Qingdao, China

Qingdao University

Qingdao, China

Qingdao University is a key provincial research university located in Qingdao, China. Qingdao University traces its origin to 1909, when Deutsch-Chinesische Hochschule, the oldest predecessor institution of Qingdao University, was jointly established by the Chinese and German governments in Qingdao. In 1993, the former Qingdao University, Qingdao Medical College, Shandong Textile Engineering College, and Qingdao Normal College, four higher education institutions with glorious history, merged to form the new Qingdao University. At present, QU is one of the best comprehensive universities in Shandong Province, recognized as a member of the national "Excellent Engineer Education and Training Program." With a strong profile in Medical science, Textile and Design, Business, and liberal arts, QU serves 32,300 full-time undergraduate students, 7,400 graduate students, and 1,100 international students. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

All cancer tumors have one thing in common - they must feed themselves to grow and spread, a difficult feat since they are usually in a tumor microenvironment with limited nutrients and oxygen. A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center has revealed new details about how an enzyme called acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) allows brain tumors to grow despite their harsh surroundings. The findings, published in the May 25 online issue of Molecular Cell, portends ACSS2 as a potential player in new approaches to treating this often deadly disease. ACSS2 provides tumors a competitive edge by enhancing their ability to use a cellular salt called acetate as a carbon-based food source rather than the more desirable glucose which is often in short supply in cancer cells. This lifeline allows cancer cells at the core of the tumor to survive and even grow as it battles with nutrient deficiency. Current therapies and the body's own immune system are not efficient at stopping this vital nutrient pathway in cancer cells, and little is known about how these life-giving proteins are transported from cytosol, a liquid cell component, into the nucleus via a process called nuclear translocation. The ability to halt nuclear translocation of ACSS2 would cut off the cancer cell's self-maintaining ability at its most basic level. The study, led by Zhimin Lu, Ph.D., professor of Neuro-Oncology, provided new information about nuclear translocation and how ACSS2 may offer a new approach for therapy. "Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in solid tumor growth. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) generated via glucose and acetate uptake is a key carbon source for important cellular processes such as histone acetylation and gene expression," said Lu. "However, how acetyl CoA is produced under nutritional stress is unclear. Our study explains the underlying mechanics of how this occurs, with ACSS2 as a novel and important method for gene expression under these circumstances." Using a CRISPR gene editing process, Lu's team revealed what roles ACSS2 plays in histone acetylation by generation of nuclear acetyl-CoA from acetate within the cell's nucleus. It also demonstrated the significance of histone modification via a metabolic enzyme in maintaining cell stability and tumor development. Histones are proteins that act as spools around which DNA winds and are crucial to gene regulation, while histone acetylation is a modification process critical to gene expression. In essence, ACSS2 gives genetic permission for the production of lysosomes, cellular structures that serve as the cell's waste disposal system, thus ridding the cell of unwanted materials, while recycling digested products for protein, DNA, and lipid synthesis. Lysosomes are recognized as a contributing factor in tumor development. ACSS2 also promotes a cannibalistic cell-feeding mechanism called autophagy, allowing lysosomes to receive, digest, and recycle much-needed nutrients. When nutrients located outside of the cell are limited, ACSS2 is able to reprogram cancer cell metabolism by increasing autophagy and reusing lysosome-digested products from unwanted or stored materials for cell survival and growth. "These findings elucidate an instrumental interplay between reprogramming of metabolism and gene expression in cancer cells," said Lu. "Inhibition of both ACSS2's nuclear function and the metabolic pathway known as glycolysis, which converts glucose to tumor-feeding energy, appears to be an efficient approach for cancer treatment." MD Anderson research team members included Xinjian Li, Ph.D., Xu Qian, Ph.D., Yan Xia, Ph.D., Yanhua Zheng, Ph.D., and Jong-Ho Lee, Ph.D., all of Neuro-Oncology; and Ganesh Rao, M.D., Neurosurgery. Other participating institutions included Duke-NUS Medial School, Singapore; Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; Qingdao University Cancer Institute, Qingdao, China; and San Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (CA109035, CA169603, CA204996, NS089754, CA016672 and CA127001); the James S. McDonnell Foundation 21st Century Science Initiative in Brain Cancer Research Award (220020318); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (8167282 and 81472386); the MD Anderson Odyssey Fellowship; the Anne Eastland Spears Fellowship in GI Cancer Research; the Caroline Ross Endowed Fellowship; and the Harold C. and Mary L. Daily Endowment Fund Fellowship. Lu is a Ruby E. Rutherford Distinguished Professor.

