Westhausen, Germany
Westhausen, Germany

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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.3.1 | Award Amount: 14.06M | Year: 2010

SEAL is a project for an integrated project consisting of 17 equipment assessment sub-projects in the area of semiconductor manufacturing equipment. The assessment themes are equally spread amongst processing and metrology equipment, heading beyond the current state-of-the-art both for More Moore and More than Moore applications. The strategic objective of SEAL is to effectively combine efforts, resources and expertise in the joint assessment of novel equipment supported by cross-cut R&D dedicated to the identified needs of the assessment sub-projects.For Lithography, the key areas of illumination systems for mask aligners, EUV mask manufacturing and intelligent overlay management are addressed as well as massively parallel e-beam lithography. In addition, three important processes are addressed: low temperature oxidation, cleaning of sensitive interconnect stacks/structures and ion implantation for ultra shallow junctions and defect engineering. For metrology and analysis, the main focus is on enabling innovative systems to efficiently contribute to at-line and in-line monitoring and control within semiconductor facilities. Without such equipment, it will not be possible to validate progressively advanced processes during development and manufacturing.Cross-cut R&D activities relating to all equipment assessment sub-projects are covered including APC, model based control, equipment simulation, enhanced wafer and equipment logistics, advanced communication and man machine-interfaces, and virtual equipment engineering. A common approach for the assessment activities will be utilised with specifications that will be refined for each equipment type for the progressively emerging technology nodes.Overall, SEAL will strengthen the European equipment manufacturing industry in an ideal and sustainable way by combining advanced R&D topics in equipment sub-projects involving a wide community of users, research institutes and equipment suppliers with many SMEs.


Brand S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Lapadatu A.,Sensonor | Djuric T.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | Czurratis P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS | Year: 2014

Current trends in microelectronics focus on three-dimensionally integrating different components to allow for increasing density and functionality of integrated systems. Concepts pursued involve vertical stacking and interconnecting technologies that employ micro bumping, wafer bonding, and through silicon vias (TSVs). Both the increasing complexity and the miniaturization of key elements in three-dimensional (3-D) components lead to new requirements on inspection and metrology tools and techniques as well as for failure analysis methodologies. For metrology and quality assessment in particular, methods operating nondestructively are of major importance. Scanning acoustic microscopy has the ability of illuminating optically opaque materials and, thus, allowing the assessment and imaging of internal structures. Conventional scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) equipment can be applied to analyze the quality of wafer-bonded interfaces in 3-D integration but may reach its limitations when structures shrink in size and gain complexity. A new concept of acoustic inspection in the gigahertz (GHz) frequency band is explored for its applicability to 3-D integration technologies. Extending the acoustic inspection frequency allows for lateral resolutions in the 1-ìm range and also enables the inspection of microbumps and TSVs in addition to wafer bonded interfaces, which exceed the applicability of conventional SAM. Three case studies are presented here ranging from conventional SAM on a full wafer scale to acoustic GHz microscopy on thin films and TSVs. © The Authors.


Naumann F.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Brand S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Bernasch M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Tismer S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 3 more authors.
Microsystem Technologies | Year: 2013

Glass frit bonding is a widely used encapsulation technology for micro-electro mechanical systems. In order to guarantee functionality and reliability of a bonding seal, qualified test methods are required for evaluating the quality and strength of the bonding interfaces which are considered key parameters. In the presented work adapting the micro-chevron-test for glass frit bonded samples and arising challenges are discussed. Motivated by the industrial application of glass frit bonding generally used for frame structures an application related guideline for the application of micro-chevron-testing is presented. In addition, high resolution acoustic inspection is used as a key technology for estimating the effective bond strength in combination with further experimental testing and is likewise used for sample pre-selection and defect localization. The presented content provides a sequential overview beginning with sample preparation of glass frit bonded micro chevron samples to mechanical testing and the result analysis as well as a statistical interpretation of a bonded silicon test wafer. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-25-2015 | Award Amount: 3.35M | Year: 2016

