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Bae Y.-A.,Sungkyunkwan University | Bae Y.-A.,Gachon University | Yeom J.-S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Wang H.,Qinghai Province Institute for Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: Neurocysticercosis (NC), an infection of the central nervous system with Taenia solium metacestodes (TsM), invokes a formidable neurological disease. A bundle of antigens is applicable for serodiagnosis of active cases, while they demonstrate fairly low reactivity against sera of chronic NC. Identification of sensitive biomarkers for chronic NC is critical for appropriate management of patients. Methods: Proteome analysis revealed several isoforms of 65- and 83-kDa TsM fasciclin-like proteins (TsMFas) to be highly reactive with sera of chronic NC. A cDNA encoding one of the 83-kDa TsMFas (TsMFas1) was isolated from a cDNA library. We expressed a recombinant protein (rTsMFas1) and evaluated its diagnostic potential employing sera from chronic NC (n = 80), tissue-invasive cestodiases (n = 169) and trematodiases (n = 80) and those of normal controls (n = 50). Results: Secretory TsMFas1 was composed of 766 amino acid polypeptide and harboured fasciclin and fasciclin-superfamily domains. The protein was constitutively expressed in metacestode and adult stages, with preferential locality in the scolex. Bacterially expressed rTsMFas1 exhibited 78.8% sensitivity (63/80 cases) and 93% specificity (278/299 samples) in diagnosing chronic NC. Some cross-reactivity was observed with sera of cystic echinococcosis (10/56, 17.8%) and sparganosis (4/50, 8%). Positive and negative predictive values were 75% and 95.5%, respectively. Conclusion: TsM fasciclin-like protein may be useful for differential diagnosis of chronic NC in clinical settings, especially where both NC and other infectious cerebral granulomatoses are prevalent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ahn C.-S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Han X.,Qinghai Province Institute for Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control | Bae Y.-A.,Gachon University | Ma X.,Qinghai Province Institute for Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control | And 7 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by Echinococcus granulosus metacestode, invokes a serious public health concern. Early diagnosis has great impacts on reduction of disability-adjusted life years. Several antigen B-related molecules (EgAgB; EgAgB1-5) are known to be immunopotent, but detection of EgAgB is variable in many patients and may not allow reliable interpretation of its immunological relevance. More importantly, the immunoproteome profile of hydatid fluid (HF) has not been addressed. Methods: We conducted a proteome analysis of the HF of a single fertile cyst of CE1 and CE2 stages through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Each protein spot was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). We subsequently determined the immunoproteome profile employing patient sera of entire disease spectrum from CE1 to CE5 stages. Results: We identified 40 parasite proteins, of which EgAgB (28 spots) and antigen 5 (EgAg5; 5 molecules) were abundant. EgAgB proteoforms constituted the majority, mostly EgAgB1 (24 spots), followed by EgAgB2 and EgAgB4 (2 spots each). EgAgB3 was detected only by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. EgAgB5 was not recognized. We also detected 38 host proteins, which were largely composed of serum components, antioxidant/xenobiotic enzymes, and enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. CE1 and CE2 HF exhibited comparable spotting patterns, but CE2 HF harbored greater amounts of EgAgB and EgAg5 complexes. CE sera demonstrated complicated immune recognition patterns according to the disease progression; CE2 and CE3 stages exhibited strong antibody responses against diverse EgAgB and EgAg5 proteoforms, while CE1, CE4, and CE5 stages mainly reacted to EgAg5 and cathepsin B. Patient sera of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) cross-reacted with diverse EgAgB isoforms (36%). EgAg5 and cathepsin B also demonstrated cross-reactions with sera from neurocysticercosis and sparganosis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that detection of a single defined molecule may not properly diagnose CE, since specific immunodominant epitopes changed as the disease progresses. Immunoproteome analysis combined with imaging studies may be practical in the differential diagnosis of CE from AE and other cystic lesions, as well as for staging CE, which are pertinent to establish appropriate patient management. © 2015 Ahn et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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