Quaid e Azam Medical College

Bahāwalpur, Pakistan

Quaid e Azam Medical College

Bahāwalpur, Pakistan
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Malik S.A.,Quaid e Azam Medical College | Malik M.A.,Quaid e Azam Medical College
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences | Year: 2016

Background: Neonatal jaundice is a fairly common cause of morbidity in Pakistan and accounts for almost 25% of all newborn admissions(1. This may also account for the wide variation in the etiology of jaundice from various reports in Pakistan. Aim: To describe the etiology hemolytic jaundice in the region of Bahawalpur, Pakistan and to identify factors determining the severity of hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: sixty cases of jaundice were ad mitted in various units of BV Hospital/QAMC Bahawalpur referred from various DHQ hospitals of Bahawalpur Division. They were examined clinically and were investigated hematologically to be differentiated from other groups of jaundice by various routine and special tests like blood count, enzyme assay, RBC fragility and coomb's test etc Results: Sixty neonates referred to various units of Bahwal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur during the period of 1 year were investigated for this purpose. 22(36.6%) out of 60 cases of hemolytic jaundice were found to showed exaggerated physiological jaundice, 2(3.3%) from G6PD enzyme deficiency, 4 (6.6%) were diagnosed as a case of hereditary spherocytosis, 8(13%) were of ABO incompatibility, 10(16.6%) infections 5(8.3%) of drug induced hemolytic anemia. Conclusion: It is observed that indirect hyperbilirubinemia may be associated with a wide variety of disease states like cardiac, GI disorders, infections and due to increased pigment production. Incidence of hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency needs further probing to evaluate the incidence of this disorder in the population of Bahawalpur Division initially and then in population of Pakistan after collecting data from other areas of the country. © 2016, Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

Ali R.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Khan M.A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Mahmood A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Chughtai A.H.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 4 more authors.
Ceramics International | Year: 2014

Ca-Ni co-substituted samples of nanocrystalline spinel ferrites with chemical formula Mg1-xCaxNiyFe2-y O4 (x=0.0-0.6, y=0.0-1.2) were synthesized by the micro-emulsion method and were annealed at 700 C for 7 h. The synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and dielectric measurements. The XRD and FTIR analysis reveals that single phase samples can be achieved by substituting Ca and Ni ions at Mg and Fe sites respectively in cubic spinel nano-ferrites. The crystallite size of the synthesized samples was found in the range 29-45 nm. The saturation magnetization (Ms) increases from 9.84 to 24.99 emu/g up to x=0.2, y=0.4 and then decreases, while the coercivity (Hc) increases continuously from 94 to 153 Oe with the increase in dopants concentration. The dielectric properties of these nano materials were also studied at room temperature in the frequency range 100 MHz to 3 GHz. The dielectric parameters were found to decrease with the increased Ca-Ni concentration. Further the peaking behavior was observed beyond 1.5 GHz. The frequency dependent dielectric properties of all the samples have been explained qualitatively on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner two-layer model according to Koop's phenomenological theory. The enhanced magnetic parameters and reduced dielectric properties make the synthesized materials suitable for switching and high frequency applications, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

Ullah E.,Quaid e Azam Medical College | Nagi A.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Ashraf M.,Gulab Devi Chest Hospital
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background: Measuring the microvascular and mast cell density in squamous cell carcinoma of lung and correlating them with the patient survival may be helpful to guide the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents which target molecular mechanisms of tumour angiogenesis and mast cells. Materials and Methods: It was an observational study. It included 39 newly diagnosed, adult patients of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Angiogenesis was determined by Chalkley′s method after immunohistochemical staining of micro-vessels with CD34. Mast cells per HPF were counted in Tolouidine blue stained sections. Results: Mean age of the patients was 58.33 ± 9.14 years. Male to female ratio was 9:1. Most (92.3%) patients were current smokers. Majority of tumours (71.8%) were localised to major bronchi and/or near to hilum and many of them (74.4%) were poorly differentiated. Mean micro-vascular density was 11.80 ± 3.66 per HPF which showed strong negative correlation (r =-0.481, p =0.002) between microvascular density (MVD) and tumour grade. Mean mast cell density was 1.60 ± 2.04 which showed strong negative correlation (r=-.683, p =0.0001) with grade. Angiogenesis and mast cell density were found to be positively correlated (r=0.439, p =0.005). High MVD, but not the MCD was associated with poor survival. Conclusion: Angiogenesis and mast cell density are positively correlated with each other however; only high MVD is associated with decreased survival. Thus, the anti-angiogenic agents may be useful in squamous cell carcinoma lung, especially the well differentiated tumours.

