Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Qi M.,Henan Agricultural University | Qi M.,International Joint Research Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases of Henan | Cai J.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | Wang R.,Henan Agricultural University | And 11 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2015

Background: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important causes of diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and there is an increased interest in the role of animals in the mechanical transmission of these protozoa. To examine the role of yaks in this process, we examined the occurrence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in yaks in western China. Results: A total of 545 fecal specimens were collected from yaks from nine different counties in the central western region of China. The prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 4.0 % (22/545) and 6.0 % (16/545), respectively. Mixed infections of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis were also detected in four specimens. The prevalence of both protozoa differed significantly between some age groups, with higher rates of infection in animals < 1 year old. Sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of the Cryptosporidium isolates identified the species as C. parvum (n=12), C. bovis (n=6), C. ryanae (n=3), and C. ubiquitum (n=1). Genotyping based on 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene from five C. parvum isolates identified all as IId with three isolates identified as IIdA15G1, one as IIdA18G1, and one as IIdA19G1. One C. ubiquitum isolate was identified as subtype VIIa. Amongst the G. duodenalis isolates, 16 were identified as assemblage E at the SSU rRNA gene. Four novel glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) subtypes and two triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) subtypes were found amongst the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Conclusions: The presence of C. parvum subtype IIdA15G1, IIdA18G1, and IIdA19G1 isolates further confirms the dominance of the C. parvum IId subtypes in China. These findings also indicate that yaks may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection, and this is the first report of G. duodenalis in yaks. The data presented here provides the basis for further genotyping or subtyping studies of G. duodenalis in yaks. © 2015 Qi et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Qi M.,Henan Agricultural University | Cai J.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | Wang R.,Henan Agricultural University | Li J.,Henan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2015

Background: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important causes of diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and there is an increased interest in the role of animals in the mechanical transmission of these protozoa. To examine the role of yaks in this process, we examined the occurrence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in yaks in western China. Results: A total of 545 fecal specimens were collected from yaks from nine different counties in the central western region of China. The prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 4.0 % (22/545) and 6.0 % (16/545), respectively. Mixed infections of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis were also detected in four specimens. The prevalence of both protozoa differed significantly between some age groups, with higher rates of infection in animals < 1 year old. Sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of the Cryptosporidium isolates identified the species as C. parvum (n = 12), C. bovis (n = 6), C. ryanae (n = 3), and C. ubiquitum (n = 1). Genotyping based on 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene from five C. parvum isolates identified all as IId with three isolates identified as IIdA15G1, one as IIdA18G1, and one as IIdA19G1. One C. ubiquitum isolate was identified as subtype VIIa. Amongst the G. duodenalis isolates, 16 were identified as assemblage E at the SSU rRNA gene. Four novel glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) subtypes and two triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) subtypes were found amongst the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Conclusions: The presence of C. parvum subtype IIdA15G1, IIdA18G1, and IIdA19G1 isolates further confirms the dominance of the C. parvum IId subtypes in China. These findings also indicate that yaks may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection, and this is the first report of G. duodenalis in yaks. The data presented here provides the basis for further genotyping or subtyping studies of G. duodenalis in yaks. © 2015 Qi et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Li N.,East China University of Science and Technology | Li N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Xiao L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Elwin K.,UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit | And 15 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. In the past, it was not possible to identify an association between cases of human and animal infection. We conducted a genomic survey of the species, developed a subtyping tool targeting the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, and identified 6 subtype families (XIIa-XIIf) of C. ubiquitum. Host adaptation was apparent at the gp60 locus; subtype XIIa was found in ruminants worldwide, subtype families XIIb-XIId were found in rodents in the United States, and XIIe and XIIf were found in rodents in the Slovak Republic. Humans in the United States were infected with isolates of subtypes XIIb-XIId, whereas those in other areas were infected primarily with subtype XIIa isolates. In addition, subtype families XIIb and XIId were detected in drinking source water in the United States. Contact with C. ubiquitum-infected sheep and drinking water contaminated by infected wildlife could be sources of human infections. Source


Ma L.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | Sotiriadou I.,University of Cologne | Cai Q.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | Karanis G.,Kreiskrankenhaus Mechernich GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Qinghai Province in northwest China is strongly influenced by agricultural activities and is an important source of food and drinking water. Here, we present findings regarding the occurrence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species based on a large-scale investigation of areas of Qinghai Province. The diagnosis and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was carried out using immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT), whereas nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in fecal smears and water samples was used for the detection and molecular characterization of the species. In total, 561 samples (260 water samples and 301 fecal samples from animals) were collected and analyzed. Of the 260 water samples, 66 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 71 samples were positive by nested PCR; in addition, 39 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 40 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of the 301 fecal samples from animals, 98 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 61 samples were positive by nested PCR, whereas 52 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 31 samples were positive by nested PCR. We showed that the water supplies and animals investigated contained Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Thus, we recommend that the Chinese Government and Chinese health authorities undertake control measures to protect the food and drinking water sources in Qinghai from these pathogenic protozoa. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Ma L.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | Sotiriadou I.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | Cai Q.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | Karanis G.,Qinghai Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science | And 4 more authors.
Parasitology research | Year: 2014

Qinghai Province in northwest China is strongly influenced by agricultural activities and is an important source of food and drinking water. Here, we present findings regarding the occurrence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species based on a large-scale investigation of areas of Qinghai Province. The diagnosis and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was carried out using immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT), whereas nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in fecal smears and water samples was used for the detection and molecular characterization of the species. In total, 561 samples (260 water samples and 301 fecal samples from animals) were collected and analyzed. Of the 260 water samples, 66 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 71 samples were positive by nested PCR; in addition, 39 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 40 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of the 301 fecal samples from animals, 98 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 61 samples were positive by nested PCR, whereas 52 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 31 samples were positive by nested PCR. We showed that the water supplies and animals investigated contained Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Thus, we recommend that the Chinese Government and Chinese health authorities undertake control measures to protect the food and drinking water sources in Qinghai from these pathogenic protozoa. Source

Discover hidden collaborations