Qi Dong Liver Cancer Institute

Huilong, China

Qi Dong Liver Cancer Institute

Huilong, China
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Chen Z.,Fudan University | Lu X.,Shanghai University | Wang Z.,Fudan University | Jin G.,Shanghai University | And 8 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

The identification of prognostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed for clinical practice. Tripartite motif-containing 35 (TRIM35) is a tumor suppressor of HCC. TRIM35 inhibits phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2), which is involved in aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells. We found that expression of PKM2 was significantly increased in HCC tissues. This overexpression of PKM2 was correlated with a high TNM stage and level of vascular invasion. Patients with HCC who were positive for PKM2 expression and negative for TRIM35 expression had shorter overall survival and time to recurrence than patients who were negative for PKM2 and positive for TRIM35. Furthermore, PKM2/TRIM35 combination was an independent and significant risk factor for recurrence and survival. In conclusion, PKM2 (+) and TRIM35 (-) contribute to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. PKM2/TRIM35 expression could be a biomarker for the prognosis of HCC and target for cancer therapy.

Sun H.,Cancer Hospital | Lu P.,Fudan University | Chen T.,Qi Dong Liver Cancer Institute
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Hepatocellular carcinoma is highly chemoresistant, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) is thought to play a critical role in this drug resistance. The present study aims to develop effective therapeutic strategies to decrease ABCG2 expression level and to surmount drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma chemotherapy. First, we verified a positive correlation between the ABCG2 protein level and the drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. ABCG2 was preferentially expressed in highly chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma cancer stem cells (CSC) enriched with CD133. In addition, ABCG2 was N-linked glycosylated in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and this modification was involved in sustaining its protein stability. The N-linked glycosylation (NLG) inhibitor tunicamycin dramatically reduced ABCG2 expression, altered its subcellular localization, and reversed its drug efflux effect in multiple hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, tunicamycin reduced the expression levels of several CSC markers and suppressed the tumorigenicity of CD133+ CSCs. Tunicamycin combined with cisplatin (CDDP) inhibited proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and increased the cleavage of PARP; this effect was partially rescued by the overexpression of ABCG2 or Akt-myr. The combination therapy more effectively suppressed tumor growth in xenograft mice than did single-agent therapy with either drug. Finally, the CDDP treatment combined with UDP-GlcNAc-dolichol- phosphate N-acetylglucosamine-1 phosphate transferase (DPAGT1) knockdown recapitulated the effect observed when CDDP was used in combination with tunicamycin. In summary, our results suggest that tunicamycin may reverse the drug resistance and improve the efficacy of combination treatments for hepatocellular carcinomas by targeting the DPAGT1/Akt/ABCG2 pathway. © 2013 AACR.

Zhao Y.,Fudan University | Zhao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang X.,Fudan University | Wang T.,Fudan University | And 11 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2011

Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) plays important roles in the cholinergic system, and its dysregulation is involved in a variety of human diseases. However, the roles and implications of ACHE in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that ACHE was significantly down-regulated in the cancerous tissues of 69.2% of HCC patients, and the low ACHE expression in HCC was correlated with tumor aggressiveness, an elevated risk of postoperative recurrence, and a low survival rate. Both the recombinant ACHE protein and the enhanced expression of ACHE significantly inhibited HCC cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further study showed that ACHE suppressed cell proliferation via its enzymatic activity of acetylcholine catalysis and degradation. Moreover, ACHE could inactivate mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidyl inositol-3'-phosphate kinase/protein kinase B pathways in HCC cells and thereby increase the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and lead to β-catenin degradation and cyclin D1 suppression. In addition, increased ACHE expression could remarkably sensitize HCC cells to chemotherapeutic drugs (i.e., adriamycin and etoposide). Conclusion: For the first time, we describe the function of ACHE as a tumor growth suppressor in regulating cell proliferation, the relevant signaling pathways, and the drug sensitivity of HCC cells. ACHE is a promising independent prognostic predictor for HCC recurrence and the survival of HCC patients. These findings provide new insights into potential strategies for drug discovery and improved HCC treatment. © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Bao M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 7 more authors.
Liver International | Year: 2012

Background/Aims: Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), which phosphorylates sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is overexpressed in various types of cancers, and may act as an oncogene in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the precise role of the SphK1/S1P pathway in human liver cancer, especially regarding the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: The expression of SphK1 was detected by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. In addition, transwell cell migration and invasion assay were carried out for functional analysis. Furthermore, the level of S1P was quantified by ELISA and Rac1/Cdc42 GTPase activation was assessed by western blot analysis. Results: The levels of SphK1 mRNA are commonly up-regulated in HCC patients and human liver cancer cell migration and invasion can be promoted by the overexpression of SphK1. In addition, inhibition of SphK1 with either a SphK1 inhibitor or siRNA reduced human liver cancer cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, overexpression of SphK1 increased S1P levels, and the exogenous addition of S1P increased liver cell migration and invasion through the EDG1 receptor. Discussion and Conclusion: The results from this study provide strong evidence of a role for the SphK1/S1P/EDG1 pathway in liver metastasis, thus making it an attractive therapeutic target for the development of new anti-HCC drugs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Yao J.,Fudan University | Yao J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liang L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Huang S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 13 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

