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Griffin P.M.,Q Pharm Pty Ltd | Griffin P.M.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Griffin P.M.,University of Queensland | Griffin P.M.,Materials Hospital and Materials Medical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2014

Aim: To examine if fasting affects serum bilirubin levels in clinically healthy males and females. Methods: We used retrospective data from phase I clinical trials where blood was collected in either a fed or fasting state at screening and predosing time points and analysed for total bilirubin levels as per standard clinical procedures. Participants were clinically healthy males (n=105) or females (n=30) aged 18-48 inclusive who participated in a phase I clinical trial in 2012 or 2013. Results: We found a statistically significant increase in total serum bilirubin levels in fasting males as compared with non-fasting males. The fasting time correlated positively with increased bilirubin levels. The age of the healthy males did not correlate with their fasting bilirubin level. We found no correlation between fasting and bilirubin levels in clinically normal females. Conclusions: The recruitment and screening of volunteers for a clinical trial is a time-consuming and expensive process. This study clearly demonstrates that testing for serum bilirubin should be conducted on non-fasting male subjects. If fasting is required, then participants should not be excluded from a trial based on an elevated serum bilirubin that is deemed non-clinically significant.

Torresi J.,Austin Hospital | Torresi J.,University of Melbourne | Heron L.G.,National Center for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases | Qiao M.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Background: The recombinant yellow fever-17D-dengue virus, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has undergone extensive clinical trials. Here safety and consistency of immunogenicity of phase III manufacturing lots of CYD-TDV were evaluated and compared with a phase II lot and placebo in a dengue-naïve population. Methods: Healthy 18-60 year-olds were randomly assigned in a 3:3:3:3:1 ratio to receive three subcutaneous doses of either CYD-TDV from any one of three phase III lots or a phase II lot, or placebo, respectively in a 0, 6, 12 month dosing schedule. Neutralising antibody geometric mean titres (PRNT50 GMTs) for each of the four dengue serotypes were compared in sera collected 28 days after the third vaccination-equivalence among lots was demonstrated if the lower and upper limits of the two-sided 95% CIs of the GMT ratio were ≥0.5 and ≤2.0, respectively. Results: 712 participants received vaccine or placebo and 614 (86%) completed the study; 17 (2.4%) participants withdrew after adverse events. Equivalence of phase III lots was demonstrated for 11 of 12 pairwise comparisons. One of three comparisons for serotype 2 was not statistically equivalent. GMTs for serotype 2 in phase III lots were close to each other (65.9, 44.1 and 58.1, respectively). Conclusions: Phase III lots can be produced in a consistent manner with predictable immune response and acceptable safety profile similar to previously characterised phase II lots. The phase III lots may be considered as not clinically different as statistical equivalence was shown for serotypes 1, 3 and 4 across the phase III lots. For serotype 2, although equivalence was not shown between two lots, the GMTs observed in the phase III lots were consistently higher than those for the phase II lot. As such, in our view, biological equivalence for all serotypes was demonstrated. © 2015 The Authors.

McCarthy J.S.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | McCarthy J.S.,University of Queensland | Marquart L.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Sekuloski S.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | And 20 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Effective progression of candidate antimalarials is dependent on optimal dosing in clinical studies, which is determined by a sound understanding of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). Recently, two important translational models for antimalarials have been developed: the NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ-/- (NSG) model, whereby mice are engrafted with noninfected and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes, and the induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model in human volunteers. The antimalarial mefloquine was used to directly measure the PK/PD in both models, which were compared to previously published trial data for malaria patients. The clinical part was a single-center, controlled study using a blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum challenge inoculum in volunteers to characterize the effectiveness of mefloquine against early malaria. The study was conducted in three cohorts (n = 8 each) using different doses of mefloquine. The characteristic delay in onset of action of about 24 h was seen in both NSG and IBSM systems. In vivo 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were estimated at 2.0 μg/ml and 1.8 μg/ml in the NSG and IBSM models, respectively, aligning with 1.8 μg/ml reported previously for patients. In the IBSM model, the parasite reduction ratios were 157 and 195 for the 10- and 15-mg/kg doses, within the range of previously reported clinical data for patients but significantly lower than observed in the mouse model. Linking mouse and human challenge models to clinical trial data can accelerate the accrual of critical data on antimalarial drug activity. Such data can guide large clinical trials required for development of urgently needed novel antimalarial combinations. (This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry [http://anzctr.org.au] under registration number ACTRN12612000323820.) Copyright © 2016 McCarthy et al.

