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Private health insurance plans represent a significant proportion of total health spending in Brazil. In order to establish the evolution and composition of spending on health among families living in metropolitan areas, Family Budget Research findings conducted in 1995-1996, 2002-2003, and 2008-2009 were studied. The categories of spending were standardized and values were adjusted by the Broad Consumer Price Index in order to compare the findings. In the period from 1995 to 2009, average family spending on health fell from R$ 194.68 to R$ 179.01. The components that most contributed to the reduction were dental care, medical consultations and other spending on health. Private health insurance was the component with the greatest increase in participation in relation to total spending - from 29% to 44% - and the highest increase in average spending, from R$ 56.50 to R$ 78.62. The reduction of average spending on health occurred mainly among lower income families, whereas these figures remained stable among families with higher incomes. Family health spending became less regressive, since lower income families began to commit a lower proportion of their income for these expenses, while the opposite was observed in families with higher incomes.

Hargrave J.,Quadra Institue | Kis-Katos K.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2013

We use under-explored municipality level datasets to assess the recent economic and policy determinants of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We estimate yearly panel data models (from 2002 to 2009) for 663 municipalities in the region. The results show that recent deforestation is increasing with economic activity and is also affected by economic incentives, measured by fluctuations in agricultural product and wood prices. Moreover, we document that the increasing enforcement efforts of the Brazilian environmental police (IBAMA) were effective in reducing deforestation rates. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

The paper exposes the changes in rules of price readjustment of health plans by age thresholds and demographic changes observed between 1998 and 2008. By calculating aging indicators and building population pyramids, it assesses whether the demographic changes coupled with the regulation caused any alteration in young people subscribing to supplementary healthcare plans. The indicators reveal the aging trend of beneficiaries of health plans, especially among those contracted individually, and also that this has not resulted in young people quitting supplementary healthcare plans.

Zacca J.J.,Quadra Institue | Groberio T.S.,University of Brasilia | Maldaner A.O.,Quadra Institue | Vieira M.L.,Quadra Institue | Braga J.W.B.,University of Brasilia
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Cocaine sample correlation provides important information in the identification of traffic networks. However, available methods for estimating if samples are linked or not require the use of previous police investigation and forensic expert knowledge regarding the number of classes and provide thresholds that are both static and data set specific. In this paper, a novel unsupervised linkage threshold method (ULT) based on chemometric analysis is described and applied to the analysis of headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) data of more than 250 real cocaine hydrochloride samples seized by Brazilian Federal Police. The method is capable of establishing linkage thresholds that do not require any prior information about the number of classes or distribution of the samples and can be dynamically updated as the data set changes. It is envisaged that the ULT method may also be applied to other forensic expertise areas where limited population knowledge is available and data sets are continually modified with the inflow of new information. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

This paper proposes that urban economic analysis would benefit from the use of cognitively perceived neighbourhoods, which are discussed within urban studies. Georeferenced data should be aggregated by spatially bounded units that are identifiable by citizens in order to enrich one-dimensional distance as the sole variable to bring urban complexity into economic models. Multivariate analysis is applied to data from Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to formulate four indices, ranked by neighbourhoods that together represent a spatially complex, non-linear influence on urban real estate markets. The results of the indices by neighbourhood are then tested against a traditional specification in an econometrics exercise that does not include the concepts and indices put forward. The definition of neighbourhood used and the empirical results provide a thorough description of urban fabric that can fully and more accurately represent urban influence in economics while avoiding abstract distance measurement. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

In Brazil, infant and child mortalityreveal a downward trend. Few studies have investigatedthe temporal trends in the inequalitiesof these deaths, at individual level, according tosocio-economic status. The scope of this articlewas to investigate the temporal trends of the magnitudeof inequalities in infant and child mortality,between groups defined by maternal educationand household income per capita in the1993-2008 period in Brazil. Microdata from theNational Household Sample Survey wereused. The inequality measure was the concentrationindex (CI). It was calculated for infant andchild deaths, according to maternal educationand household income per capita. During the2003-2008 period, there was a reduction in inequalitiesin infant and child mortality, at individuallevel, and according to maternal educationand household income per capita. In 2008,the concentration of child deaths among childrenwhose mothers had less education was higher thanthe concentration of infant deaths. The CI accordingto income had greater variability, butalso demonstrated a lower concentration of deathsat the end of the period. The measurement of inequalitiesin health is important for monitoringthe population health situation.

Botelho E.D.,Quadra Institue | Cunha R.B.,University of Brasilia | Campos A.F.C.,University of Brasilia | Maldaner A.O.,Quadra Institue
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Cocaine chemical profiling can provide relevant information for law enforcement authorities. Since 2006, Brazilian Federal Police has been working on its own cocaine impurity profiling program (PeQui project). In the effort to establish chemical profiling routines, this work describes major component results (cocaine purity, degree of oxidation and pharmaceutical products used as cutting agents), identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis of 210 samples seized in several Brazilian states between 2009 and 2012. The mean purity of cocaine was 71% (expressed as base) and the degree of oxidation, determined by the relative content between cis/trans-cinnamoylcocaine and cocaine, depends on the location where the seizures were performed. Most of the not oxidized samples were seized on traditional cocaine producer country border states. Cocaine is mainly present in free base form (59%) and more than 50% of the analyzed samples did not have any major adulterant. Among the identified cutting agents, phenacetin was the most abundant (30% of the total samples). Levamisole, caffeine and lidocaine were also identified. The PeQui project has been used on regular basis to provide technical and scientifically based information to law enforcement intelligence analysis and statistical data that might contribute to the better understanding of the cocaine trafficking. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.

In the Zollikon seminars Heidegger gave an extraordinary contribution to the phenomenological study of health and disease. Throughout his life, this was the only chance the philosopher had to deal in depth with these questions. Disease was then determined as an ontological privation of health. Heidegger, however, did not develop an explicit concept of health. The author intends to develop to their full consequences some theses expounded in these seminars taking as reference two determinations then sketched: the essence of human health is identical with Dasein's unfolding essence in its opening to being; any disease is a "limitation of the possibility of living".

Regional Studies. This paper formulates a framework to measure the micro- and macro-impacts of regional development policies in Brazil using the first-differences method that controls for observable characteristics and unobserved fixed effects. Next, it applies this framework to measure the impact of the Northeast regional fund (FNE) industrial loans on employment and labour productivity growth at the micro- (firm) level and on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth at macro- (municipalities, micro-regions and spatial clusters) levels for the 2000-2003 and 2000-2006 periods. The results show a positive and statistically significant impact of the FNE industrial loans on job creation at the micro-level but no significant impacts on the GDP per capita growth at the macro-level. © 2012 Regional Studies Association.

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