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Li Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Yu Y.-Q.,Qinling National Botanical Garden | Shi L.,Xinjiang Agricultural University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015

The Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica) is typically found in the mountains of central Asia, studies on the habitat selection of this animal are few at present. We investigated the bedding and foraging sites selection by line census in the GuRenGuoLeng areas of Central Tianshan Moutains during summer, and assess how environmental factors affect their habitat use. Our results showed that there is no significant difference between foraging and bedding sites of ibex in distance to human settlements, vegetation height in summer, while altitude, slope, distance to road, vegetation cover, distance to water resource, distance to livestock, distance to summit of mountain, distance to hidden objects, hiding cover level and number of plant species have very significant differences. Slope location has no significant difference and landscape types have no significant difference but slope direction show very significant difference. Compared with foraging sites, ibex's bedding sites prefer a higher altitude, smaller slope, closer to water resource and summit of mountain, further distance to road and livestock, higher hiding cover level and lower vegetation cover, habitat in the upper bare rock cliff and sunny slope. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed a series of seven ecological factors play important role on distinguish the bedding and foraging sites, in accordance with the order of its contribution value: distance away from livestock, vegetation cover, hiding cover level, distance to summit of mountain, distance from the settlements, altitude, distance from the hidden objects. Copyright © 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan. Source


Li Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Yu Y.-Q.,Qinling National Botanical Garden | Shi L.,Xinjiang Agricultural University
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Habitat segragation between foraging and bed sites for Tianshan argali (Ovis ammon karelini) was studied in Gurenguoleng of central Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. During December 2009 to January 2010, we totally investigated the Tianshan argali among 12 line transects along 5 ditches. Line transects were allocated from the bottom to the ridge of the mountain covering all typical vegetations in this region. In the field investigation, we observed 120 foraging and 114 bed sites for Tianshan argali with 13 ecological factors: elevation, slope, slope direction, slope location, landscape type, vegetation height, vegetation coverage, hiding level, distance from road, snow depth, snow cover, distance to human settlements and number of plant species. The results showed that there were no significant differences between foraging and bed sites for Tianshan argali among the factors of vegetation height, vegetation cover, and hiding cover level (P>0. 05) in winter, but the differences of altitude, slope, distance to road, distance to human settlements, number of plant species, slope location and snow depth (P<0. 01), snow cover, slope direction and landscape types (P<0. 05) were significant between foraging and bed sites. We found that 5 essential ecological factors played important roles in distinguishing the foraging and bed sites, with a decreasing order of importance as snow depth, distance to road, elevation, slope, and vegetation height. Based on the mentioned ecological factor variables, the accurate rate for distinguishing the foraging and bed sites of Tianshan argali reached 95. 1%. The results demonstrated that there was obvious habitat segragtion between foraging and bed sites for Tianshan argali to live in winter. Source


