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Liu E.,Shandong University | Liu E.,The Good | Li Y.,Qingdao Bright Moon Bluesea Bio Technology Co | Hu Y.,Shandong University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

ARP (Apple replant problem, ARP), which is also known as the continuous cropping obstacles of apple, influences the cultivation of replanted fruit trees. It occurs in all major apple planting regions throughout the world. Generally, it is believed that both biotic and abiotic factors act together to cause ARP, and that the biotic factors are recognized as the main cause of continuous cropping obstacles. This study aims to examine the responses of Malus hupehensis Rehd. and edaphon to dazomet, which was used to alleviate ARP, and to develop an effective method to prevent and cure ARP. The study was carried out in 2012 at the State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology and College of Horticulture of Shandong Agricultural University. The trees were planted in pairs in containers filled with loamy sand. The apple sick soil was originated from a remediate 20-year-old apple orchard. The soil was mixed with dazomet at the ratio of 0.5 g/ kg before tree planting. Trees grown in the soil untreated with dazomet served as the control. Trees were dripirrigated consistently. The results showed that compared with the control, dazomet inhibited the growth of fungi, actinomycetes and bacteria under continuous cropping conditions. Dazomet treatments noticeably decreased the numbers of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes by 58.8% (P<0.01), 15.3% and 8.5% (P < 0.05), respectively. Therefore, dazomet had the most inhibition effect on fungi, and the lowest on actinomycetes. With respect to the ratio of bacteria (actinomycetes) to fungi,the ratio of bacteria and actinomycetes to fungi increased by 108. 8% and 124. 2%, respectively. Compared with control, the dazomet had significantly increased the length of roots, surface area of roots, total roots volume and root activity by 4.2, 4.3, 1.7, 0.49 times, respectively. The dazomet generally enhanced root biomass and improved the function of root under continuous cropping conditions. All these differences in content were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The roots play crucial roles in plant. The roots affect the growth and development of aboveground plant, which inclued the growth of foliage, starkrimsom of leaves, forming of flower buds and the reproductive growth of trees. The assimilation ability of leaves increased upon treated with dazomet under continuous cropping conditions. Compared with the control, the area of leaves, content of chlorophyll a, content of chlorophyll b and net photosynthetic rate significantly (P < 0.01) increased by 162.6%, 14.9%, 15.0%, 24.0%, respectively, after treated with dazomet. Plant height, geoxyl, root and shoot biomass showed a general growth (P<0.01). The dry weight of the plant above the ground and underground also had extremely significant increase (P<0.01). The highest increase rate was up to 2.2 times. In conclusion, the above-mentioned parameters show that dazomet improved vigor of trees by inhibiting the growth of fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria on replant disease sites.

Liu E.-T.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang G.-S.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li Y.-Y.,Qingdao Bright Moon Bluesea Bio Technology Co | Shen X.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2014

Apple replant disease (ARD) causes the inhibition of root system development, stunts tree growth and so on. To further investigate the effects of ARD on apple fruits, a 25-year-old apple orchard was remediated to establish a replant orchard between November 2008 and March 2009. A rotational cropping orchard was established on an adjacent wheat field. The cultivar and rootstock-scion combination used in the newly established orchards was Royal Gala/M26. /Malus hupehensis Rehd. Ripe fruits were collected in mid-August 2011 and mid-August 2012, meanwhile, the following indices were measured: yield per plant; fruit weight; the fruit shape index; the contents of anthocyanin, carotenoid and chlorophyll; the soluble sugar content in the flesh; titratable acid; the sugar-acid ratio; firmness; and aroma components; apple plant ground diameter, plant height increment and the total length of the current-year shoots. The results showed that compared to rotational cropping, continuous cropping yielded statistically significant reductions in fruit weight and yield per plant of 39.8 and 76.5%, respectively. However, there were no changes in the fruit shape index. The anthocyanin and carotenoid contents decreased by 81.7 and 37.7%, respectively, while the chlorophyll content increased by 251.0%. All of these differences in content were statistically significant. The soluble sugar levels and sugar-acid ratio decreased by 25.4 and 60.9%, respectively, but the titratable acid levels and fruit firmness increased by 90.9 and 42.8%, respectively. Ten of the most important esters contributing to the apple aroma were analyzed, and the following changes were observed: hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl butyrate, acetate-2-methyl butyl, 2-methyl-hexyl butyrate, amyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 2-methyl-butyl butyrate, hexyl propionate and hexyl hexanoate decreased by 25.5, 78.4, 89.1, 55.5, 79.5, 77.2, 86.8, 69.9, 61.2, and 68.1%, respectively. The contents of three other aroma components, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal and 1-hexanol, significantly increased. Eight characteristic aroma components were found in the rotational cropping fruits: hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, acetate-2-methyl butyl, 2-methyl-hexyl butyrate, amyl acetate, 2-methyl- butyl butyrate, hexyl acetate and hexyl propionate. There were four characteristic ester components (hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, acetate-2-methyl butyl, 2-methyl-hexyl butyrate) and two characteristic aldehyde aroma components ((E)-2-hexenal and hexanal) in the continuous cropping fruits. Compared with the rotational cropping fruits, four characteristic ester components were declined and two characteristic aldehyde aroma components were increased. Compared with the control, replanted apple plant ground diameter, plant height increment and the total length of the current-year shoots were reduced by 27.6, 40.6 and 72.2%, respectively. © 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Zhang G.D.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhan X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li Y.Y.,Qingdao Bright Moon Bluesea Bio Technology Co | Shen X.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