News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Chemicals extracted from edible seaweed, algae, could be used as precursors for components of high-performance, carbon-based superconductors, lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells, according to research reported at the American Chemical Society national meeting recently. "Carbon-based materials are the most versatile materials used in the field of energy storage and conversion," suggests Dongjiang Yang of Qingdao University, China. "We wanted to produce carbon-based materials via a really green pathway. Given the renewability of seaweed, we chose seaweed extract as a precursor and template to synthesize hierarchical porous carbon materials." Yang explains that the research could lead to sustainable alternatives for a wide range of applications in energy storage and catalysis, for instance, that side-steps the need for rare elements, such as precious metals. Traditional carbon materials, such as graphite, have been essential to creating the current energy landscape. But to make the leap to the next generation of lithium-ion batteries and other storage devices, an even better material is needed, preferably one that can be sustainably sourced, Yang says. Seaweed is abundant across the oceans and Yang, while at Griffith University in Australia, reasoned that it could be a useful and sustainable source of materials. He worked with colleagues at Qingdao University and at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the USA to make porous carbon nanofibers from a seaweed extract. Chelating cobalt ions to the alginate molecules led to nanofibers with what he describes as an "egg-box" structure. This is key to the material's stability and how the team could control synthesis of the materials, Yang explains. In preliminary tests, the researchers demonstrated how the seaweed-derived material has a large reversible capacity of 625 milliampere hours per gram (mAhg-1), which is considerably more than the 372 mAhg-1 capacity of traditional graphite anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Such a capacity might extend the range of future electric cars if the cathode counterpoint material can be developed to have equivalent quality. The team also showed that their egg-box fibers could function as well as commercial platinum-based catalysts in a fuel cell and have better long-term stability. In addition, the same materials have high capacitance as superconductor materials at 197 Farads per gram, which could be applied in zinc-air batteries and supercapacitors. Initial work carried out in 2015 has been extended significantly and building on the same egg-box structure, the team has managed to suppress defects in their cathodes for lithium-ion batteries that would otherwise block the flow of lithium ions. Recently, they have also developed an approach using red algae-derived carrageenan and iron to make a porous sulfur-doped carbon aerogel with an ultra-high surface area. The structure could be a good candidate to use in lithium-sulfur batteries and supercapacitors. The team's work has now evolved into a general strategy based on the "egg-box" structure for fabricating transition metal oxides microfibers with different architectures, Yang says. "We plan to fabricate high performance energy materials directly derived from seaweed, such as Laminaria japonica (brown alga), Eucheuma (red alga), and Enteromorpha prolifera (green alga)," Yang told Materials Today. "We also plan to develop full algal energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, composed of seaweed-based electrodes, seaweed separator membranes or seaweed macromolecular solid electrolyte." David Bradley blogs at Sciencebase Science Blog and tweets @sciencebase, he is author of the popular science book "Deceived Wisdom".

Yu J.-T.,Qingdao University | Yu J.-T.,Ocean University of China | Tan L.,Qingdao University | Tan L.,Ocean University of China | Hardy J.,University College London
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The vast majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late onset (LOAD), which is genetically complex with heritability estimates up to 80%. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been irrefutably recognized as the major genetic risk factor, with semidominant inheritance, for LOAD. Although the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenic nature of APOE in AD are still not completely understood, emerging data suggest that APOE contributes to AD pathogenesis through both amyloid-β (Aβ)-dependent and Aβ-independent pathways. Given the central role for APOE in the modulation of AD pathogenesis, many therapeutic strategies have emerged, including converting APOE conformation, regulating APOE expression, mimicking APOE peptides, blocking the APOE/Aβ interaction, modulating APOE lipidation state, and gene therapy. Accumulating evidence also suggests the utility of APOE genotyping in AD diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment response. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Tan L.,Qingdao University | Yu J.-T.,Qingdao University
Molecular neurodegeneration | Year: 2014

