Roepcke J.,INP Greifswald |
Davies P.,University of Cambridge |
Hempel F.,INP Greifswald |
Huebner M.,INP Greifswald |
And 7 more authors.
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers | Year: 2010
Quantum Cascade Lasers offer attractive options for applications of MIR absorption spectroscopy for basic research and industrial process control. The contribution reviews applications for plasma diagnostics and trace gas monitoring in research and industry. © 2010 Optical Society of America.
Roll G.,Qimonda Dresden GMBH and Co OHG |
Roll G.,NaMLab gGmbH |
Goldbach M.,Qimonda Dresden GMBH and Co OHG |
Goldbach M.,Globalfoundries |
Frey L.,Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology
Microelectronics Reliability | Year: 2011
A good control of the transient enhanced dopant diffusion is needed for MOSFET scaling down to the sub 50 nm regime. Carbon ion implant is known to significantly suppress the transient enhanced boron diffusion. However, carbon implantation is also reported to increase diode leakage current. This paper investigates the impact of ion implantation and annealing conditions during source/drain extension formation on leakage current behavior of boron/phosphorous diodes of PFET transistors. Analyzing the leakage current it is difficult to distinguish between the influence of the increased electric field due to the reduced diffusion and possible additional trap centers in the space charge region. This distinction can be made by electrical characterization, as shown in this paper. The leakage current mechanism is found to be trap assisted tunneling with phonon interaction. The corresponding trap energy within the band gap is 0.58 ± 0.10 eV. The carbon concentration in the space charge region measured by SIMS is below the detection limit. Also in electrical measurements, which are more sensitive, no significant influence of carbon related traps is observed. The leakage current is increased by the application of a Flash Anneal additionally to a Rapid Thermal Anneal for recrystallization of the silicon substrate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmidt D.,TU Dresden |
Knaut M.,TU Dresden |
Hossbach C.,TU Dresden |
Albert M.,TU Dresden |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2010
Ta-N-based thin films were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition. In this work, we introduced a tantalum source. The alternate supply of this halide but liquid precursor tantalum pentachloride, diethyl sulfide (TPDS), and ammonia (NH3) resulted in Ta-N-based films with a saturated growth rate of approximately 0.2-0.3 Å/cycle at 300-400°C and less than 1 atom % chlorine. By pulsing trimethylaluminium (TMA) as an additional reacting agent between the TPDS and NH3, the resistivity was improved up to 103 μcm. These films showed a chlorine content of 10 atom % and an aluminum content of less than 1 atom %. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and a standard four-point probe method indicated a shift from tantalum nitride to tantalum-carbonitride-based films with increasing TMA and decreasing NH3 pulse numbers. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.
Michalowski P.P.,Fraunhofer Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies |
Beyer V.,Fraunhofer Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies |
Czernohorsky M.,Fraunhofer Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies |
Kucher P.,Fraunhofer Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies |
And 3 more authors.
Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics | Year: 2010
Silicon diffusion from the substrate through Al1-xSi xOy thin films was investigated by ToF-SIMS depth profiling. Two types of substrate stacks were analyzed: Si wafer with either native oxide or with additional silicon nitride layer. The amount of diffused silicon depends strongly on the type of the substrate. The activation energy for pure alumina was found to be 2.27 ± 0.02 eV and 3.73 ± 0.02 eV for SiO2/Si and Si3N4/SiO2/Si samples, respectively. Furthermore it was proved that the activation energy increases with higher concentration of Si for SiO2/Si samples whereas it decreases for Si3N4/SiO2/Si. Detailed analysis of SIMS depth profiles provide satisfactory explanation of this phenomenon: SiO2 has much stronger tendency to react with Al 1-xSixOy material forming an interface layer that restrain further diffusion of Si from the substrate. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lanza M.,University of Barcelona |
Porti M.,University of Barcelona |
Nafra M.,University of Barcelona |
Aymerich X.,University of Barcelona |
And 7 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology | Year: 2011
In this paper, atomic force microscopy-based techniques have been used to study, at nanoscale, the dependence of the electrical properties of Al 2O3 stacks for flash memories on the annealing temperature (TA). The electrical characterization has been combined with other techniques (for example, transmission electron microscopy) that have allowed to investigate the dependence of the stack crystallization and the Si diffusion from the substrate to the gate oxide on TA. The combination of both the analyses has allowed to explore if there is a relation between the percentage of diffused silicon and material crystallization with the conductivity and charge trapping of Al2O3 stacks. © 2006 IEEE.
Roth J.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research |
Albrecht V.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research |
Nitschke M.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research |
Bellmann C.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Two modification routes have been applied to control the surface properties of spin-coated and screen-printed poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layers and to improve their adhesion to a photopatternable epoxy resin topcoat. The first route is based on the optimization of low-pressure oxygen and ammonia plasma treatments to generate acidic or basic reactive surface groups capable of forming covalent bonds with the epoxy groups of the topcoat. The main disadvantage of these fast and practicable processes is the instability of the modification effects. Therefore, the plasma-activated PDMS surfaces were used for subsequent 'grafting to' procedures with reactive polymers. The functional surface groups generated by oxygen or ammonia plasma treatments of PDMS (SiOH, OH, COOH and NH2) were used as anchors to graft epoxy group containing homopolymers and copolymers as well as maleic anhydride copolymers. All of grafted materials provided thin barrier layers that prevented the hydrophobic recovery of the modified PDMS surface. A very promising concept to tailor the surface properties of PDMS is the grafting of epoxy group containing methacrylate copolymers. Depending on the molar ratio of the monomers used the epoxy groups will act mainly as anchor groups. The surface properties of the grafted layer will, then, be controlled by the functionality of the second comonomer. In order to study the effect of the surface modifications on the surface properties of the silicone elastomer layers we used a combination of various surface-sensitive characterization techniques, namely, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and electrokinetic measurements as well as roughness analysis. Additionally, pull-off tests were carried out to quantify the effect of the surface modification on the adhesion between an epoxy resin and PDMS. © 2011 VSP.
Roll G.,NaMLab gGmbH |
Jakschik S.,NaMLab gGmbH |
Goldbach M.,Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG |
Wachowiak A.,NaMLab gGmbH |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics | Year: 2011
In this article, the authors analyze the impact of germanium amorphization on the interface defect concentration of state of the art high- k metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The gate etch is a crucial process step for the high- k gate first integration approach. Germanium implantation is used to amorphize the annealed and, therefore, nanocrystalline hafnium silicon oxide. This ensures a well controlled wet etch removal. The quality of the gate oxide to the channel interface of the transistor samples is monitored by charge pumping. The influence of the damage caused by the germanium implant at the unprotected gate edge is analyzed for different gate stacks by measuring the gate induced drain leakage. The defect concentration at the gate edge can be reduced by adjusting the germanium amorphization energy. © 2011 American Vacuum Society.