Within the food chain of equipment delivery for the semiconductor industry, Europe has kept a very strong position in the metrology area with many companies establishing themselves as main leaders in the field. Hence in line with the objectives of the ICT25 call for innovation action to overcome the (initial) barriers for the successful commercialization of novel European products, this project aims at exploring for a number of metrology solutions their technological readiness, reliability and relevance of the developed protocols, and the COO. The portfolio within the project covers new metrology concepts addressing specifically the processing challenges linked to 3D-Devices and range from probing basic layer properties (composition, electrical properties) in FEOL to control of metallization in BEOL up to issues linked to die stacking. Due to the specific processing steps which need to be addressed, three separate metrology tools will be assessed in this project i.e a Tofsims system (IonTOF) with build-in Scanning Probe stage and FIB column for true 3D-composition profiling, a completely automated micro-Hall and sheet resistance measurement tool (Capres) with additional capabilities for measurements on dedicated test structures (prior to full BEOL) and an GHz acoustic Microscope (Tepla) for probing voids in TSVs and stacked dies. As some of them (IonTOf, Capres) are addressing partly complementary information (composition versus electrical properties), their co-existence in this project creates additional value as beyond the tool assessment also a methodology based on combining these concepts can be explored and certified. Moreover a significant efficiency gain is created as they can employ similar test structures and devices. For each of these tools, the basic metrology concepts are existing and validated in the lab on selected applications but their general applicability field within the semiconductor industry still needs to be established


Phommahaxay A.,IMEC | De Wolf I.,IMEC | De Wolf I.,Catholic University of Leuven | Djuric T.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference | Year: 2014

Among the technological developments pushed by the emergence of 3D-ICs, Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology has become a standard element in device processing over the past years. As volume increases, defect detection in the overall TSV formation sequence is becoming a major element of focus nowadays. Robust methods for in-line void detection during TSV processing are therefore needed especially for scaled down dimensions. Within this framework, the current contribution describes the application field of GHz Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) to TSV void detection. © 2014 IEEE.


Phommahaxay A.,IMEC | De Wolf I.,IMEC | De Wolf I.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hoffrogge P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | And 10 more authors.
Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference | Year: 2013

Among the technological developments pushed by the emergence of 3D-ICs, Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology has become a standard element in device processing over the past years. As volume increases, defect detection in the overall TSV formation sequence is becoming a major element of focus nowadays. Robust methods for in-line void detection during TSV processing are therefore needed especially for scaled down dimensions. Within this framework, the current contribution describes the successful application of innovative GHz Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) to TSV void detection in a via-middle approach. © 2013 IEEE.


Brand S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Petzold M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Czurratis P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | Hoffrogge P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH
Conference Proceedings from the International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis | Year: 2010

In industrial manufacturing of microelectronic components, non-destructive failure analysis methods are required for either quality control or for providing a rapid fault isolation and defect localization prior to detailed investigations requiring target preparation. Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) is a powerful tool enabling the inspection of internal structures in optically opaque materials non-destructively. In addition, depth specific information can be employed for two- and three-dimensional internal imaging without the need of time consuming tomographic scan procedures. The resolution achievable by acoustic microscopy is depending on parameters of both the test equipment and the sample under investigation. However, if applying acoustic microscopy for pure intensity imaging most of its potential remains unused. The aim of the current work was the development of a comprehensive analysis toolbox for extending the application of SAM by employing its full potential. Thus, typical case examples representing different fields of application were considered ranging from high density interconnect flip-chip devices over wafer-bonded components to solder tape connectors of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. The progress achieved during this work can be split into three categories: Signal Analysis and Parametric Imaging (SA-PI), Signal Analysis and Defect Evaluation (SA-DE) and Image Processing and Resolution Enhancement (IP-RE). Data acquisition was performed using a commercially available scanning acoustic microscope equipped with several ultrasonic transducers covering the frequency range from 15 MHz to 175 MHz. The acoustic data recorded were subjected to sophisticated algorithms operating in time-, frequency- and spatial domain for performing signal- and image analysis. In all three of the presented applications acoustic microscopy combined with signal- and image processing algorithms proved to be a powerful tool for non-destructive inspection. Copyright © 2010 ASM International® All rights reserved.