Parkinson's disease (PD), like many common age-related conditions, has been recognized to have a substantial genetic component. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a crucial factor to understanding the etiology of PD. LRRK2 is a large, widely expressed, multi-domain and multifunctional protein. LRRK2 mutations are the major cause to inherited and sporadic PD. In this review, we discuss the pathology and clinical features which show diversity and variability of LRRK2-associated PD. In addition, we do a thorough literature review and provide theoretical data for gene counseling. Further, we present the evidence linking LRRK2 to various possible pathogenic mechanism of PD such as α-synuclein, tau, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic dysfunction as well as autophagy-lysosomal system. Based on the above work, we investigate activities both within GTPase and outside enzymatic regions in order to obtain a potential therapeutic approach to solve the LRRK2 problem.

Wang D.Q.,Qingdao University
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

For parameter estimation of output error moving average (OEMA) systems, this study combines the auxiliary model identification idea with the filtering theory, transforms an OEMA system into two identification models and presents a filtering and auxiliary model-based recursive least squares (F-AM-RLS) identification algorithm. Compared with the auxiliary model-based recursive extended least squares algorithm, the proposed F-AM-RLS algorithm has a high computational efficiency. Moreover, a filtering and auxiliary model-based least squares iterative (F-AM-LSI) identification algorithm is derived for OEMA systems with finite measurement input-output data. Compared with the F-AM-RLS approach, the proposed F-AM-LSI algorithm updates the parameter estimation using all the available data at each iteration, and thus can generate highly accurate parameter estimates. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Zhisheng Z.,Qingdao University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2010

Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm is firstly used in economic load dispatch of power system in this paper. Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm is the integration of particle swarm optimization algorithm and quantum computing theory. The superposition characteristic and probability representation of quantum methodology are combined into particle swarm optimization algorithm. This can make a single particle be expressed by several certain probability states. And the quantum rotation gates are used to realize update operation of particles. The algorithm is simulated by two cases, which validates it can effectively solve economic load dispatch problem. Though performance comparison, it is obvious the solution is superior to that of improved particle swarm optimization algorithm and other optimization algorithms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jiang W.,Qingdao University
European journal of epidemiology | Year: 2014

Dairy foods have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), and a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on dairy foods intake and PD risk was conducted. Eligible studies were identified in a literature search of EMBASE and PubMed up to April 2014. Seven results from prospective studies were included, including 1,083 PD cases among 304,193 subjects. The combined risk of PD for highest vs. lowest level of dairy foods intake was 1.40 (1.20-1.63) overall, 1.66 (1.29-2.14) for men and 1.15 (0.85-1.56) for women. For highest vs. lowest level, the PD risk was 1.45 (1.23-1.73) for milk, 1.26 (0.99-1.60) for cheese, 0.95 (0.76-1.20) for yogurt and 0.76 (0.51-1.13) for butter. The linear dose-response relationship showed that PD risk increased by 17% [1.17 (1.06-1.30)] for every 200 g/day increment in milk intake (Pfor non-linearity = 0.22), and 13% [1.13 (0.91-1.40)] for every 10 g/day increment in cheese intake (Pfor non-linearity = 0.39). The absolute risk differences were estimated to be 2-4 PD cases per 100,000 person-years for every 200 g/day increment in milk intake, and 1-3 PD cases per 100,000 person-years for every 10 g/day increment in cheese intake. Dairy foods (milk, cheese) might be positively associated with increased risk of PD, especially for men.

Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with rising thyroglobulin (Tg) level and negative radioiodine whole body scan results has been observed in follow-up studies. The management of this condition remains controversial. Most studies support blind 131I treatment while others oppose this approach. Aims: To assess the effects of 131I therapy for DTC with rising Tg and negative scan results. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled clinical trials, prospective controlled clinical trials and any trials using 131I treatment or no treatment for Tg-positive and radioiodine-negative disease were included in this review. Results: Due to the lack of any suitable randomised or prospective controlled trials in this area, it was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis. Eighteen trials were retrieved for further overall assessment. Of 438 patients from 16 studies who were treated empirically with 131I for Tg-positive and radioiodine-negative disease, 267 (62%) displayed pathological uptake in the thyroid bed, lungs, bone, mediastinum and lymph nodes. In studies in which data were available for serum Tg levels during thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy or TSH withdrawal, 188 of 337 patients (56%) showed a decrease in serum Tg. Of 242 patients from five studies who received no specific treatment for Tg-positive and radioiodine-negative disease, 106 (44%) showed spontaneous normalisation and a significant decrease in serum Tg. Conclusions: The currently available evidence is insufficient for reliable assessment of the potential of 131I treatment for DTC with elevated Tg and negative scan results. A decrease in serum Tg in 62% of patients with DTC with elevated Tg and negative scan results suggests that 131I therapy has a therapeutic effect for more than one-half of patients when the Tg level is considered an index of tumour burden. However, considering that 44% of patients with DTC with elevated Tg and negative scan results showed spontaneous normalisation and a significant reduction in serum Tg without any specific treatment, 131I therapy should be individualised according to clinical characteristics. Other diagnostic techniques are strongly recommended for patients with Tg-positive and radioiodine-negative disease. If these diagnostic results are positive, treatment options such as surgery, external radiotherapy and tumour embolisation should be considered. If diagnostic results are negative, one course of 131I treatment may be considered in high-risk patients with serum Tg >10ng/mL after TSH withdrawal or >5ng/mL under recombinant human TSH stimulation. No further 131I therapy is indicated for patients with a negative post-therapy radioiodine scan. © 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists.

Chu T.,Qingdao University
Journal of Computational Chemistry | Year: 2010

The time-dependent quantum wave packet and the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations for the title reactions are carried out using three recent-developed accurate potential energy surfaces of the 1 1A', 1 3A', and 1 3A" states. The two commonly used polarization-dependent differential cross sections, dr00/dxt, dr20/dxt, with xt being the polar coordinates of the product velocity x0, and the three angular distributions, P(hr), P(Fr), and P(hr, Fr), with hr, Fr being the polar angles of the product angular momentum, are generated in the center-of-mass frame using the QCT method to gain insight into the alignment and the orientation of the product molecules. Influences of the potential energy surface, the collision energy, and the isotope mass on the stereodynamics are shown and discussed. Validity of the QCT calculation has been examined and proved in the comparison with the quantum wave packet calculation. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Tan L.,Qingdao University
Current Alzheimer research | Year: 2015

Prevalence estimates of depression in AD vary greatly across studies, and a reliable result is crucial for further interventions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to identify the prevalence of depression in AD patients. We searched PubMed and Embase, followed by data extraction, quality assessment, prevalence estimates and subgroup analyses. A total of 63 studies were included in the review. The prevalences of depression were 12.7% (CI, 8.8-17.8) and 42% (CI, 38-45) according to the DSM criteria for major depression and the specific criteria for dementia respectively. Subgroup analyses stratified by case identification showed that the prevalences of population-based stud ies were 5% (CI: 2-15) and 35% (CI: 29-41) according to the DSM criteria and the specific criteria respectively, while those of single source were 17% (CI: 11-25) and 43% (CI: 37-49). Subgroup analyses stratified by MMSE score revealed that the prevalences of severe AD were 8% (CI: 5-15) and 48% (CI: 41-54) according to the DSM criteria and the specific criteria respectively, while those of mild AD were 14% (CI: 8-24) and 40% (CI: 32- 47). In conclusion, the prevalence of depression according to the DSM criteria was lower than that of the specific criteria. Prevalence estimates conducted in population-based studies were lower compared with those in single-source studies irrespective of the screening tools. Patients with severe AD tended to have higher prevalence of depression according to the specific criteria, while the trend was opposite according to the DSM criteria. Thus, different settings and diagnostic approaches should be taken into account before estimates of depression and further interventions.

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