Li Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Yu Y.Q.,Qinling National Botanical Garden | Shi J.,Wildlife Protection Division | Shi L.,Xinjiang Agricultural University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Foraging and bed sites are the two key habitats for the ungulate, but researches on the differences between these two habitats are little. During the summer we studied the foraging and bed sites selection for Tianshan argali(Ovis ammon karelini) in Gurenguoleng areas of Central Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. According to the population and distribution of Tianshan argali in this region, we collected the ecological factors via line transect and quadrat sampling methods. During July and August in 2010, we investigated the Tianshan argali among 12 lines transects in total along 5 ditches. Line transects were allocated from the bottom to the ridge of the mountain covering all typical vegetation in this region. Due to the huge mountain and wide basin in the studied area, direct observation method can be used to determine Tianshan argali's habitat. We stood far away from the argali pack to observe their foraging or bed sites via the telescope until the targeted argali left. Then one of colleagues was responsible for guiding the other person to find the targeted area by the telescope. Some of the bed sites were confirmed by trace detection by the surrounding factors such as the fresh bed trace and fecal pellet, footprint, urine, hair, etc. The foraging and bed track of Tianshan argali was marked as the center for a 10 m ×10 m quadrat when it was found during the field investigation, and the quadrat center was located with Garmin 72 GPS. In this field investigation we observed 157 foraging and 136 bed sites for Tianshan argali with 13 ecological factors: elevation, slope, slope direction, slope location, landscape type, vegetation height, vegetation coverage, hiding level, distance from road, distance to water resource, distance to livestock, distance to human settlements and number of plant species on habitat selection by Tianshan argali were thoroughly evaluated in this research. The results showed that there were no significant differences between foraging and bed sites for Tianshan argali to live among the factors in slope, hiding cover level, distance to water resource, number of plant species and vegetation coverage in summer (P> 0.05), however, the factors in altitude, distance to livestock (P < 0.01); vegetation height (P < 0.05), slope location, slope direction and landscape types (P<0.01) were the significant factors for the Tianshan argali to live. Compared with bed sites, Tianshan argali preferred to choose the foraging sites at lower elevation, lower vegetation height, closer to roads, human settlements and livestock, habitats of a mountain alpine meadow in the semi-shaded slope and grassland in gentle slope in summer. During the long field investigation and observation we could find that there were 4 essential ecological factors play an important role in distinguishing the foraging and bed sites. We ordered them according to their contribution value index: distance to road, distance from the settlements, vegetation height and distance to livestock. Based on the mentioned ecological factors variables, the accurate rate for distinguishing the foraging and bed sites of Tianshan argali reached 90.6%. The results fully demonstrated that there was obvious habitat separation between foraging and bed sites for Tianshan argali to live during summer. Therefore, the pattern of habitat selection by Tianshan argali seemed to be strongly influenced by food, predator and disturbance. Source


Li Y.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Yu Y.-Q.,Qinling National Botanical Garden | Shi L.,Xinjiang Agricultural University
Folia Zoologica | Year: 2015

Foraging and bedding sites are key ungulate demands of their habitats. Research however, on the differences between these two types of sites has been neglected. This study deals with the winter foraging and bedding site selection of the Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Tianshan Mountains in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. A total of twelve line-transects were used to assist research of the Asiatic ibex within five valleys and canyons during December of 2010 and January of 2011. Ninety-five bedding and one hundred foraging sites used by the Asiatic ibex were examined and the effects of fifteen different environmental factors on habitat selection were analyzed and evaluated in this study. In comparison with its bedding sites, the Asiatic ibex in winter showed a greater preference for semishady slopes and higher vegetation density in its selection of foraging sites. Regarding its foraging site preferences when compared to its bedding site preferences, this species was less sensitive to deeper and greater snow cover, to a lower hiding cover level, and to greater distances from the nearest escape structures. Stepwise Discriminant Analysis showed that a group of five environmental factors played a dominant role in bedding and foraging site preferences. These factors were, in the order of their contribution value: vegetation density, hiding cover level, distance from the top of the mountain, and distance from escape structures. Using these five environmental factors alone, the ability to accurately predict bedding and foraging site preferences of the Asiatic ibex reached 93.3 %. Source


Wang Y.-L.,Qinling National Botanical Garden | Wang Y.-L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang J.-F.,Qinling National Botanical Garden | Yang J.-F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Magnolia denudata var. glabrata Y. L. Wang et S. Z. Zhang var. nov. is described and illustrated from Hunan, China. The variety occurs mainly in semi-evergreen forest of south Hunan at altitudes between 700 and 1260 m a.s.l. It differs from M. denudata var. denudata by its green and glabrous twigs and leaves which are glabrous above and have some white pubescence underneath. With its white flowers consisting of mostly 9 tepals, it differs from M. sprengeri Pamp. which mainly has 12 tepals in various shades of red/pink to white. The new variety is rare and considered endangered due to habitat destruction. © 2013 The Authors. Source

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