In this study, pig manure+straw, chicken manure+straw, sheep manure+straw and three above manures+straw were fermented under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The end product of fermentation was applied to containers filled with continuous cropping soil of apple field. The effects of fermented product on apple seedling growth in containers, microbiology, activity of urease, invertase and phosphatases as well as phenolic acid in continuous cropping soil contents was investigated. The results showed that the anaerobic fermented product (fermented fluid) was applied into replant soil significantly enhanced the dry and fresh biomass production of the seedlings compared to the aerobic fermented product (solid compost). Pig manure's fermented fluid increased plant fresh and dry weight by 1.57 and 1.26 times as compared to the control plant in July respectively, and 1.55 and 1.86 times in September, respectively. Soil microorganism population quantities was increased by both forms of organic matter, the fermented liquid has a stronger effect than the solid compost in bacterial and actinomycetal density, sheep manure's fermented fluid was the best, and it increased about 2.95 and 2.37 times in above two kinds of microbiology, respectively. Moreover, both fermented products significantly influenced contents of phenolic acids, and the pig's fermented fluid, chicken's fermented fluid and pig's solid compost decreased the total contents of phenolic acids by 0.45, 0.39 and 0.36 times compared to the control in September. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.

Yin C.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang G.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li Y.,Qingdao Bright Moon Bluesea Bio Technology Co | Chen X.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world. ARD is a serious problem in about half of old orchard sites surveyed, with typical symptoms including stunted above- and below-ground tree growth, necrosis of feeder roots, water stress and nutrient deficiencies. The etiology of ARD is complex and causal agents vary among different sites and regions. In most sites, biotic factors seem to be prevalent, including nematodes, bacteria, actinomycete, oomycetes and fungi species thought that Pratylenchus penetrans was the primary nematode species involved in ARD. Although several bacterial genera and species have been associated and suggested as being involved in ARD, most bacteria likely impaired plant at inordinately high densities. Evidence for the involvement of actinomycetes in ARD is circumstantial. However, most researches demonstrated fungal and oomycete genera were the main reason for apple replant disease, i.e. fungal genera: Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Cylindrocarpon; oomycete genera: Phytophthora, Pythium. To investigate the spatial structure of soil fungal community structure in replanted orchards, three replanted orchards in Ciyao, Daolang and Jincheng town were used to take soil samples, which were collected from 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm depth of the row, inter-row and tree hole, respectively. T-RFLP (Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) was applied in the analysis of soil fungal diversity. Based on the T-RFLP pattern differences, diversity index analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were combined to do the further analysis of soil fungal diversity from different orchards. The results indicated that soil fungal diversity differed in three orhcards, Shannon diversity index, Pielou evenness index and Simpson index in all samples were between 0.43-2.47, 0.17-0.85 and 0.12-0.81, respectively. The highest Margalef richness index (R= 4.55) was observed at 0-30 cm soil layer of tree hole in Jincheng and the lowest value (R = 0.77) was obtained at 30-60 cm soil layer of tree inter-row in Ciyao. In all investigated sites and soil layers, original tree hole showed the highest diversity index, evenness index, richness index and the lowest Simpson index. Soil fungal diversity index, evenness index, richness index of 0-30 cm soil layer were higher than those of 30-60 cm soil layer; however, Simpson index expressed a reverse trend. PCA and cluster analysis indicated that soil fungi of Ciyao, Daolang and Jincheng formed independent community structure, respectively, and these communities could adapt to their own specific soil environment and became the dominant population.

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