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Ding Z.T.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Ding Z.T.,Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticultural Plant | Shen J.Z.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Shen J.Z.,Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticultural Plant | And 7 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a thermophilic evergreen woody plant that has poor cold tolerance. The SAD gene plays a key role in regulating fatty acid synthesis and membrane lipid fluidity in response to temperature change. In this study, full-length SAD cDNA was cloned from tea leaves using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Sequence analysis demonstrated that CsSAD had a high similarity to other corresponding cDNAs. At 25°C, the CsSAD transcriptional level was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem, but there was no obvious difference between the root and stem organs. CsSAD expression was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR, which showed that CsSAD was upregulated at 4° and -5°C. At 25°C, CsSAD was induced by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid, and wounding, and a similar trend was observed at 4°C, but the mean expression level at 4°C was lower than that at 25°C. Under natural cold acclimation, the ‘CsCr05’ variety’s CsSAD expression level increased before decreasing. The CsSAD expression level in variety ‘CsCr06’ showed no obvious change at first, but rapidly increased to a maximum when the temperature was very low. Our study demonstrates that CsSAD is upregulated in response to different abiotic conditions, and that it is important to study the stress resistance of the tea plant, particularly in response to low temperature, drought, and wounding. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

Shen J.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Shen J.,Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticultural Plant | Wang Y.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticultural Plant | And 9 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae

Tea (. Camellia sinensis L.) is a thermophilic evergreen woody perennial. It is poor in cold tolerance during winter. Changes occurred at metabolite level in low temperatures were poorly understood in tea plants. In this study, Metabolite profiling of tea leaves was performed to investigate the responses of tea plants to different cold conditions by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) andmultivariate analysis. A total of 105 metabolites were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the tea leaves in plastic greenhouse (DP) and natural condition (OA) were clearly separated by their sampling times and growth conditions. The levels of changed metabolites could be organized in four clusters by hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). According to the pathway, raffinose, maltose, glucose and fructose derived from the hydrolysis of sucrose were all more abundant in leaves of OA than those of DP. Despite temperature fluctuation, leucine, valine, threonine, alanine were all in higher level in leaves of DP than those of OA except Nov. 16. Citric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid were in higher level under the higher temperature in DP. Shikimic acid and quinic acid presented an absolutely distinct metabolism pattern. Shikimic acid was negatively correlated with quinic acid in both treatments except Mar. 16. They were at high level on Nov. 16, and then decreased sharply in the following periods in both treatments during the experiment. The results indicated that the different low temperatures had significantly different effects on tea plants and could change their metabolic pathways in different ways. These might be helpful to understand the mechanism of cold resistance of tea plants at the metabolite level and to facilitate the future research on gene and protein expression in tea plants of DP and OA in winter. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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