The pathological relevance and significance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in hepatocarcinogenesis have attracted much attention in recent years; however, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms through which miRNAs are involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we demonstrate that miR-30d is frequently up-regulated inHCCand that its expression is highly associated with the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of miR-30d could promote HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and intrahepatic and distal pulmonary metastasis in vivo, while silencing its expression resulted in a reduced migration and invasion. Galphai2 (GNAI2) was identified as the direct and functional target of miR-30d with integrated bioinformatics analysis and messenger RNAarray assay. This regulation was further confirmed by luciferase reporter assays. In addition, our results, for the first time, showed that GNAI2 was frequently suppressed in HCC by way of quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining assays. The increase of the GNAI2 expression significantly inhibits, whereas knockdown of the GNAI2 expression remarkably enhances HCC cell migration and invasion, indicating that GNAI2 functions as a metastasis suppressor in HCC. The restoration of GNAI2 can inhibit miR-30d-induced HCC cell invasion and metastasis. Conclusion: The newly identified miR-30d/GNAI2 axis elucidates the molecular mechanism of HCC cell invasion and metastasis and represents a new potential therapeutic target for HCC treatment. Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Zhang L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Sun H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhao F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lu P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and resistance to therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 plays an important role in hepatogenesis and hepatic stem cell differentiation, but little is known about its function in hepatic CSCs. In this study, we showed that high-dose exogenous BMP4 promotes CD133+ HCC CSC differentiation and inhibits the self-renewal, chemotherapeutic resistance, and tumorigenic capacity of these cells. Interestingly, we found that low-dose exogenous BMP4 upregulated CD133 protein expression in vitro, and endogenous BMP4 was preferentially expressed in CD133+HCC CSCs, suggesting that low doses of BMP4 may facilitate CSC maintenance. A reduction in endogenous BMP4 levels decreased CD133 protein expression in vitro. In HCC tissues, expression of the BMP4 signaling target gene SMAD6 was positively correlated with CD133 expression. Activation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway led to BMP4-mediated reduction in CD133 expression, which was reversed by treatment with MEK inhibitors. Taken together, our findings indicated that BMP4 might be a potent therapeutic agent in HCC that targets CSCs. © 2012 AACR.

Tian H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ge C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhao F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 7 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2014

Ribonucleotide reductase (RR)M2B is an enzyme belonging to the ribonucleotide reductase enzyme family, which is essential for DNA synthesis and repair. RRM2B plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis; however, little is known about the expression and underlying molecular mechanisms of RRM2B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we report that down-regulation of RRM2B in HCC is negatively associated with intrahepatic metastasis, regardless of p53 status. Moreover, the ectopic overexpression of RRM2B decreased HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, whereas silencing RRM2B expression resulted in increased migration and invasion in vitro and intrahepatic and lung metastasis in vivo. Additionally, knockdown of RRM2B by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in HCC cells was associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including the down-regulation of E-cadherin, and the concomitant up-regulation of N-cadherin and slug. A further experiment showed that RRM2B inhibited cell migration and spreading through regulation of the early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) / phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) / Akt1 pathway. Consistently, we also detected a significant correlation between RRM2B and E-cadherin protein expression in HCC tissues. Furthermore, Egr-1 also directly bound to the RRM2B promoter and repressed RRM2B transcription, thereby establishing a negative regulatory feedback loop. Conclusion: These findings indicate that RRM2B suppresses cell migration and spreading by way of modulation of the Egr-1/PTEN/Akt1 pathway. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Ding J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Huang S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Tian Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 9 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2013

Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an important factor linking inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study we experimentally demonstrated through a high-throughput luciferase reporter screen that NF-κB signaling can be directly targeted by nearly 29 microRNAs (miRNAs). Many of these miRNAs can directly target NF-κB signaling nodes by binding to their 3′ untranslated region (UTR). miR-195, a member of the miR-15 family, is frequently down-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression level of miR-195 is inversely correlated with HCC tumor size. We further show that miR-195 suppresses cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and reduces tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. Additionally, miR-195 may exert its tumor suppressive function by decreasing the expression of multiple NF-κB downstream effectors by way of the direct targeting of IKKα and TAB3. Conclusion: Multiple miRNAs are involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway and miR-195 plays important inhibitory roles in cancer progression and may be a potential therapeutic target. © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Ding J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Huang S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wu S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 14 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Recurrent chromosomal aberrations are often observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about the functional non-coding sequences, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), at the chromosomal breakpoints in HCC. Here we show that 22 miRNAs are often amplified or deleted in HCC. MicroRNA-151 (miR-151), a frequently amplified miRNA on 8q24.3, is correlated with intrahepatic metastasis of HCC. We further show that miR-151, which is often expressed together with its host gene FAK, encoding focal adhesion kinase, significantly increases HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo, mainly through miR-151-5p, but not through miR-151-3p. Moreover, miR-151 exerts this function by directly targeting RhoGDIA, a putative metastasis suppressor in HCC, thus leading to the activation of Rac1, Cdc42 and Rho GTPases. In addition, miR-151 can function synergistically with FAK to enhance HCC cell motility and spreading. Thus, our findings indicate that chromosome gain of miR-151 is a crucial stimulus for tumour invasion and metastasis of HCC. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Li H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ge C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhao F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yan M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 14 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2011

Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) plays complex and often contradictory roles in vascular biology and tumor metastasis, but little is known about its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) directly up-regulates ANGPTL4, and its stableness positively correlates with ANGPTL4 expression in HCC tissue. Overexpression of ANGPTL4 significantly increased HCC cell transendothelial migration in vitro and intrahepatic and distal pulmonary metastasis in vivo, whereas silencing ANGPTL4 expression or treatment with a neutralizing antibody specific for ANGPTL4 protein resulted in a reduced transendothelial migration. We also found that serum ANGPTL4 is higher in HCC patients, compared to healthy control, and correlates with intrahepatic metastasis and histological grade. Further, secreted ANGPTL4 promotes transendothelial migration and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo through the up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the activation of the VCAM-1/integrin β1 axis. Conclusion: ANGPTL4 is a target gene of HIF-1α and acts as an important regulator in the metastasis of HCC. Serum ANGPTL4 correlates with tumor progression and metastasis and might be used to indicate prognosis in HCC patients. © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

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