Reza S.,Quaid e Azam Medical College | Shaukat A.,Quaid e Azam Medical College | Arain T.M.,Bahawal Victoria Hospital | Riaz Q.S.,St John Providence Health System | Mahmud M.,Carleton University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Thyroid dysfunctions are common endocrine problems. They are often misdiagnosed, misunderstood, and frequently overlooked. These disorders affect almost every aspect of health. Most of them remain undetected because the clinical assessment alone lacks both sensitivity and specificity. As it is not sufficient enough we require the biochemical tests to confirm the diagnosis. As a consequence there is still great interest in new biomarkers that complement existing diagnostic tools. Osteopontin, a glycoprotein that can be detected in plasma, was found to be upregulated in several patients with hyperthyroidism and downregulated in hypothyroid patients so it may represent a new biomarker. 100 patients with thyroid dysfunctions (50 hyperthyroid, 50 hypothyroid) and 100 normal subjects were included in the study. Osteopontin and other clinical parameters for diagnosis of thyroid disorders were measured. Osteopontin is positively correlated with T3 and T4 (r = 0.62 and r = 0.75 respectively) while it is negatively correlated with thyroid stimulating hormone (r = -0.52) showing a significant correlation (p-value <0.001). Our findings suggest that osteopontin might be useful as a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with impaired thyroid function. © 2013 Reza et al.

Aziz K.,Quaid e azam Medical College | Sadaf B.,Quaid e azam Medical College | Kanwal S.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
BioPsychoSocial Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. This disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, and there is no effective treatment. Patients require lifelong blood transfusion, usually started within 6 to 12 months of birth of patient, which on other hand has its own complications. It is a chronic disease that manifests so early in life that it leads to psychological and social problems for parents . We focused on parents to assess the impact of their child's disease.Objective: To determine the psychosocial problems of parents of thalassemic children.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among the parents of thalassemic children attending THALASSEMIA CENTRE, BAHAVAL VICTORIA HOSPITAL (BVH), BAHAWALPUR, PAKISTAN during the year 2011. A self designed questionnaire was used that contained questions regarding psychological and social aspects. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess the depression of parents of thalassemic children.Results: Of the 100 parents interviewed, the majority were mothers (71%) , with a mean age of 32 ± 8.07 years for both sexes. 29 percent of the parents had moderate to severe depression, 16 percent had sleep disturbances. 56 percent were downgraded by relatives. There was a significant relationship between respondent education and depression (p < 0.05).Conclusion: A substantial number of parents have psychosocial problems due to the disease of their child. Parent counseling is needed on regular basis. © 2012 Aziz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tahir F.,Dow University of Health Sciences | Riaz H.,Dow University of Health Sciences | Riaz T.,Dow University of Health Sciences | Badshah M.B.,Indiana University | And 3 more authors.
Thrombosis Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin has historically been used for the long term management of patients with thromboembolic disease. However, these agents have a slow onset of action which requires bridging therapy with heparin and its analogues, which are available only in parenteral route. To overcome these limitations, new oral anticoagulants such as factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors have been developed. The aim of this article is to systematically review the phase 3 clinical trials of new oral anticoagulants in common medical conditions.Methods: We searched PubMed (Medline) from January 2007 to February 2013 using " Oral anticoagulants" , " New oral anticoagulants" , " Randomized controlled trial" , " Novel anticoagulants" , " Apixaban" , " Rivaroxaban" , " Edoxaban" , " Dabigatran etexilate" , " Dabigatran" and a combination of the above terms. The available evidence from the phase 3 RCTs was summarized on the basis of individual drug and the medical conditions categorized into " atrial fibrillation" , " acute coronary syndrome" , " orthopedic surgery" , " venous thromboembolism" and " medically ill patients" .Results: Apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran have been found to be either non-inferior or superior to enoxaparin in prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in knee and hip replacement with similar bleeding risk, superior to warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation with significant reduction in the risk of major bleeding, non-inferior to aspirin for reducing cardiovascular death and stroke in acute coronary syndrome with significant increase in the risk of major bleed. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are also superior to the conventional agents in the management of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. However, compared to enoxaparin, apixaban and rivaroxaban use lead to significantly increased bleeding risk in medically ill patients. Additional studies evaluating the specific reversal agents of these new drugs for the management of life-threatening bleeding or other adverse effects are necessary.Conclusion: Considering their pharmacological properties, their efficacy and bleeding complications, the new oral agents offer a net favourable clinical profile in orthopedic surgery, atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome and increase the risk of bleeding in critically ill patients. Further studies are necessary to determine the long term safety and to identify the specific reversal agents of these new drugs. © 2013 Tahir et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Rehman A.,Quaid e Azam Medical College
Pakistan Paediatric Journal | Year: 2010

