Lee M.,Centers for Pain Management |
Silverman S.,Comprehensive Pain Medicine |
Hansen H.,The Pain Relief Centers |
Patel V.,ACMI Pain Care |
And 2 more authors.
Pain Physician | Year: 2011
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is defined as a state of nociceptive sensitization caused by exposure to opioids. The condition is characterized by a paradoxical response whereby a patient receiving opioids for the treatment of pain could actually become more sensitive to certain painful stimuli. The type of pain experienced might be the same as the underlying pain or might be different from the original underlying pain. OIH appears to be a distinct, definable, and characteristic phenomenon that could explain loss of opioid efficacy in some patients. Findings of the clinical prevalence of OIH are not available. However, several observational, cross-sectional, and prospective controlled trials have examined the expression and potential clinical significance of OIH in humans. Most studies have been conducted using several distinct cohorts and methodologies utilizing former opioid addicts on methadone maintenance therapy, perioperative exposure to opioids in patients undergoing surgery, and healthy human volunteers after acute opioid exposure using human experimental pain testing. The precise molecular mechanism of OIH, while not yet understood, varies substantially in the basic science literature, as well as clinical medicine. It is generally thought to result from neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) that lead to sensitization of pronociceptive pathways. While there are many proposed mechanisms for OIH, 5 mechanisms involving the central glutaminergic system, spinal dynorphins, descending facilitation, genetic mechanisms, and decreased reuptake and enhanced nociceptive response have been described as the important mechanisms. Of these, the central glutaminergic system is considered the most common possibility. Another is the hypothesis that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in OIH include activation, inhibition of the glutamate transporter system, facilitation of calcium regulated intracellular protein kinase C, and cross talk of neural mechanisms of pain and tolerance. Clinicians should suspect OIH when opioid treatment's effect seems to wane in the absence of disease progression, particularly if found in the context of unexplained pain reports or diffuse allodynia unassociated with the original pain, and increased levels of pain with increasing dosages. The treatment involves reducing the opioid dosage, tapering them off, or supplementation with NMDA receptor modulators. This comprehensive review addresses terminology and definition, prevalence, the evidence for mechanism and physiology with analysis of various factors leading to OIH, and effective strategies for preventing, reversing, or managing OIH.
Cohen S.P.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center |
Jamison D.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center |
Wilkinson I.,U.S. Army |
Rathmell J.P.,Harvard University
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine | Year: 2013
Epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are the most widely utilized pain management procedure in the world, their use supported by more than 45 placebo-controlled studies and dozens of systematic reviews. Despite the extensive literature on the subject, there continues to be considerable controversy surrounding their safety and efficacy. The results of clinical trials and review articles are heavily influenced by specialty, with those done by interventional pain physicians more likely to yield positive findings. Overall, more than half of controlled studies have demonstrated positive findings, suggesting a modest effect size lasting less than 3 months in well-selected individuals. Transforaminal injections are more likely to yield positive results than interlaminar or caudal injections, and subgroup analyses indicate a slightly greater likelihood for a positive response for lumbar herniated disk, compared with spinal stenosis or axial spinal pain. Other factors that may increase the likelihood of a positive outcome in clinical trials include the use of a nonepidural (eg, intramuscular) control group, higher volumes in the treatment group, and the use of depo-steroid. Serious complications are rare following ESIs, provided proper precautions are taken. Although there are no clinical trials comparing different numbers of injections, guidelines suggest that the number of injections should be tailored to individual response, rather than a set series. Most subgroup analyses of controlled studies show no difference in surgical rates between ESI and control patients; however, randomized studies conducted by spine surgeons, in surgically amenable patients with standardized operative criteria, indicate that in some patients the strategic use of ESI may prevent surgery.© 2013 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.
Cohen S.P.,U.S. Army |
Strassels S.A.,University of Texas at Austin |
Kurihara C.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center |
Forsythe A.,Emory University |
And 2 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2010
Background: Neck pain is a frequent cause of disability, with facet joint arthropathy accounting for a large percentage of cases. The diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain is usually made with diagnostic blocks of the nerves that innervate them. Yet, medial branch blocks are associated with a high false-positive rate. One hypothesized cause of inaccurate diagnostic blocks is inadvertent extravasation of injectate into adjacent pain-generating structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of medial branch blocks by using different injectate volumes. Methods: Twenty-four patients received cervical medial branch blocks, using either 0.5 or 0.25 ml of bupivacaine mixed with contrast. One half of the patients in each group were suballocated to receive the blocks in the prone position and the other half through a lateral approach. Participants then underwent computed tomography of the cervical spine to evaluate accuracy and patterns of aberrant contrast spread. Results: Sixteen instances of aberrant spread were observed in nine patients receiving blocks using 0.5 ml versus seven occurrences in six patients in the 0.25 ml group (P = 0.07). Aberrant spread was most commonly observed (57%) when an injection at C3 engulfed the third occipital nerve. Among the 86 nerve blocks, foraminal spread occurred in five instances using 0.5 ml and in two cases with 0.25 ml. The six "missed" nerves were equally divided between treatment groups. No significant difference in any outcome measure was observed between the prone and lateral positions. Conclusions: Reducing the volume during cervical medial branch blocks may improve precision and accuracy. © 2010 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.