Brand S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Czurratis P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | Hoffrogge P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | Petzold M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials
Microelectronics Reliability | Year: 2010

Industrial applications often require failure analysis methods working non-destructively, enabling either a rapid quality control or fault isolation and defect localization prior to a detailed defect investigation requiring target preparation. Scanning acoustic microscopy in the frequency range above 100 MHz provides high axial and lateral resolution, a moderate penetration depth and the required non-destructivity. In this study a method for an automated detection of defects in flip-chip-contacts was developed. Chip samples were manufactured in flip-chip technology containing a 750 μm thick die with solder balls (80 μm diameter) and underfill attached to an organic-layer substrate. For acoustic inspection a scanning acoustic microscope in combination with a 175 MHz transducer was used. Recorded echo signals were analyzed off-line applying custom-made MATLAB software. For differentiation between the flip-chip-contacts and the underfill, the recorded echo signals were pre-analyzed. Signals obtained from the contacts were then inspected by wavelet-, pulse separation- and backscatter amplitude integral analysis. Complementary X-ray- and SEM-inspection was performed for defect verification. The separation of pulses obtained from the interfaces of the contacts, the absolute values and the distribution of wavelet coefficients corresponded to the interconnecting condition. The success rate of detecting voids was 96.8% as verified by SEM-imaging, while manual X-ray inspection showed success only in 64% of the analysed cases. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Brand S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Petzold M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Czurratis P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | Reed J.D.,Rti International | And 5 more authors.
IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS | Year: 2011

The increasing demand on the complexity of microelectronic components will soon require architectures that build in the third dimension. A number of current projects and world-wide research in this field focuses on technologies that aim at combining individual devices on wafer level into complex systems that have a variety of features. However, the interfaces available for interconnecting the individual components are limited and thus a three-dimensional approach will provide the ultimate solution. An architecture that enables the above mentioned features will largely challenge conventional inspection techniques for quality control and failure analysis. Of particular interest for 3D-integrated devices are methods that operate non-or semi-destructively. © 2011 IEEE.


Brand S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials | Czurratis P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | Hoffrogge P.,PVA TePla Analytical Systems GmbH | Temple D.,Rti International | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2011

In manufacturing of microelectronic components, non-destructive failure analysis methods are important for quality control. These non-destructive methods enable rapid defect localization which then guides micro-structural investigations involving destructive sample preparation. Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) is a powerful tool for the inspection of internal structures in optically opaque materials. Depth-specific information can be extracted and applied to create two- and three-dimensional images without the need for time consuming tomographic scan procedures. While traditional SAM imaging of the signal intensity is very valuable, it leaves most of the potential of acoustic microscopy unused. The aim of the current work was to develop comprehensive analysis algorithms to utilize the full potential of SAM and thus to extend the range of its applications. Examples representing different application fields were investigated in the current study. The examples include advanced flip-chip devices, bonded wafer pairs, solder tape connectors of a photovoltaic solar panel and high density chip-to-chip interconnects relevant for 3D integration. Progress achieved during this work can be divided into four categories: Signal Analysis and Parametric Imaging, Signal Analysis and Defect Evaluation, Image Processing and Resolution Enhancement and acoustic GHz microscopy (GHz-SAM). For the first three categories, data acquisition was performed using a commercially available scanning acoustic microscope equipped with several ultrasonic transducers covering the frequency range from 15 to 175 MHz. In the fourth category, data acquisition was performed employing a prototype of a novel acoustic GHz microscopy tool which is currently under development into a commercial system. In the first three categories, recorded acoustic data were subjected to sophisticated algorithms operating in time, frequency and spatial domains for performing signal and image analysis. Acoustic microscopy, combined with such advanced signal and image processing algorithms, proved to be a powerful tool for non-destructive inspection. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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