based on physical optics (PO), it employs a parameter which allows the user to define the maximum number of "physical optics reflections" (PO reflections), also called specular reflections, off the meshed surfaces in a single ray traced. However, diffraction and polarization effects were not emphasized in this study due to limitations in RAPPORT. © 2010 IEEE.

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