Karaman H.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center |
Karaman H.,Dicle University |
Kavak G.O.,Dicle University |
Tufek A.,Dicle University |
Yldrm Z.B.,Dicle University
Spine | Year: 2011
Study Design.: A prospective observational study. Objective.: In this study, we aimed to investigate the major and minor complications of transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections guided by fluoroscopy and the incidence of vascular penetration encountered during this procedure. Summary of Background Data.: Epidural steroid administration is one of the treatment options for lumbar disc hernia accompanied by radiculopathy. This method, initially applied by blind interlaminar technique, has generally been performed by fluoroscopically guided transforaminal method now. The complications of this method cause to a serious concern. The complications of this intervention have been reported by either mostly retrospective studies or case reports until now. Prospective studies with large patient series are needed to determine the types and incidences of the complications. Methods.: In this study carried out for more than 5 years, major and minor complications of transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections were investigated prospectively. All of the interventions were performed under fluoroscopic guidance by the same physician using a standardized method. A follow-up was made once in the third week. The complications encountered during the procedure and in the third week were prospectively recorded. In addition, the incidence of vascular penetration that is potentially hazardous is included in the study. Results.: A total of 562 patients were performed 1305 times transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid. The overall incidence of vascular penetration encountered was 7.4%. Although major complications were not seen, the total rate of all minor complications was 11.5%. Whereas all of the minor complications were transient, the most frequent minor complication was vasovagal reaction (8.7%). Conclusion.: On the basis of the results of this study in which only minor complications were encountered, it can be said that the frequency of major complications is pretty rare in transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections in expert hands and in the conditions in which safety precautions are taken. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kang S.-S.,Kangwon National University |
Hwang B.,Kangwon National University |
Hwang B.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center |
Son H.,Kangwon National University |
And 3 more authors.
Pain Physician | Year: 2012
Background: Therapy with corticosteroids often results in bone loss and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. In previous studies, bone mineral density (BMD) has been examined after administration of relatively high oral doses of corticosteroids. However, practitioners use comparatively lower doses of corticosteroids for epidural steroid injections (ESI). The interactions and relationships between BMD and ESI remain to be determined. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between BMD and ESI in postmenopausal women treated for lower back pain. Study design: This study was a retrospective evaluation. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of postmenopausal women with lower back pain who were treated with or without ESI. BMD was measured before treatment and one year after treatment in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur. A total of 90 postmenopausal women were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 patients received medications without ESI; Group 2 patients received ESI more than 4 times, with a cumulative administered triamcinolone dose of > 120 mg. Results: Decreased BMD was observed in patients treated with ESI. However, no significant difference was observed between or within the groups in terms of mean percentage change from baseline BMD. Limitations: First, this study is limited by the fact that it was retrospective. Second, our study did not consider the use of ESI with high-dose corticosteroids. Third, our study did not include any long-term assessments of the effects of ESI on BMD. Conclusions: These data suggest that ESI using triamcinolone (over 200 mg) for a period of one year will have a negative effect on BMD in postmenopausal women treated for lower back pain. However, ESI therapy using a maximum cumulative triamcinolone dose of 200 mg in one year would be a safe treatment method with no significant impact on BMD.
Shipton E.,University of Otago |
Ponnamperuma D.,University of Otago |
Wells E.,University of Otago |
Trewin B.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center
Pain Medicine (United States) | Year: 2013
Objective: Little is known on epidemiology of chronic pain in New Zealand. Its management has been based on data and models in North American/European studies. This project evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of pain severity, duration, and disability (PSDD) in chronic pain patients for assessment at a New Zealand tertiary care Pain Medicine Center. Design and Setting.: This study was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis on existing clinical assessment data (audit) collected over an 18-month period. Methods.: Pre-admission data were collected on a consecutive series of 874 patients presenting for assessment. Assessment Tools.: This included demographic (gender, educational attainment, ethnicity) and psychosocial data. Pain severity was measured by numerical rating scale and present pain intensity using McGill Pain Questionnaire. Duration was measured in months. Disability was measured by using Pain Disability Index and depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and self-efficacy using the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Catastrophizing was measured by Coping Strategies Questionnaire and pain acceptance by the Pain Solutions Questionnaire. Results.: No difference was found in mean values of all PSDD between genders and between ethnicities. Years of education did not form an important correlate of PSDD. Catastrophizers experienced more pain and were more disabled. Patients with severe pain experienced greater distress. Depressed patients were more disabled. Patients presenting with a high degree of self-efficacy were likely to have lower pain levels and to be less disabled. Level of acceptance of pain was positively associated with reported duration of pain and negatively associated with total disability. Conclusion.: Through this study, more is now known about effects of chronic pain on New Zealanders. The use of validated psychometric testing enables proper assessment and informs clinical management for chronic pain patients. © 2013.