Lymphadenitis is the commonest complication of BCG vaccination. Its exact incidence is unknown. It is of two types: non-suppurative type which is a normal response of the body to BCG inoculation and does not need any treatment while suppurative type which needs needle aspiration (single or multiple times) as a part of treatment.

Rehman A.,Quaid e Azam Medical College
Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in children is not similar to that in adults in many ways. The knowledge of the disease in children is scanty. This review discusses the disease in children. © 2010/2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Malik S.A.,Quaid e Azam Medical College | Malik M.A.S.,Quaid e Azam Medical College
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences | Year: 2016

Background: This study was done to highlight the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia in Bahawalpur, a big city of Southern Punjab Region of Pakistan, so that affective remedies are carried out to address iron deficiency among vulnerable groups in this part of Pakistan. There have been no such study has been conducted to assess the prevalent type of anemia in Bahawalpur region in past. Method: One hundred anemic patients were selected from Bahawal Victoria Hospital/Quaid-e Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur. After a detailed history and examination, preliminary blood tests including full blood count, platelet count, retic count, absolute blood count and blood film examination, were done the laboratory. A clinical diagnosis was made based on the finding of history, clinical exam and blood tests. In patient suspected to have iron deficiency, serum ferritin was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Out of 100 patients 80 had iron deficiency anemia and 20 were found to have non iron deficiency anemia. Majority of patients with iron deficiency anemia were aged between 20-30 years (50%). Severity of iron deficiency was arbitrarily categorized into moderate and severe groups on basis of serum Ferritin level. Majority of patients (53%) had moderate iron deficiency anemia. 10 patients (12.5%) had severe iron deficiency anemia. Out of 80 patients, 60% were females. 56(70%) patients) were from rural areas. 30% were from urban population. Conclusion: Iron deficiency is more common cause of anemia in Bahawalpur region, more in females. It is seen more in people living in rural areas.

Malik S.A.,Quaid e Azam Medical College | Malik A.S.,Quaid e Azam Medical College
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences | Year: 2016

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains a common clinical problem in both the community and health care associated settings. In Pakistan, this is also a common issue and each patient should be carefully assessed to ensure that a correct diagnosis is made and that antimicrobial therapy is appropriately prescribed. UTI is a common problem and it effect's both gender and all ages. Aim: To determine the most frequent bacterial agents causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in patients who referred to Microbiology laboratory Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur. Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive, observational study was conducted at the department of Microbiology Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur over 6 months period. Clean catch mid stream urine was collected and the specimens were cultured for isolation of microbial agents of urinary tract infection. The isolated bacteria were identified using biochemical test. The diffusion susceptibility test was used to determine susceptibility of bacterial agents to antibiotics. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 19. Results: In this study, 167(83.5%) out of 200 patients presented numerous (positive) leucocytes in urine detail report. For these 167(83.5%) patients, the urine culture and sensitivity was performed. Out of these 167 patients, E-coli were the most common bacteria found in about 100(59.8%). The other bacteria are Pseudomonas 7(4.1%), Proteus 15(8.9%) Klebsiella 6(3.5%), enterococcus 3(1.7%), and staphylococcus 2 (1.1%). Most of the patients were sensitive to cephalosporin, amikacin and third generation cifexime and ceftrixone. Conclusion: Gram negative bacilli is responsible for urinary tract infection and most frequent isolated bacteria was E-coli. The most effective antibiotics are cephalosporin, third generation cefexime, ceftriaxone and amikacin, in patients.

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