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Gao L.,Northwest University, China | Ma Y.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Zhao W.,Northwest University, China | Wei Z.,Northwest University, China | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The genus Cyphellophora includes human- and plant-related species from mammal skin and nails, plant materials, and food. On the basis of analysis of ITS, LSU, TUB2 and RPB1 data and morphological characters, three new species, Cyphellophora phyllostachysdis, C. artocarpi and C. musae, associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease, were added to this genus. The 2D structure of ITS1 and ITS2 confirmed this taxonomic status. Pathogenicity tests on apple fruit indicated that C. artocarpi could be a sooty blotch and flyspeck pathogen of apple. © 2015 Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Yan J.,China Agricultural University | Yan J.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Luo Y.,China Agricultural University | Luo Y.,University of California Kearney Research and Extension Center | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. tritici, is of worldwide significance. Quantification of latent infection level is critical to estimate the potential for disease epidemics. In this study, field distribution of latent infection and the corresponding observed disease were studied in two growing seasons from 2009 to 2011 in Gangu, Gansu Province and Shangzhuang, Beijing, China. A previously developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was applied to obtain the molecular disease index (MDX) to quantify the level of latent infection. At 1 to 3 weeks after leaf sampling, the observed disease indices (DX) were assessed in the corresponding experimental sites. The computer software SURFER showed that the spatial distribution patterns of MDX had a linear relationship with DX in field plots with P = 0.01. The aggregation levels of MDX correlated with those of DX in the fields. The disease foci which were correctly detected for latent infections with the real-time PCR for the Gangu and Shangzhuang field plots were 71.4 and 85.7%, respectively. The triadimefon fungicide treatment focused on the detected latent infection foci reduced both the initial inoculum and disease development, resulting in an average reduction in disease area in the field plots of 73 to 81%. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Zhao C.,Lanzhou University | Wang X.,Lanzhou University | Wu K.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Li P.,Lanzhou University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

In this study, a new mechanism involving glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and alternative pathways (AP) in salt pretreatment-induced tolerance of highland barley to UV-B radiation was investigated. When highland barley was exposed to UV-B radiation, the G6PDH activity decreased but the AP capacity increased. In contrast, under UV-B+NaCl treatment, the G6PDH activity was restored to the control level and the maximal AP capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities were reached. Glucosamine (Glucm, an inhibitor of G6PDH) obviously inhibited the G6PDH activity in highland barley under UV-B+NaCl treatment and a similar pattern was observed in reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (Asc) contents. Similarly, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, an inhibitor of AOX) significantly reduced the AP capacity in highland barley under UV-B+NaCl treatment. The UV-B-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation was also followed. Further studies indicated that non-functioning of G6PDH or AP under UV-B+NaCl+Glucm or UV-B+NaCl+SHAM treatment also caused damages in photosynthesis and stomatal movement. Western blot analysis confirmed that the alternative oxidase (AOX) and G6PDH were dependent each other in cross tolerance to UV-B and salt. The inhibition of AP or G6PDH activity resulted in a significant accumulation or reduction of NADPH content, respectively, under UV-B+NaCl treatment in highland barley leaves. Taken together, our results indicate that AP and G6PDH mutually regulate and maintain photosynthesis and stomata movement in the cross adaptation of highland barley seedlings to UV-B and salt by modulating redox homeostasis and NADPH content. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Riley I.T.,University of Adelaide | Hou S.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Chen S.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) population densities were determined in spring cereals after harvest in three high-altitude villages in Qinghai, China in order to examine the effect of crop rotations. Two villages were sampled intensively to allow examination of between-field spatial variation. The previous season's crop, including fields where two host crops had been grown in succession, did not appear to influence the final nematode density. A high degree of variation in population density and significant spatial variation appeared to be strongly influenced by the occurrence of hyperparasites, thus masking any possible crop rotation effects. Nevertheless, a third of the fields had final egg densities of greater than 10 eggs/g soil, creating a risk of yield loss if an intolerant host was to be grown in the next year. From the findings, it is suggested that future research should focus on developing locally adapted resistant cultivars and examining factors that determine the efficacy of natural biocontrol. © 2010 Australasian Plant Pathology Society. Source

Xiao M.,Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Dong N.,China Agricultural University | Lyu X.,Shihezi University
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

There are many different perspectives about the sustainable agriculture, which had been proposed since the last three decades in the world. While China's ecologists and agronomists proposed a similar concept named 'ecological agriculture'. Although ecological agriculture in China has achieved substantial progress, including theory, models and supporting technologies nearly several decades of practice and development, its application guidance still is not yet clear. The organic agriculture model proposed by European Union is popular, but it is limited in the beneficiary groups and the social and ecological responsibility. In this context, the article based on an ecological point of view, analyzed the shortcomings of ecological imbalance caused by a single mode of agricultural production and the negative impact on the quality of agricultural products, and discussed the core values of ecological agriculture. On this basis, we put forward the concept of sustainable security of agricultural products. Based on this concept, an agricultural platform was established under the healthy ecosysphere environment, and from this agricultural platform, agricultural products could be safely and sustainably obtained. Around the central value of the concept, we designed the agricultural sustainable and security production model. Finally, we compared the responsibility, benefiting groups, agronomic practices selection and other aspects of sustainable agriculture with organic agriculture, and proved the advancement of sustainable agricultural model in agricultural production quality and safety. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved. Source

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