Goroszeniuk T.,Pain Management and Neuromodulation Center |
Khan R.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center
Neuromodulation | Year: 2011
Introduction: The management of pain in chronic benign pancreatitis is complex. Celiac plexus neurolysis provides pain relief of variable duration. Neuromodulation of splanchnic nerves with electrodes and an implantable pulse generator system is an alternative to producing long-term pain relief with minimal complications in selected cases. Methods: A 36-year-old lady with intractable abdominal pain for five years from chronic benign pancreatitis presented to our pain clinic. Multiple pharmacotherapy regimens, surgery, and interventions produced temporary pain relief of variable duration and intensity. Following a successful trial of celiac plexus stimulation, neuromodulation of the splanchnic nerves was achieved with two permanently implanted octopolar leads at the T11/T12 area connected to an implantable pulse generator. Results: Eighteen months following the implant, the patient continues to derive satisfactory pain relief without any device related complications. Her opiate use is significantly reduced from 225 (486 mg morphine per day) to 12.5 (27 mg morphine per day) micrograms/h fentanyl patches and the fentanyl lozenges were stopped with an increase in appetite and of more than 8 kg in weight gain. The initial pain score visual analogue scale (VAS) 8-9/10 was reduced to VAS 0/10 since implantation. Discussion: The pain of chronic pancreatitis has both visceral and somatic components as evidenced by the lack of complete pain relief from celiac plexus block alone and the knowledge that in chronic disease, the pathology extends to extra pancreatic somatic tissues, particularly the retro-peritoneum. We postulate that the electrical field generated by the dual octrode system extends to include splanchnic nerves and other somatic innervation of the pancreas. Conclusion: In our opinion, this is the first case of a successful long-term neuromodulation of splanchnic nerves with a permanently implanted device. The potential exists for its use in visceral abdominal pain of varied etiology, once more experience is obtained with this technique. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.
Treister R.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology |
Treister R.,Institute of Pain Medicine |
Kliger M.,Medasense Biometrics Ltd. |
Zuckerman G.,Medasense Biometrics Ltd. |
And 4 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2012
Although it is well known that pain induces changes in autonomic parameters, the extent to which these changes correlate with the experience of pain is under debate. The aim of the present study was to compare a combination of multiple autonomic parameters and each parameter alone in their ability to differentiate among 4 categories of pain intensity. Tonic heat stimuli (1 minute) were individually adjusted to induce no pain, low, medium, and high pain in 45 healthy volunteers. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and galvanic skin response were recorded, and the following parameters were calculated: heart rate; heart rate variability - high frequency (0.15 to 0.4 Hz) spectral power; skin conductance level; number of skin conduction fluctuations; and photoplethysmographic pulse wave amplitude. A combination of parameters was created by fitting an ordinal cumulative logit model to the data and using linear coefficients of the model. Friedman test with post-hoc Wilcoxon test were used to compare between pain intensity categories for every parameter alone and for their linear combination. All of the parameters successfully differentiated between no pain and all other pain categories. However, none of the parameters differentiated between all 3 pain categories (i.e., low and medium; medium and high; low and high). In contrast, the linear combination of parameters significantly differentiated not only between pain and no pain, but also between all pain categories (P <.001 to.02). These results suggest that multiparameter approaches should be further investigated to make progress toward reliable autonomic-based pain assessment. © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Voloshin A.G.,Quail Surgical & Pain Management Center
Journal of Ultrasound | Year: 2015
Background: Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound scanning (3D real-time mode) can improve the orientation of the anatomy of the area of interest and navigation by controlling the needle position. The objectives of this study were to identify the optimal technique for navigation and to assess clinically the efficacy of 4D ultrasound navigation for epidural anaesthesia at lower thoracic and lumbar levels.Design: Single-centre case series study was performed.Methods: Sixteen patients were included. First, conventional 2D scanning was performed, followed by 4D reconstruction, and the basic tissues with high acoustic impedance (bone structures) and available acoustic windows were determined. Movement of the needle was controlled on the sagittal plane in 2D mode and at the same time in 4D mode (3D real-time mode). To improve the visibility of the needle, the 3D reconstruction was rotated during manipulation.Results: The 4D scanning mode provided 100 % visibility of compact bone tissues and 93 % visibility of the posterior complex. Needle visualisation strongly depended on the rotation of the reconstructed image with the sensor remaining motionless. The needle was redirected in one patient (7 %) because it was in contact with the vertebral lamina. Dilation of the epidural space during saline injection was observed in five patients (36 %). A change in the puncture level was not required any patients; no complications associated with epidural puncture were observed.Conclusions: Ultrasound navigation in 4D could improve epidural anaesthesia due to the enhanced spatial orientation of the operator. The technique of “position contrast” should be used for reliable needle visualisation. © 2014, The Author(s).