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The paper exposes the changes in rules of price readjustment of health plans by age thresholds and demographic changes observed between 1998 and 2008. By calculating aging indicators and building population pyramids, it assesses whether the demographic changes coupled with the regulation caused any alteration in young people subscribing to supplementary healthcare plans. The indicators reveal the aging trend of beneficiaries of health plans, especially among those contracted individually, and also that this has not resulted in young people quitting supplementary healthcare plans.

In Brazil, infant and child mortalityreveal a downward trend. Few studies have investigatedthe temporal trends in the inequalitiesof these deaths, at individual level, according tosocio-economic status. The scope of this articlewas to investigate the temporal trends of the magnitudeof inequalities in infant and child mortality,between groups defined by maternal educationand household income per capita in the1993-2008 period in Brazil. Microdata from theNational Household Sample Survey wereused. The inequality measure was the concentrationindex (CI). It was calculated for infant andchild deaths, according to maternal educationand household income per capita. During the2003-2008 period, there was a reduction in inequalitiesin infant and child mortality, at individuallevel, and according to maternal educationand household income per capita. In 2008,the concentration of child deaths among childrenwhose mothers had less education was higher thanthe concentration of infant deaths. The CI accordingto income had greater variability, butalso demonstrated a lower concentration of deathsat the end of the period. The measurement of inequalitiesin health is important for monitoringthe population health situation.

This paper proposes that urban economic analysis would benefit from the use of cognitively perceived neighbourhoods, which are discussed within urban studies. Georeferenced data should be aggregated by spatially bounded units that are identifiable by citizens in order to enrich one-dimensional distance as the sole variable to bring urban complexity into economic models. Multivariate analysis is applied to data from Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to formulate four indices, ranked by neighbourhoods that together represent a spatially complex, non-linear influence on urban real estate markets. The results of the indices by neighbourhood are then tested against a traditional specification in an econometrics exercise that does not include the concepts and indices put forward. The definition of neighbourhood used and the empirical results provide a thorough description of urban fabric that can fully and more accurately represent urban influence in economics while avoiding abstract distance measurement. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Regional Studies. This paper formulates a framework to measure the micro- and macro-impacts of regional development policies in Brazil using the first-differences method that controls for observable characteristics and unobserved fixed effects. Next, it applies this framework to measure the impact of the Northeast regional fund (FNE) industrial loans on employment and labour productivity growth at the micro- (firm) level and on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth at macro- (municipalities, micro-regions and spatial clusters) levels for the 2000-2003 and 2000-2006 periods. The results show a positive and statistically significant impact of the FNE industrial loans on job creation at the micro-level but no significant impacts on the GDP per capita growth at the macro-level. © 2012 Regional Studies Association.

Hargrave J.,Quadra Institue | Kis-Katos K.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2013

We use under-explored municipality level datasets to assess the recent economic and policy determinants of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We estimate yearly panel data models (from 2002 to 2009) for 663 municipalities in the region. The results show that recent deforestation is increasing with economic activity and is also affected by economic incentives, measured by fluctuations in agricultural product and wood prices. Moreover, we document that the increasing enforcement efforts of the Brazilian environmental police (IBAMA) were effective in reducing deforestation rates. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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