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Ammar T.A.,Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation KAHRAMAA | Abid K.Y.,Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation KAHRAMAA | El-Bindary A.A.,Damietta University | El-Sonbati A.Z.,Damietta University
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2015

Most drinking water industries are closely examining options to maintain a certain level of disinfectant residual through the entire distribution system. Chlorine dioxide is one of the promising disinfectants that is usually used as a secondary disinfectant, whereas the selection of the proper monitoring analytical technique to ensure disinfection and regulatory compliance has been debated within the industry. This research endeavored to objectively compare the performance of commercially available analytical techniques used for chlorine dioxide measurements (namely, chronoamperometry, DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine), Lissamine Green B (LGB WET) and amperometric titration), to determine the superior technique. The commonly available commercial analytical techniques were evaluated over a wide range of chlorine dioxide concentrations. In reference to pre-defined criteria, the superior analytical technique was determined. To discern the effectiveness of such superior technique, various factors, such as sample temperature, high ionic strength, and other interferences that might influence the performance were examined. Among the four techniques, chronoamperometry technique indicates a significant level of accuracy and precision. Furthermore, the various influencing factors studied did not diminish the technique's performance where it was fairly adequate in all matrices. This study is a step towards proper disinfection monitoring and it confidently assists engineers with chlorine dioxide disinfection system planning and management. © 2015 IWA Publishing. Source

Ammar T.A.,Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation KAHRAMAA | Abid K.Y.,Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation KAHRAMAA | El-Bindary A.A.,Damietta University | El-Sonbati A.Z.,Damietta University
Desalination | Year: 2014

Chlorine dioxide is one of the most promising disinfectants though usually used as a secondary disinfectant. Several studies addressed the decay rate of chlorine while no study so far tackled the chlorine dioxide decay. This work provides a novel mathematical equation for chlorine dioxide decay prediction in desalinated water.The study was performed at five different chlorine dioxide dosages; 1.4, 1.2, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6. mg/L (to cover the most frequently used dosages within both production facilities "as primary disinfectant" and/or the distribution system "as secondary disinfectant"). Each dosage had been tested at four different temperatures; 20°, 27°, 35° and 45. °C.To confirm the validity of the proposed decay rate model/equation, site verification was performed (real concentration vs. predicted concentration) and then t-test formula was used to indicate the similarity of both test results.As an overall conclusion, the study's proposed a novel model/equation that shows reasonable levels of robustness. Furthermore, it covers the chlorine dioxide decay at a wide range of temperature profiles as well as a wide range of chlorine dioxide initial concentration dosages.The proposed model provides an unprecedented opportunity to more realistically plan and model distribution systems to achieve disinfection; among other water quality; goals. Network modelling software such as EPANET provides the platform where the proposed chlorine dioxide decay model can be implemented. Moreover, the model can aid in the decision variables (design, placement, number of stations and operation control & operation optimization) for disinfection boosters in water distribution systems. © 2014. Source

Ellithy K.,Qatar University | Al-Jomaili A.,Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation KAHRAMAA | Alshafai A.,Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation KAHRAMAA
44th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2012 | Year: 2012

Human exposure to magnetic fields generated by transmission, distribution substations and power lines located in residential areas is one of the growing health concerns that has drawn much attention from Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation (also called Kahramaa) and Qatar Ministry of Environment. This paper presents magnetic field measurements and calculations including those resulting from substations and power lines located in the residential areas of Doha city and its outskirts operated by Kahramaa. These measurements were performed extensively in an attempt to firstly verify that the existing measurements fall within the allowable levels for magnetic field exposure published by international regulations. Furthermore, and most importantly, were used to validate the developed models of power lines that capable of predicting the magnetic field produced by these lines during all operating conditions. The measurements and computer simulations were carried out using state-of-the art magnetic field equipments, linear data acquisition system and computer programs. The resulting levels of magnetic fields were presented in a variety of graphical formats including 3-D plots and contour maps in order to facilitate the location of high intensity magnetic field zones inside and around the fence of substations and around the power lines. The results were compared with safety exposure levels of international standards and the legislation of Qatar ministry of environment. The results and conclusions are outlined in the paper. Source

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