McCarthy J.S.,University of Queensland | Marjason J.,Q Pharm Pty Ltd | Elliott S.,Q Pharm Pty Ltd | Fahey P.,PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: In a previous Phase 1/2b malaria vaccine trial testing the 3D7 isoform of the malaria vaccine candidate Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2), parasite densities in children were reduced by 62%. However, breakthrough parasitemias were disproportionately of the alternate dimorphic form of MSP2, the FC27 genotype. We therefore undertook a dose-escalating, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase 1 trial in healthy, malaria-naïve adults of MSP2-C1, a vaccine containing recombinant forms of the two families of msp2 alleles, 3D7 and FC27 (EcMSP2-3D7 and EcMSP2-FC27), formulated in equal amounts with Montanide® ISA 720 as a water-in-oil emulsion. Methodology/Principal Findings: The trial was designed to include three dose cohorts (10, 40, and 80 μg), each with twelve subjects receiving the vaccine and three control subjects receiving Montanide® ISA 720 adjuvant emulsion alone, in a schedule of three doses at 12-week intervals. Due to unexpected local reactogenicity and concern regarding vaccine stability, the trial was terminated after the second immunisation of the cohort receiving the 40 μg dose; no subjects received the 80 μg dose. Immunization induced significant IgG responses to both isoforms of MSP2 in the 10 μg and 40 μg dose cohorts, with antibody levels by ELISA higher in the 40 μg cohort. Vaccine-induced antibodies recognised native protein by Western blots of parasite protein extracts and by immunofluorescence microscopy. Although the induced anti-MSP2 antibodies did not directly inhibit parasite growth in vitro, IgG from the majority of individuals tested caused significant antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) of parasite growth. Conclusions/Significance: As the majority of subjects vaccinated with MSP2-C1 developed an antibody responses to both forms of MSP2, and that these antibodies mediated ADCI provide further support for MSP2 as a malaria vaccine candidate. However, in view of the reactogenicity of this formulation, further clinical development of MSP2-C1 will require formulation of MSP2 in an alternative adjuvant. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12607000552482.

McCarthy J.S.,University of Queensland | Sekuloski S.,University of Queensland | Griffin P.M.,University of Queensland | Griffin P.M.,Q Pharm Pty Ltd | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Critical to the development of new drugs for treatment of malaria is the capacity to safely evaluate their activity in human subjects. The approach that has been most commonly used is testing in subjects with natural malaria infection, a methodology that may expose symptomatic subjects to the risk of ineffective treatment. Here we describe the development and pilot testing of a system to undertake experimental infection using blood stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites (BSP). The objectives of the study were to assess the feasibility and safety of induced BSP infection as a method for assessment of efficacy of new drug candidates for the treatment of P. falciparum infection. Methods and Findings: A prospective, unblinded, Phase IIa trial was undertaken in 19 healthy, malaria-naïve, male adult volunteers who were infected with BSP and followed with careful clinical and laboratory observation, including a sensitive, quantitative malaria PCR assay. Volunteers were randomly allocated to treatment with either of two licensed antimalarial drug combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (A/L) or atovaquone-proguanil (A/P). In the first cohort (n = 6) where volunteers received ~360 BSP, none reached the target parasitemia of 1,000 before the day designated for antimalarial treatment (day 6). In the second and third cohorts, 13 volunteers received 1,800 BSP, with all reaching the target parasitemia before receiving treatment (A/L, n = 6; A/P, n = 7) The study demonstrated safety in the 19 volunteers tested, and a significant difference in the clearance kinetics of parasitemia between the drugs in the 13 evaluable subjects, with mean parasite reduction ratios of 759 for A/L and 17 for A/P (95% CI 120-4786 and 7-40 respectively; p<0.01). Conclusions: This system offers a flexible and safe approach to testing the in vivo activity of novel antimalarials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01055002. © 2011 McCarthy et al.

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