Kovacs A.,QS Biodiesel Ltd |
Toth J.,QS Biodiesel Ltd |
Isaak G.,MOL Co |
Keresztenyi I.,MOL Co
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2015
Abstract Process and corrosion engineers have critically addressed compatibility of biodiesel components in petroleum refinery infrastructure because of different processing, storage and dispatching histories of shipments. Concerns were related to aging and corrosion and to accumulation of a bottom layer in the dedicated storage tank. Corrosion tests were executed in a microcosm test environment modified to the recommended practice of ASTM G4-01 procedure. Colloid chemical properties and technology of biodiesel refining operations can plausibly explain different material responses at different temperatures. The sampled bottom layer consisted mainly of glycerides, resembling characteristics of extract byproducts that are separated in trans-esterification in biodiesel synthesis. This bottom layer exerts both beneficial and detrimental effects. The positive side is that it extracts polar components and by this improves quality. The negative side is that it reduces resistance of the oil against aging. There was no risk of detrimental effects in terms of corrosion of storage tank materials. Overall progress of corrosion is controlled by the slightly alkaline bottom layer via neutralizing the oxidation products and exerting protection to metallic surfaces. Microbial degradation can only pose risks if normal and prudent conditions are not observed. Upon extended incubation microorganisms that are present in the bottom layer below the level detection limit, can develop countable colonies, if nutrients are available and conditions are favorable. It can be concluded that there is no risk of significant corrosion in storage and downstream infrastructure if the stored biodiesel meets standard quality specifications and storage conditions are normal. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kovacs A.J.,QS Biodiesel Ltd. |
Kovacs A.J.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2012
This article applies principles of industrial ecology to small- and medium-sized biodiesel production facilities. A large potential for gains in efficiency and profit are realized through technology retrofits and the novel application and reuse of process materials. Our basic criteria for sustainability of farm-scale biodiesel production systems are measured by the following questions: Are all of the resources, mass, and energy flows in the system rational and harmonized? Is the feedstock produced without adverse effects on natural resources or the food chain? We answer these questions by presenting and applying the latest chemical engineering and technology research to support the harmonized and rationalized use of resources and energy within the system boundaries of a farm economy. The feedstock must include refuse and secondary oil sources with low impact on the food chain. Emissions must be reduced to a minimum for a smaller carbon footprint and positive emissions balance from seed to exhaust. Discharges should be avoided; wastes must be turned into primary and intermediary products or energy resources. Proper techniques and routines should serve environmental and human health and safety targets. Reuse of existing assets is considered for improving unit capacity and efficiency, thus lowering costs of conversion. Significant benefits in profitability and production capacity, combined with improved environmental performance, are the main outcomes of the recommended restructuring of production at farm-scale. © 2012 by Yale University.
Kovacs A.,QS Biodiesel Ltd |
Czinkota I.,St Istvan University |
Toth J.,QS Biodiesel Ltd
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012
The acidity of low and high free fatty acid containing feedstock varieties and biodiesel production intermediary products were tested using a variety of standard methods by the use of manual and automatic titration apparatus. The objective was to select the optimal test method for intermediary products in biodiesel processing and to optimize the selected technique by reducing the extent of bias.We found that there are two major reasons for variations in electrode potential readings. Colloid chemistry has an impact on the initial phase of titration by breakage and reformulation of the partially disperse system. Electric and magnetic fields in the titration beaker were the main reasons for sensitive fluctuations in electrode potentials in the potential range of interest for acid number readings. Refluxing the analyte with the diluting solvent proved to be an efficient technique to offset the influence of colloid processes. Addition of a filter electrolyte to the titration solvent allowed the filter fluctuations to be related to changes in uniformity of electric and magnetic fields in the titration beaker. Addition of filter electrolyte improved signal reliability than shading the external noises by wrapping the titration beaker in aluminium foil. Mathematical interpretation of potential readings revealed the extent of improvement in electrode potential fluctuation by the techniques employed. Both the aqueous and non-aqueous titration are suitable for accurate testing the acid number of biodiesel feedstock and intermediary products. © AOCS 2011.
Kovacs A.,QS Biodiesel Ltd |
Ball C.,QS Biodiesel Ltd
Periodica Polytechnica: Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012
The principles of colloid chemistry have been employed to improve the efficiency of biodiesel production. Potential sources of material loss caused by colloid chemistry were linked to specific steps in the sequence of unit operations, and literature reviewed for possible solutions. Liquid-liquid equilibrium and trans-esterification experiments with high oleic sunflower and rapeseed oils were conducted using apolar and polar solvents. The kinetics of trans-esterification were improved by both through the modification of interfacial resistance but the shift to final chemical equilibrium was only possible with apolar solvents. The use of an apolar solvent is beneficial in synthesis and product refining alike, though the removal of interfacial resistance between reaction partners, by shifting the reversible transesterification to close to complete conversion in a single step, and by reducing losses in material and profit. The results can be used to design and operate leaner, more efficient biodiesel production systems. © Periodica Polytechnica 2012.