Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Liu Y.,Cotton Structure and Quality Research Unit | Thibodeaux D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gamble G.,Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit | Rodgers J.,Cotton Structure and Quality Research Unit
Textile Research Journal | Year: 2014

A fundamental understanding of the relationship between cotton fiber strength (or tenacity)/elongation and structure is important to help cotton breeders modify varieties for enhanced end-use qualities. In this study, the Stelometer instrument was used to measure the bundle fiber tenacity and elongation properties of different cotton fibers. This instrument is the traditional fiber strength reference method and could be still preferred as a screening tool owing to its significant low cost and portability. Fiber crystallinity (CIIR) and maturity (MIR) were characterized by the previously proposed attenuated total reflection (ATR)-based Fourier transform infrared protocol that has microsampling capability and is suitable for the tiny Stelometer breakage specimens (2 ∼ 5 mg), which cannot be readily analyzed by a conventional X-ray diffraction pattern. Relative to the distinctive increase in fiber tenacity with either CIIR or MIR for Pima fibers (Gossypium barbadense), there was an unclear trend between the two for Upland fibers (G. hirsutum). Although fiber elongation increases with elevated CIIR and MIR for Pima fibers, it generally decreases as CIIR and MIR increase for Upland fibers. Furthermore, small sets of Upland fibers with known varieties and growth areas were examined, and their responses to both CIIR and MIR are discussed briefly. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav. Source


Wu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yan W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhuang H.,Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit | Huang M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Long M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhuang H.,Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Under UV light, nano-TiO2 is effective in photocatalytic disinfection. In this paper, we studied the disinfection effects of nano-TiO2 on the two typical food-borne microorganisms, Gram-negative bacterium-Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive bacterium-Listeria monocytogenes, in meat products. Results show that nano-TiO2 had a strong disinfecting activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens in a suspension under UV light. L.monocytogenes was more resistant to nano-TiO2 treatment than Salmonella under UV light. Nano-TiO2 concentrations and initial bacteria populations had significant influence on the photocatalytic disinfection effectiveness against S.typhimurium. The optimum concentration (1.0g/L) was between 0.2g/L and 1.5g/L. Increasing S.typhimurium population from 104 to 107CFU/mL resulted in reduced photocatalytic disinfecting effectiveness by nano-TiO2. Electron microscope images revealed that nano-TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection starts with damaging the cell walls of bacteria. With serious destructions of cell walls, cell components released or defused out of cell from the damaged areas, and finally the cells completely lost their integrity and dissolved. These results demonstrate that nano-TiO2 is very effective against pathogens that can grow well on meat products and the effectiveness can be significantly influenced by nano-TiO2 contents and pathogen populations. The findings by these experiments provide the essential information for further developing a nano-metal-based, antimicrobial packaging system to improve safety of meat products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wu H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhuang H.,Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the formation of volatile compounds in bacons during processing using a purge and trap dynamic headspace GC/MS system. Three substitutions were 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). The profiles of the volatile compounds significantly changed during processing, particularly during the drying/ripening. At the end of process, the bacons from substitution III formed significantly higher levels of lipid-derived volatiles, such as straight chain aldehydes, hydrocarbons than bacons from substitution I and II, whereas the latter formed higher levels of volatiles from amino acid degradation such as 3-methylbutanal. There were very few differences in volatile formation between 0% and 40% KCl application. These results suggest that K+ substitution of Na+ by more than 40% may significantly change profiles of volatiles in finished dry-cured bacons and therefore would result in changes in the product aroma and/or flavour. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Holser R.A.,Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit | Hawkins S.A.,Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Rapid measurement of a fatty acid supplement in poultry feed formulations was performed using near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometric analysis. A standard feed formulation was amended with up to 10 wt% fatty acid supplement containing Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and scanned from 10,000 cm 1 to 4000 cm -1. Spectra were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to detect outliers followed by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. Models were developed with first derivative spectra. A typical dataset of 36 spectra was subdivided with 30 spectra used for model calibration and 6 spectra for the validation set. The PLS model produced a regression coefficient of 0.98314 with an RMSEC value of 0.44772. This technique provided a rapid method to analyze the amount of fatty acids in supplemented feeds. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011. Source

Discover hidden collaborations