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Noureldeen A.F.,King Abdulaziz University | Noureldeen A.F.,Ain Shams University | Qusti S.Y.,King Abdulaziz University | Khoja G.M.,King Abdulaziz University | Khoja G.M.,Laboratories
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2014

Background: A variety of HIV-related endocrine dysfunctions including adrenal, gonadal and thyroid disorders have been reported. We aimed to compare between the markers of thyroid function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers as a control group. The prevalence of the thyroid abnormalities in HIV-infected patients was assessed and the levels of thyroid autoantibodies were also determined.Methods: A total of 100 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients having a CD4 cell count of 180350 cells/ mm3 were enrolled in the study. Same number of healthy volunteers were also included for comparison. Measurements of thyroid function tests including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin and free triiodothyronine levels beside thyroid autoantibodies, including antithyroglobulin (ATBG) and antithyroid peroxidase (ATPO), were carried out for all patients and volunteers.Results: In total, 70% of HIV-infected patients had normal thyroid function tests when compared with control individuals, while 30% of HIV-infected patients had abnormal thyroid function. Of the 30 cases, 11 cases had abnormal TSH values, with increased TSH predominant (7% of HIV cases) than decreased TSH (4% of patients) values. Incidence of thyroid abnormalities ranging from hypothyroidism (subclinical and overt: 6% and 1%, respectively) to hyperthyroidism (2%) and nonthyroidal illness (9%) were estimated in HIV-infected patients. The values of thyroid autoantibodies were almost normal in HIV-infected patients, except the three cases presented with elevated ATBG, indicating that thyroid abnormalities were not due to elevated ATBG and ATPO.Conclusions: Thyroid hormones are of great importance and due to high prevalence of thyroid function abnormality, it is recommended that thyroid function tests should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients before starting the treatment. © The Author(s) 2012.

Muralidhara K.S.,Laboratories | Chhagan,CIRCOT | Sreenivasan S.,CIRCOT
Colourage | Year: 2012

Six textile fabrics of different fibre composition viz., polyester, polyester-cotton, cotton-flax, cotton, cotton-silk and jute were treated using flame retardant chemicals containing phosphorous, halogen and borate as active ingredient. LOI of treated cellulosic and its blended samples was increased by more than 100% after treatment with phosphorous ingredient FR chemical. The halogen ingredient based treatment exhibited 50-100% increase in LOI for the same samples. The speed of flame spread was reduced by more than 50% for the phosphorous ingredient treatment and reduction was less than 50% for other treatments. The borate based treatment exhibited increase in speed of flame spread in polyester cotton blended fabric. Phosphorous ingredient treatment yielded an additional endotherm at around 200°C in the thermogram. The degradation onset temperature point of all samples was lowered by more than 50°C for all the treatments. The observed mass loss was prolonged in the treated samples when compared to the control samples. The pattern of mass loss at different temperature intervals changed completely after the treatment. Flame retardants applied on the fabrics also decreased the activation energy of treated samples.

Smith A.M.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases | Smith A.M.,University of Witwatersrand | Ismail H.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases | Ismail H.,University of Witwatersrand | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: Salmonella is well recognized as an aetiological agent of gastrointestinal and diarrhoeal disease. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the commonest serotypes associated with foodborne illness. In South Africa, we compared Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans with gastroenteritis and strains isolated from captive wild animals, between June 2011 and July 2012.Methodology: Bacteria were phenotypically characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Genotypic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis.Results: a diversity of 27 PFGE patterns amongst 196 human non-invasive isolates was shown; two PFGE patterns predominated and accounted for 74% of all human isolates. Human isolates showed a 12% prevalence rate for nalidixic acid resistance. Animal isolates from 5 different sources were investigated. With the exception of an isolate from a ground hornbill, all animal isolates (jaguar, crocodile, lion and poultry) showed PFGE pattern matches to a human isolate. Animal isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of nalidixic acid resistance in isolates from the lion and poultry source.Conclusions: Our data showed similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans and captive wild animals, suggesting a probable common source for strains from humans and animals. © 2014 Smith et al.

Diener M.,ETH Zurich | Ghidini A.,Laboratories
Materials Performance and Characterization | Year: 2014

About 10 years ago, the European Standard EN13262 was introduced, and, for the first time in railways, the toughness characteristic of the rim has to be proofed for tread-braked solid wheels. For wheels of steel grade ER7 the average fracture toughness obtained from six test pieces shall be greater than or equal to 80 MPa m1/2 and no single value shall be less than 70MPa m1/2. The present paper focuses on the efforts in research and, of course, application of fracture mechanics to railway solid wheels. The obtained results demonstrate that the capability to measure fracture toughness of materials and a proper collection of the related metallurgical parameters help to develop the manufacturing process of wheels. The main challenge is to improve toughness in parallel with yield strength by maintaining a desired microstructure of the material. Some important correlations between structure and fracture toughness are specified and document how the toughness can be tuned. The properties on the production of solid wheels, monitored over a long period, have confirmed the ability to guarantee both high and uniform values of mechanical characteristics and toughness. This is an important result concerning product quality and safety of railway wheels. Fracture toughness and yield strength represent an appropriate quality index for any material and steel grade. A production index (PI), which is the product of yield strength and fracture toughness, is introduced to trace the quality of a material in production. Copyright © 2014 by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

Liew G.Y.H.,Laboratories | Feneley M.P.,St. Vincents Hospital | Worthley S.G.,Laboratories
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2012

Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has been shown in multicentre trials to be reliable in ruling out significant coronary artery disease (CAD). It is used most appropriately in symptomatic patients with low to intermediate pretest probability of CAD. It should not be used in asymptomatic subjects, patients with known significant CAD or patients with a high pretest probability of CAD. The radiation dose of CTCA was previously two to three times that of invasive coronary angiography but with modern protocols, it is similar or lower. Patients generally need to be in sinus rhythm, tolerate β-blockers and nitrates, have a heart rate < 65 beats per minute, be able to hold their breath for 10 seconds, and have normal renal function.

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